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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223998/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-apparently-immunocompetent-patients-association-with-idiopathic-cd4-lymphopenia
#1
Samuel Shribman, Alastair Noyce, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Jonathan Lambourne, Thomas Harrison, Frederick Schon
We present two cases of cryptococcal meningitis in people subsequently diagnosed with idiopathic CD4+ lymphopenia. Both presented with new onset headaches without sinister features and were sent home on multiple occasions from emergency departments. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-negative patients poses major diagnostic and management problems; the associated mortality is 9%-27%. We suggest performing blood and cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen tests in all people with lymphocytic meningitis.
December 9, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221882/effective-inhibition-of-cbf-14-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-in-mice-and-its-related-anti-inflammatory-activity
#2
Changzhong Yu, Shanshan Wei, Xiaorong Han, Hanhan Liu, Mengxiao Wang, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Jie Dou, Changlin Zhou, Lingman Ma
Cbf-14 (RLLRKFFRKLKKSV), a designed peptide derived from cathelicidin family AMP, has proven to be potent against drug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cryptococcal activity of Cbf-14 in vitro and in a pulmonary infection mouse model. Sensitivity test indicated that Cbf-14 possessed effective antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an MIC of 4-16 µg/ml, and killing experiments showed that fungicidal activity was achieved after only 4 h treatment with Cbf-14 at 4× MIC concentrations in vitro...
December 5, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218468/prediction-of-unfavorable-outcomes-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-results-of-the-multicenter-infectious-diseases-international-research-initiative-id-iri-cryptococcal-meningitis-study
#3
I N Hakyemez, H Erdem, G Beraud, M Lurdes, A Silva-Pinto, C Alexandru, B Bishop, F Mangani, X Argemi, M Poinot, R Hasbun, M Akcaer, S Alp, T Demirdal, K Angamuthu, F Amer, E Ragab, G A Shehata, D Ozturk-Engin, N Ozgunes, L Larsen, S Zimmerli, O R Sipahi, E Tukenmez Tigen, G Celebi, N Oztoprak, A C Yardimci, Y Cag
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, but CM may also occur in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Outcome analyses have been performed in such patients but, due to the high prevalence of HIV infection worldwide, CM patients today may be admitted to hospitals with unknown HIV status, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this multicenter study was to analyze all types of CM cases in an aggregate cohort to disclose unfavorable outcomes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214004/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-antigen-positivity-among-hiv-infected-patient-with-cd4-cell-count-less-than-100-of-imam-khomeini-hospital-tehran-iran
#4
Mahboobeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Saeed Kalantari, Mahin Jamshidi-Makiani, Esfandiar Shojaei, Ladan Abbasian, Mehrnaz Rasoulinezhad, Katayoun Tayeri
Background and Objectives: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the main opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the present and increasingly availability of specific treatment for cryptococcosis, the mortality rate of this infection is still high, particularly in patients with advanced immunsupression and advanced cryptococcal diseases. Materials and Methods: This Prospective Cohort study was conducted at Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209614/laryngeal-cryptococcosis-associated-with-inhaled-corticosteroid-use-case-reports-and-literature-review
#5
Daniel Jun Yi Wong, Peter Stanley, Paul Paddle
Laryngeal cryptococcosis is a rare clinical entity. There have been a limited number of case reports in the literature with no consensus regarding optimal management. This review contributes two additional case reports of immunocompetent patients with cryptococcal infection of the larynx in whom exposure to high doses of inhaled corticosteroids is proposed as a significant risk factor. Twenty cases were identified from review of the literature. All patients presented with hoarseness and a spectrum of microlaryngoscopic features, often mimicking laryngeal malignancy...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203547/regulated-release-of-cryptococcal-polysaccharide-drives-virulence-and-suppresses-immune-infiltration-into-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Steven T Denham, Surbhi Verma, Raymond C Reynolds, Colleen L Worne, Joshua M Daugherty, Thomas E Lane, Jessica C S Brown
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental yeast and opportunistic pathogen responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Mortality primarily results from meningoencephalitis, which occurs when fungal cells disseminate to the brain from the initial pulmonary infection site. A key C. neoformans virulence trait is the polysaccharide capsule. Capsule shields C. neoformans from immune-mediated recognition and destruction. The main capsule component, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), is found both attached to the cell surface and free in the extracellular space (as exo-GXM)...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189676/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-severe-increased-intracranial-pressure-complicated-with-cranial-nerve-palsy-in-a-child
#7
Bilge Aldemir Kocabaş, Mehmet Emin Parlak, Betil Özhak Baysan, Kamil Karaali, Ayşen Bingöl, Şenay Haspolat
Cryptococcosis is less common in children than adults but remains an important cause of pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Intracranial hypertension commonly complicates cryptococcal meningitis and may cause significant visual and neurological morbidity and mortality. Early and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension in accordance with established guidelines reduces the risk of long term complications and death. In this case report, we present a 12-year-old girl with cryptococcal meningitis, pneumonitis and dermatitis complicated with cranial nerve palsy and loss of vision...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184338/rapid-clinical-score-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Raluca Jipa, Ioana D Olaru, Eliza Manea, Simona Merisor, Adriana Hristea
Objective: The aim of our study was to retrospectively validate a previously described rapid clinical score (RCS) in distinguishing tuberculous meningitis (TBM) from viral meningitis (VM) in people who are at increased risk of tuberculosis, as well as from cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis between January 2012 and December 2015, to a referral hospital for infectious diseases...
