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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648596/unraveling-synthesis-of-the-cryptococcal-cell-wall-and-capsule
#1
Zhuo A Wang, Lucy X Li, Tamara L Doering
Fungal pathogens cause devastating infections in millions of individuals each year, representing a huge but underappreciated burden on human health. One of these, the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, kills hundreds of thousands of patients annually, disproportionately affecting people in resource-limited areas. This yeast is distinguished from other pathogenic fungi by a polysaccharide capsule that is displayed on the cell surface. The capsule consists of two complex polysaccharide polymers: a mannan substituted with xylose and glucuronic acid, and a galactan with galactomannan side chains that bear variable amounts of glucuronic acid and xylose...
April 10, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625994/a-high-resolution-map-of-meiotic-recombination-in-cryptococcus-deneoformans-demonstrates-decreased-recombination-in-unisexual-reproduction
#2
Cullen Roth, Sheng Sun, R Blake Billmyre, Joseph Heitman, Paul M Magwene
Multiple species within the basidiomycete genus, Cryptococcus , cause cryptococcal disease. These species are estimated to affect nearly a quarter of a million people leading to approximately 180,000 mortalities, annually. Sexual reproduction, which can occur between haploid yeasts of the same or opposite mating type, is a potentially important contributor to pathogenesis as recombination can generate novel genotypes and transgressive phenotypes. However, our quantitative understanding of recombination in this clinically important yeast is limited...
April 6, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619316/pulmonary-cryptococcal-infection-presenting-with-multiple-lung-nodules
#3
Thilini L Basnayake, Aijye Lim, Bart J Currie
Pulmonary infections from the environmental fungus Cryptococcus gattii ( C. gattii ) are notable for cryptococcomas, which are usually solitary and can be very large. As with infections with Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) patients can have concomitant cryptococcal meningitis; however, unlike for C. neoformans, infections with C. gattii often occur in immunocompetent patients. The highest published incidence of C. gattii infection has been in the Indigenous Australian population of Arnhem Land in the tropical north of the country...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604972/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-aids
#4
Andrej Spec, William G Powderly
Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality amongst patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence in the developed world has decreased as HIV is being diagnosed earlier, but is still significant, and the prevalence in resource-limited settings is exceedingly high. The presenting symptoms usually include a headache, fever, and, less often, cranial nerve abnormalities. Space-occupying lesions do occur, but are rare. Once diagnosed, patients should be treated with a combination of amphotericin and flucytosine, with step-down therapy to fluconazole for a minimum of a year, or until the CD4 count is above 100 cells/μL, whichever is longer...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601494/the-burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-cameroon
#5
Christine E Mandengue, David W Denning
Fungal infections are frequent in Cameroon, and invasive fungal infections are sometimes detected, usually in HIV-infected patients. For these reasons, we have estimated the burden of fungal infections. Using published literature and population estimates for the at-risk group, we used deterministic modelling to derive national incidence and prevalence estimates for the most serious fungal diseases. HIV infection is common and an estimated 120,000 have CD4 counts <200 × 10⁶/mL and commonly present with opportunistic infection...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599641/large-solitary-pulmonary-cryptococcoma-mimicking-lung-carcinoma-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#6
Karan Manoj Anandpara, Yashant Aswani, Priya Hira
Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening mycosis typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis generally presents as multiple or solitary nodular opacities. Cryptococcal infection presenting as a destructing cavernoma (cryptococcoma) without diffuse infiltration of the lung is an extremely rare presentation, even in immunocompromised patients. This report presents a healthy, HIV negative, immunocompetent patient who presented with a large solitary lung mass provisionally diagnosed as a lung malignancy on radiological imaging that proved to be a large cryptococcoma after biopsy...
