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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677369/targeted-drug-delivery-in-the-suprachoroidal-space-by-swollen-hydrogel-pushing
#1
Jae Hwan Jung, Patcharin Desit, Mark R Prausnitz
Purpose: The purpose is to target model drug particles to the posterior region of the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye controlled via pushing by hydrogel swelling. Methods: A particle formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) with fluorescent polymer particles and a hydrogel formulation containing 4% HA were introduced in a single syringe as two layers without mixing, and injected sequentially into the SCS of the rabbit eye ex vivo and in vivo using a microneedle...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677368/in-vivo-characterization-of-spontaneous-retinal-neovascularization-in-the-mouse-eye-by-multifunctional-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Marco Augustin, Matthias Wechdorn, Ulrike Pfeiffenberger, Tanja Himmel, Stanislava Fialová, René M Werkmeister, Christoph K Hitzenberger, Martin Glösmann, Bernhard Baumann
Purpose: To investigate the early development of spontaneous retinal neovascularization in the murine retina by a multifunctional optical coherence tomography approach. To characterize involved tissue changes in vivo and describe structural and functional changes over time. Methods: A multifunctional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system providing 3-fold contrast comprising reflectivity, polarization sensitivity, and OCT angiography (OCTA) was utilized to image very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) knockout mice...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677356/volume-rendered-projection-resolved-oct-angiography-3d-lesion-complexity-is-associated-with-therapy-response-in-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
Peter L Nesper, Brian T Soetikno, Alison D Treister, Amani A Fawzi
Purpose: To explore whether quantitative three-dimensional (3D) analysis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography (PR-OCTA) is associated with treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 51 eyes of 49 patients undergoing individualized anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD. Patients were classified as "good" or "poor" responders, requiring injections at less or more frequently than 6-week intervals, respectively...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677351/retinal-oxygen-delivery-and-metabolism-in-healthy-and-sickle-cell-retinopathy-subjects
#4
Mahnaz Shahidi, Anthony E Felder, Ou Tan, Norman P Blair, David Huang
Purpose: Reduction in inner retinal oxygen delivery (DO2) can cause retinal hypoxia and impair inner retinal oxygen metabolism (MO2), leading to vision loss. The purpose of the current study was to establish measurements of DO2 and MO2 in healthy subjects and test the hypothesis that DO2 and MO2 are reduced in sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) subjects. Methods: Dual wavelength retinal oximetry and Doppler optical coherence tomography were performed in 12 healthy control and 12 SCR subjects...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677215/tracking-the-fate-of-adoptively-transferred-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-the-primary-breast-tumor-microenvironment
#5
Jaclyn Sceneay, Christoph M Griessinger, Sabrina H L Hoffmann, Shu Wen Wen, Christina S F Wong, Sophie Krumeich, Manfred Kneilling, Bernd J Pichler, Andreas Möller
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid progenitor cells that are expanded in cancer and act as potent suppressors of the anti-tumor immune response. MDSCs consist of two major subsets, namely monocytic (M-) MDSCs and granulocytic (G-) MDSCs that differ with respect to their phenotype, morphology and mechanisms of suppression. Here, we cultured bone marrow cells with IL-6 and GM-CSF in vitro to generate a population of bone marrow MDSCs (BM-MDSCs) similar to G-MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice in regards to phenotype, morphology and suppressive-function...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675338/assessing-the-healing-of-venous-leg-ulcers-using-a-noncontact-near-infrared-optical-imaging-approach
#6
Jiali Lei, Suset Rodriguez, Maanasa Jayachandran, Elizabeth Solis, Katrina Epnere, Francisco Perez-Clavijo, Stephen Wigley, Anuradha Godavarty
Objective: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are one of the most common complications in lower extremity wounds. To date, clinicians employ visual inspection of the wound site during its healing process by monitoring surface granulation and reduction in wound size across weeks of treatment. In this study, a handheld near-infrared optical scanner (NIROS) has been developed at the Optical Imaging Laboratory to differentiate healing from nonhealing VLUs based on differences in blood flow to the wound and its surroundings...