October 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184017/vaccination-with-recombinant-cryptococcus-proteins-in-glucan-particles-protects-mice-against-cryptococcosis-in-a-manner-dependent-upon-mouse-strain-and-cryptococcal-species
#9
Charles A Specht, Chrono K Lee, Haibin Huang, Maureen M Hester, Jianhua Liu, Bridget A Luckie, Melanie A Torres Santana, Zeynep Mirza, Payam Khoshkenar, Ambily Abraham, Zu T Shen, Jennifer K Lodge, Ali Akalin, Jane Homan, Gary R Ostroff, Stuart M Levitz
Development of a vaccine to protect against cryptococcosis is a priority given the enormous global burden of disease in at-risk individuals. Using glucan particles (GPs) as a delivery system, we previously demonstrated that mice vaccinated with crude Cryptococcus-derived alkaline extracts were protected against lethal challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii The goal of the present study was to identify protective protein antigens that could be used in a subunit vaccine. Using biased and unbiased approaches, six candidate antigens (Cda1, Cda2, Cda3, Fpd1, MP88, and Sod1) were selected, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and loaded into GPs...
November 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163469/induction-of-broad-spectrum-protective-immunity-against-disparate-cryptococcus-serotypes
#10
Marley C Caballero Van Dyke, Ashok K Chaturvedi, Sarah E Hardison, Chrissy M Leopold Wager, Natalia Castro-Lopez, Camaron R Hole, Karen L Wozniak, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease caused by multiple Cryptococcus serotypes; particularly C. neoformans (serotypes A and D) and C. gattii (serotypes B and C). To date, there is no clinically available vaccine to prevent cryptococcosis. Mice given an experimental pulmonary vaccination with a C. neoformans serotype A strain engineered to produce interferon-γ, denoted H99γ, are protected against a subsequent otherwise lethal experimental infection with C. neoformans serotype A. Thus, we determined the efficacy of immunization with C...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163441/antifungal-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-essential-oil-active-components-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-laurentii
#11
Poonam Kumari, Rutusmita Mishra, Neha Arora, Apurva Chatrath, Rashmi Gangwar, Partha Roy, Ramasare Prasad
Cryptococcosis is an emerging and recalcitrant systemic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. This invasive fungal infection is difficult to treat due to the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus laurentii to form biofilms resistant to standard antifungal treatment. The toxicity concern of these drugs has stimulated the search for natural therapeutic alternatives. Essential oil and their active components (EO-ACs) have shown to possess the variety of biological and pharmacological properties...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162707/cd4-t-cells-orchestrate-lethal-immune-pathology-despite-fungal-clearance-during-cryptococcus-neoformans-meningoencephalitis
#12
Lori M Neal, Enze Xing, Jintao Xu, Jessica L Kolbe, John J Osterholzer, Benjamin M Segal, Peter R Williamson, Michal A Olszewski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a major fungal pathogen that disseminates to the central nervous system (CNS) to cause fatal meningoencephalitis, but little is known about immune responses within this immune-privileged site. CD4(+) T cells have demonstrated roles in anticryptococcal defenses, but increasing evidence suggests that they may contribute to clinical deterioration and pathology in both HIV-positive (HIV+) and non-HIV patients who develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome (PIIRS), respectively...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155114/risks-of-endoscopic-temporal-ventriculocisternostomy-for-isolated-lateral-ventricle-anatomical-surgical-nuances
#13
Takatoshi Hasegawa, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Alhusain Nagm, Tetsuya Goto, Tatsuro Aoyama, Kazuhiro Hongo
BACKGROUND: Entrapment of the temporal horn, known as isolated lateral ventricle (ILV), is a rare type of noncommunicating focal hydrocephalus, and its standard treatment has not been established. Here, we report two cases of endoscopic surgery for ILV, and highlight the anatomical surgical nuances to avoid associated surgical risks. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors present two surgical cases with ILV treated by endoscopic surgery. The first patient with recurrent ILV, due to shunt malfunction, following the initial shunt placement for ILV...