February 2018: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596441/quantifying-donor-to-donor-variation-in-macrophage-responses-to-the-human-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#7
Mariam Garelnabi, Leanne M Taylor-Smith, Ewa Bielska, Rebecca A Hall, Daniel Stones, Robin C May
Cryptococcosis remains the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, caused primarily by the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Symptomatic cryptococcal infections typically affect immunocompromised patients. However, environmental exposure to cryptococcal spores is ubiquitous and most healthy individuals are thought to harbor infections from early childhood onwards that are either resolved, or become latent. Since macrophages are a key host cell for cryptococcal infection, we sought to quantify the extent of individual variation in this early phagocyte response within a small cohort of healthy volunteers with no reported immunocompromising conditions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593675/cryptococcal-antigen-screening-in-asymptomatic-hiv-infected-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-in-cameroon-and-evaluation-of-the-new-semi-quantitative-biosynex-cryptops-test
#8
Elvis Temfack, Charles Kouanfack, Leonella Mossiang, Angela Loyse, Marie C Fonkoua, Síle F Molloy, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Eric Delaporte, Françoise Dromer, Thomas Harrison, Olivier Lortholary
Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a major cause of AIDS-related mortality in Africa. Detection of serum cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) predicts development of CM in antiretroviral (ART) naïve HIV-infected patients with severe immune depression. Systematic pre-ART CrAg screening and pre-emptive oral fluconazole is thus recommended. We postulated that a semi-quantitative CrAg screening approach could offer clinically relevant advantages. Methods: ART-naïve asymptomatic adult outpatients with <100 CD4 cells/mm3 presenting to the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon were screened for CrAg using the IMMY lateral flow assay (LFA)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592982/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-following-cryptococcal-meningitis-a-possible-cause
#9
Sarah Demir, Nader Chebib, Francoise Thivolet-Bejui, Vincent Cottin
Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare interstitial lung disease characterised by the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies. A man with no history of infection developed cryptococcal meningitis and a right parahilar cryptococcal mass. Antifungal treatment led to infection control, although there was presence of neurological sequelae. After 3 years, thoracic CT revealed bilateral ground glass opacities and a crazy paving pattern. Transparietal needle biopsy showed proteinaceous alveolar deposits, confirming the diagnosis of PAP...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583086/dual-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-caused-by-cryptococcus-and-toxoplasma-in-a-patient-with-aids-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora
Dual infection of the central nervous system secondary to Cryptococcus and Toxoplasma is very uncommon, even in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the case of a 52-year-old patient who was admitted with multiple cranial nerve deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging showed supratentorial and infratentorial enhancing lesions. He was newly diagnosed with HIV infection with a CD4 count of 59 cells/uL and HIV viral load of 299,619 copies/mL. Diagnosis of Cryptococcus meningitis was made by Cryptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
March 27, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579432/clinical-features-vary-by-the-aetiology-of-meningitis-in-hiv-seropositive-patients-a-four-year-study-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-india
#11
Amalakanti Sridhar, Gajula Krishna Sagar
Meningitis is a serious infection of the nervous system associated with high mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Asian clinical studies describing meningitis in people living with HIV are scarce. We describe the clinical features of meningitis in 116 HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary hospital in India as a cross-sectional observational study. The mean age of the patients in our study was 35±9 years with 70.6% of them being men. Eighty-five percent of the patients had an altered sensorium during the illness...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567905/diminished-cd40l-expression-on-t-cells-in-a-case-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis
#12
Supreet Kumar Mohanty, Deepshi Thakral, Devika Gupta, Prabin Kumar, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
X-linked hyperimmunoglobulin M (HIGM) syndrome may increase the susceptibility of patients to disseminated cryptococcal infections primarily due to CD40L deficiency that causes defective cross talk between T- and B-cells, thus preventing class switching. In HIGM syndrome, serum IgM levels are elevated with severe reduction in serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA levels. In addition, the expression of CD40L (CD154) on in vitro-activated T-cells is severely reduced or absent. Here, we describe a rare, and perhaps, the first reported case in India of a 3-year-old male child with X-linked HIGM immunodeficiency syndrome who developed disseminated Cryptococcosis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566868/bilateral-asymptomatic-cryptococcal-retinitis-without-choroiditis-or-vitritis
#13
William J Johnson, Jeffrey P Blice, Katherine K Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562712/estimation-of-the-burden-of-serious-human-fungal-infections-in-malaysia
#14
Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Chandramathi Samudi, Harvinder Kaur Lakhbeer Singh, Kee Peng Ng, Esaki M Shankar, David W Denning
Fungal infections (mycoses) are likely to occur more frequently as ever-increasingly sophisticated healthcare systems create greater risk factors. There is a paucity of systematic data on the incidence and prevalence of human fungal infections in Malaysia. We conducted a comprehensive study to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Malaysia. Our study showed that recurrent vaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) was the most common of all cases with a diagnosis of candidiasis ( n = 501,138). Oesophageal candidiasis ( n = 5850) was most predominant among individuals with HIV infection...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560802/triple-therapy-versus-amphotericin-b-plus-flucytosine-for-the-treatment-of-non-hiv-and-non-transplant-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Li Xu, Jia Liu, Qilong Zhang, Min Li, Jingchi Liao, Weifeng Kuang, Cansheng Zhu, Huan Yi, Fuhua Peng
Objectives Amphotericin B plus flucytosine is the most widely used induction therapy regimen for non-HIV-infected and non-transplant patients; however, the therapeutic outcomes are unsatisfactory, especially when two antifungal drugs are at sub-therapeutic doses. Methods In this study of induction therapy, all non-HIV-infected, non-transplant patients with a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were divided into two groups. In group I, the patients received amphotericin B plus 5-flucytosine. In group II, in addition to amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine, the patients also received fluconazole...