April 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671952/in-vivo-study-of-rat-cortical-hemodynamics-using-a-stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible-photoacoustic-microscope
#7
Heng Guo, Qian Chen, Weizhi Qi, Xingxing Chen, Lei Xi
Brain imaging is an important technique in cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, we designed a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope for studies of rat cortical hemodynamics. Compared with existing OR-PAM systems, the probe owns feature of fast, light, and miniature. In this microscope, we integrated a miniaturized ultrasound transducer with a center frequency of 10 MHz to detect photoacoustic signals and a two-dimensional (2D) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) scanner to achieve raster scanning of the optical focus...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671835/microfluidic-synthesis-of-ca-alginate-microcapsules-for-self-healing-of-bituminous-binder
#8
Benan Shu, Shaopeng Wu, Lijie Dong, Qing Wang, Quantao Liu
This work aims to develop an original alginate micro-emulsion combining with droplets microfluidic method to produce multinuclear Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator for the self-healing of bituminous binder. The sizes of the Ca-alginate microcapsules could be easily controlled by tuning flow rates of the continuous and dispersed phases. The addition of a surfactant Tween80 not only improved the stability of the emulsion, but it also effectively reduced the size of the microcapsules. Size predictive mathematical model of the microcapsules was proposed through the analysis of fluid force...
April 19, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667039/perception-of-time-to-contact-of-slow-and-fast-moving-objects-using-monocular-and-binocular-motion-information
#9
Aaron J Fath, Mats Lind, Geoffrey P Bingham
The role of the monocular-flow-based optical variable τ in the perception of the time to contact of approaching objects has been well-studied. There are additional contributions from binocular sources of information, such as changes in disparity over time (CDOT), but these are less understood. We conducted an experiment to determine whether an object's velocity affects which source is most effective for perceiving time to contact. We presented participants with stimuli that simulated two approaching squares...
April 17, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666930/role-of-side-slip-flight-in-target-pursuit-blue-tailed-damselflies-ischnura-elegans-avoid-body-rotation-while-approaching-a-moving-perch
#10
Ziv Kassner, Gal Ribak
Visually guided flight control requires processing changes in the visual panorama (optic-flow) resulting from self-movement relative to stationary objects, as well as from moving objects passing through the field of view. We studied the ability of the blue-tailed damselfly, Ischnura elegans, to successfully land on a perch moving unpredictably. We tracked the insects landing on a vertical pole moved linearly 6 cm back and forth with sinusoidal changes in velocity. When the moving perch changed direction at frequencies higher than 1 Hz, the damselflies engaged in manoeuvres that typically involved sideways flight, with minimal changes in body orientation relative to the stationary environment...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665185/laminar-shear-stress-modulates-endothelial-luminal-surface-stiffness-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#11
Nick Merna, Andrew K Wong, Victor Barahona, Pierre Llanos, Balvir Kunar, Brisa Palikuqi, Michael Ginsberg, Shahin Rafii, Sina Y Rabbany
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. METHODS: Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness...
April 17, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664644/field-assisted-contact-line-motion-in-thin-films
#12
Udita Uday Ghosh, Sunando DasGupta
The balance of intermolecular and surface forces plays a critical role in the transport phenomena near the contact line region of an extended meniscus in several technologically important processes. Externally applied fields can alter the equilibrium and stability of the meniscus with concomitant effects on its shape, spreading characteristics and may even lead to oscillation. This article provides a detailed account of the present and past efforts in exploring the behavior of curved thin liquid films, subjected to mild thermal perturbations, heat input, electrical and magnetic fields for pure as well as colloidal suspensions - including the effects of particle charge and polarity...
