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Juan A Barcia, José M Gallego
A means to avoid the pharmacokinetic problems affecting the anti-epileptic drugs may be their direct intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intracerebral delivery. This approach may achieve a greater drug concentration at the epileptogenic area while minimizing it in other brain or systemic areas, and thus it could be an interesting therapeutic alternative in drug-resistant epilepsies. The objective of this article is to review a series of experiments, ranging from actute ICV injection to continuous intracerebral infusion of anti-epileptic drugs or grafting of neurotransmitter producing cells, in experimental models, especially in the kindling model of epilepsy in the rat...
April 2009: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
F Reinstorf, G Strauch, K Schirmer, H-R Gläser, M Möder, R Wennrich, K Osenbrück, M Schirmer
The behaviour and the effects of xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals and fragrances in the environment are widely unknown. In order to improve our knowledge, field investigations and modelling approaches for the entire area of the city of Halle/Saale, Germany, were performed. The distribution of the concentration values and mass fluxes are exemplified using indicators such as Bisphenol A, t-Nonylphenol, Carbamacepine, Galaxolide, Tonalide, Gadolinium and isotopes. Concentrations at a magnitude of ng/L to microg/L were found ubiquitously in the ground and surface waters...
March 2008: Environmental Pollution
P Munné, J J Saenz Bañuelos, J J Izura, G Burillo-Putze, S Nogué
In this second chapter on Acute Drugs Poisoning we deal with two groups of substances of great transcendence from the point of view of their use and morbidity/mortality. Within the group of analgesic-anti-inflammatory drugs we consider paracetamol and the salicylates, which are easily available to the population. With respect to the anticonvulsants, although they are barely involved in the ensemble of acute drug poisonings, their effects can be serious. We concentrate on four drugs: valproic acid, phenobarbitol, carbamacepine, and phenytoin...
2003: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
J Froelich, R Sassen, C E Elger, G Lehmkuhl
We report the case of a two years old boy showing gelastic fits as the leading clinical symptom of a rare complex cerebral malformation with closed-lip schizencephaly, an arachnoid cyst and a partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. After 5 uneventful interictal electroencephalograms the patient underwent 24 h EEG with telemetry while finally presenting two laughing fits with associated spike-wave discharges in the right-centroparietal region. Medical treatment with carbamacepine was initiated and the seizure frequency decreased significantly...
March 2003: Klinische Pädiatrie
F Montañés Rada, M T de Lucas Taracena
INTRODUCTION: Field studies support the idea of gabapentin being helpful in the maintenance, and in the treatment of some symptoms in bipolar patients. Our study evaluates relapse rates previous and after gabapentin administration in severe bipolar patients. METHODOLOGY: Gapabentine was administered to all consecutive bipolar patients from a relapse prevention program who could not be given lithium, valproic acid or carbamacepin because of his current medical condition or his past history of secondary effects or lack of response to those treatments...
November 2001: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
M Alcamí Pertejo, M Peral Guerra, I Gilaberte
INTRODUCTION: Serotonergic dysfunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the autism. SRIs have shown efficacy in improving some symptoms in children with Autism. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a pilot study, the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in very young children with autism. METHOD: 1 year open-label trial was made with fluoxetine on 12 patients (3 to 13 years old) with Pervasive Developmental Disorder. CGI-severity was used to assess the severity and the improvement of symptoms...
November 2000: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
J Salas-Puig, V Mateos, M Amorín, S Calleja
The choice of the adequate antiepileptic treatment is based on the clinical experience more than rationality. During some decades, the combination of two antiepileptic drugs was considered the initial treatment but monotherapy showed more advantages (effectiveness, fewer adverse events, fewer teratogenic effects and better compliance). New antiepileptic drugs have increased our interest and knowledge of the epilepsies. They have changed some of our therapeutical schemes. Sodium valproate continues to be considered the choice treatment for all the idiopathic, cryptogenic and symptomatic generalized epilepsies...