March 21, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559862/clinical-images-a-rare-case-of-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#16
Stephen Arndt, Daryl Goldman, Nicholas Kolodychuk, James Milburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539274/antifungal-combinations-for-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-africa
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Síle F Molloy, Cecilia Kanyama, Robert S Heyderman, Angela Loyse, Charles Kouanfack, Duncan Chanda, Sayoki Mfinanga, Elvis Temfack, Shabir Lakhi, Sokoine Lesikari, Adrienne K Chan, Neil Stone, Newton Kalata, Natasha Karunaharan, Kate Gaskell, Mary Peirse, Jayne Ellis, Chimwemwe Chawinga, Sandrine Lontsi, Jean-Gilbert Ndong, Philip Bright, Duncan Lupiya, Tao Chen, John Bradley, Jack Adams, Charles van der Horst, Joep J van Oosterhout, Victor Sini, Yacouba N Mapoure, Peter Mwaba, Tihana Bicanic, David G Lalloo, Duolao Wang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Olivier Lortholary, Shabbar Jaffar, Thomas S Harrison
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for more than 100,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related deaths per year. We tested two treatment strategies that could be more sustainable in Africa than the standard of 2 weeks of amphotericin B plus flucytosine and more effective than the widely used fluconazole monotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis to receive an oral regimen (fluconazole [1200 mg per day] plus flucytosine [100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day] for 2 weeks), 1 week of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day), or 2 weeks of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529308/cryptococcosis-in-the-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-pathogenesis-and-treatment-in-the-context-of-two-atypical-cases
#18
Laura J Schmertmann, Kathryn Stalder, Donald Hudson, Patricia Martin, Mariano Makara, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik, Mark B Krockenberger
Disseminated cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (molecular type VGI) was diagnosed in an adult free-ranging female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Subclinical cryptococcosis was later diagnosed in this koala's joey. In the adult koala, a pathological fracture of the tibia was associated with the bone lysis of marked focal cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Limb-sparing orthopedic intervention, in the setting of disseminated cryptococcosis, was judged to have a poor prognosis, and the adult koala was euthanized...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518906/innate-immunity-against-cryptococcus-from-recognition-to-elimination
#19
REVIEW
Althea Campuzano, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515938/suppressed-without-a-cause-a-case-of-idiopathic-immune-deficiency
#20
Muhammad Talha Ayub, Munnam S Jafar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad A Baig, Benjamin Mba
We report a case of a 45-year-old male who presented with a headache, fever, vomiting, somnolence, and difficulty walking for 10 days. His cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed cryptococcal meningitis. Chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans showed splenomegaly along with mediastinal, retroperitoneal and inguinal lymphadenopathy. CD4 count turned out to be 208 μL-1 . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, serum protein electrophoresis, serum light chains and quantitative immunoglobulins were non-diagnostic and CD4 lymphopenia was attributed to acute infection...
January 1, 2018: Curēus
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