November 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154044/modulating-host-immune-responses-to-fight-invasive-fungal-infections
#14
REVIEW
James E Scriven, Mark W Tenforde, Stuart M Levitz, Joseph N Jarvis
Modulation of host immunity in invasive fungal infection is an appealing but as yet mostly elusive treatment strategy. Animal studies in invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis have demonstrated beneficial effects of colony stimulating factors, interferon-gamma and monoclonal antibodies. More recent studies transfusing leukocytes pre-loaded with lipophilic anti-fungal drugs, or modulated T-cells, along with novel vaccination strategies show great promise. The translation of immune therapies into clinical studies has been limited to date but this is changing and the results of new Candida vaccine trials are eagerly awaited...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150356/cryptococcosis-manifesting-as-isolated-biliary-infection-case-report-and-brief-review-of-literature
#15
Hua-Ying Zhou, Xiao-Bo Zeng, Sheng-Long Shi, Min Wang, Da-Min Li
BACKGROUND: Biliary cryptococci infection is rare, which is frequently diagnosed by exploratory laparotomy, preoperative diagnosis is difficult. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old girl presented with intermittent jaundice for 6 years. She had no pruritus, anorexia, nausea or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, or clay stools. Laboratory tests showed obstructive jaundice, eosinophilia, and increased IgE levels. The patient was ultimately diagnosed as Cryptococcal infection by bone marrow culture...
November 14, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142539/values-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-in-the-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-associated-infectious-diseases
#16
Dongfeng Zhang
Objective: To discuss the roles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the identification of central nervous system associated infection and provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system associated infectious diseases. Methods: Seventy-six patients who developed central nervous system infection and were admitted into the Henan People's Hospital between June 2014 and October 2015 were randomly selected as an observation group...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142521/fatal-infections-in-older-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#17
Way-Seah Lee, Najib Azmi, Ruey-Terng Ng, Sik-Yong Ong, Sasheela Sri La Ponnampalavanar, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Ida Hilmi
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130027/cryptococcosis-today-it-is-not-all-about-hiv-infection
#18
Jane A O'Halloran, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Purpose of the review: Cryptococcal disease is most often thought of in the context of HIV infection. Much of our knowledge of the disease originates from its management in the HIV-positive population over the last 30 years. While the majority of cases globally continue to occur in the setting of advanced HIV, Cryptococcus species is increasingly responsible for disease in HIV-negative populations including those considered normal hosts and these HIV-negative populations will be the focus of this review...
June 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129578/cryptococcosis-in-an-infectious-diseases-hospital-of-buenos-aires-argentina-revision-of-2041-cases-diagnosis-clinical-features-and-therapeutics
#19
Alicia Arechavala, Ricardo Negroni, Fernando Messina, Mercedes Romero, Emmanuel Marín, Roxana Depardo, Laura Walker, Gabriela Santiso
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is still a life-threatening mycosis that continues to be of serious concern in Latin American countries, especially among HIV+positive population. However, there is not any reliable information about the prevalence of this disease in this region. AIMS: The aim of this study is to report data of 2041 patients with cryptococcosis that were attended at the Infectious Diseases Hospital F. J. Muñiz over a 30 year-period. METHODS: Information about demographic and clinical data, survival time and the applied treatment, was taken from the Mycology Unit database...
November 9, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125032/b-cells-protect-t-cell-deficient-mice-from-cryptococcal%C3%A2-brain%C3%A2-invasion
#20
Michael J Davis, Michail S Lionakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Virulence
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