May 1999: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
M I López-Ibor, J J López-Ibor, M Hernández Herreros
The Landau-Kleffner syndrome consists in the association of an aphasia acquired during childhood or adolescence after a period of normal development, accompanied by epileptic fits and, sometimes, psychological disturbances. The appearance of the symptoms may not be simultaneous. The nature of this syndrome has been widely discussed and even the possibility of being a non-unitary syndrome has been considered. It may be possibly due to diverse etiologies, genetic or acquired (infectious). The relation between the aphasic, the psychologic and the convulsive symptoms has also raised controversies...
November 1997: Actas Luso-españolas de Neurología, Psiquiatría y Ciencias Afines
A Belmont-Gomez, S Garza-Morales, J Ibarra-Puig, V López-Ugalde, A Morales-Garcia, J Kunhardt-Rasch
During pregnancy, there are several physiological changes that influence the kinetics of medication administrated during this time. These physiological changes are not reestablished immediately during delivery; so, its concentration in biologic fluids is different when is administered immediately after delivery, than several weeks after. The purpose in this work was to identify the changes of pharmacocinetics constants for fenitoin and carbamacepine, in epileptic patients. When the same dose is maintained, during different times of postpartum...
May 1997: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
V J Conde López, M C Ballesteros Alcalde, M A Franco Martín, M S Geijo Uribe
Rett Syndrome was first described in 1966 by Andreas Rett. The disorder is characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive and motor skills as well as development o stereotyped hand movements, occurring after an apparently normal development. Authors present three typical cases, and, another one atypical, being all of them female. This study takes into account ten different areas about chronology, age and reasons in the first consultation, some milestones of psychomotor development, the diagnostic criteria--according to Rett Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria Work Group (R...
May 1995: Actas Luso-españolas de Neurología, Psiquiatría y Ciencias Afines
C Escofet, P Póo, O Valbuena, R Gassió, F X Sanmartí, J Campistol
Two hundred eighty six infants with Down syndrome have been studied. Infantile spasms have been identified in nine of them, in which background, EEG pattern and its evolution, modalities of treatment and its effects, neuroimaging and development course have been revised. None of these patients had either familiar or personal pathological antecedents. The pattern in the first EEG made was hypsarrhytmic in all cases except one which showed a multifocal paroxystical activity, with intermittent and bilateral bursts of spike-waves...
March 1995: Revista de Neurologia
R Rahn, G Frenkel, W Holtmann
100 patients with abnormal pain in the facial area have been examined and questioned about their symptoms and the preceding therapy. At the time of this study the patients already had a history of pain of about five years. Since no cause could be discovered for the pain, treatment was limited to symptomatic relief using injections of long-acting local anesthetics or carbamacepine. Generally, both methods resulted in a relief of the symptoms.
December 1989: Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift
S A Geiger, M Peuten
Within 4 years a total of 49 patients have been treated for neuralgiform symptoms. 19 patients were symptom-free after 4 to 5 days of monotherapy. Including additional carbamacepine in the treatment of the remaining 30 patients produced successful results in 12 cases. Eight out of the remaining 18 patients showed satisfactory results after psychoactive drugs had been added. It was only in 10 cases that the symptoms could not be eliminated.
January 1990: Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift
A Finzen
Carbamacepine is an effective drug in the treatment of acute manic states as well as in preventing relapses in the course of manic-depressive illness. Many controlled studies show that carbamacepine is a valuable alternative and an implementation to the existing methods of treatment. Treatment of acute mania can be more rapid, more specific of carbamacepine is used or combined with neuroleptics (or occasionally with lithium). There are less side effects in carbamacepine treatment than in conventional treatment...
January 1991: Psychiatrische Praxis
H J Gertz
A 59-year-old patient suffered during three months from depressive episode. Thereafter he developed depressive attacks of 30 to 60 minutes duration, reoccurring weekly to every third week. The patient could be treated successfully with Carbamacepine.
January 1992: Der Nervenarzt
H Fichsel, G Knöpfle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1977: Klinische Pädiatrie
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