April 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664421/n-type-doping-and-morphology-of-gaas-nanowires-in-aerotaxy
#13
Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Axel R Persson, Irene Geijselaers, L Reine Wallenberg, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin Magnusson
Controlled doping in semiconductor nanowires modifies their electrical and optical properties, which are important for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. We have grown n-type (Sn) doped GaAs nanowires in Aerotaxy, a new continuous gas phase mass production technique. The morphology of Sn doped nanowires is found to be a strong function of dopant, tetraethyltin to trimethylgallium flow ratio, Au-Ga-Sn alloying, and nanowire growth temperatures. High temperature and high flow ratios result in low morphological quality nanowires and in parasitic growth on the wire base and surface...
April 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663322/quantitatively-characterizing-drug-induced-arrhythmic-contractile-motions-of-human-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#14
Plansky Hoang, Nathaniel Huebsch, Shin Hyuk Bang, Brian A Siemons, Bruce R Conklin, Kevin E Healy, Zhen Ma, Sabir Jacquir
Quantification of abnormal contractile motions of cardiac tissue has been a noteworthy challenge and significant limitation in assessing and classifying the drug-induced arrhythmias (i.e. Torsades de pointes). To overcome these challenges, researchers have taken advantage of computational image processing tools to measure contractile motion from cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs). However, the amplitude and frequency analysis of contractile motion waveforms doesn't produce sufficient information to objectively classify the degree of variations between two or more sets of cardiac contractile motions...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662112/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-vessel-density-changes-after-acute-intraocular-pressure-elevation
#15
Qi Zhang, Jost B Jonas, Qian Wang, Szy Yann Chan, Liang Xu, Wen Bin Wei, Ya Xing Wang
To investigate changes in retinal vessel density in optic nerve head (ONH) and macula after acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, we conducted a prospective observational study. Eyes with IOP rise ≥5 mmHg after 2-hour dark room prone provocative test (DRPPT) were included. Vasculature of ONH and macula was examined by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) at baseline and after DRPPT. Among the 65 eyes of 42 individuals, 40 eyes with qualified images were enrolled. Mean IOP rise was 9.6 ± 4...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659526/improved-seam-line-searching-algorithm-for-uav-image-mosaic-with-optical-flow
#16
Weilong Zhang, Bingxuan Guo, Ming Li, Xuan Liao, Wenzhuo Li
Ghosting and seams are two major challenges in creating unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image mosaic. In response to these problems, this paper proposes an improved method for UAV image seam-line searching. First, an image matching algorithm is used to extract and match the features of adjacent images, so that they can be transformed into the same coordinate system. Then, the gray scale difference, the gradient minimum, and the optical flow value of pixels in adjacent image overlapped area in a neighborhood are calculated, which can be applied to creating an energy function for seam-line searching...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658875/new-aspects-of-the-structure-of-human-scalp-hair-ii-tubular-structure-and-material-flow-property-of-the-medulla
#17
Asao Yamauchi, Kiyoshi Yamauchi
Asian scalp hair fibers were made thin by treatment with papain or sliced along the longitudinal axis or randomly cut by mechanical means. Optical microscopic observations of the resulting specimens indicated that (i) the medulla (M) consisted of two types of the M-surrounding cells which were linearly linked one another to form a tubular structure running through the fiber and (ii) the drum-shaped vesicles containing small proteinous granules were neatly or sparsely stored within the tube. On the other hand, H+ and OH- ions were able to move spontaneously from one end to another through the M tube...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658229/high-speed-raman-encoded-molecular-imaging-of-freshly-excised-tissue-surfaces-with-topically-applied-serrs-nanoparticles
#18
Yu Winston Wang, Qian Yang, Soyoung Kang, Matthew A Wall, Jonathan T C Liu
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being engineered for a variety of disease-detection and treatment applications. For example, we have previously developed a fiber-optic Raman-encoded molecular imaging (REMI) system for spectral imaging of biomarker-targeted SERS NPs topically applied on tissue surfaces to identify residual tumors at surgical margins. Although accurate tumor detection was achieved, the commercial SERS NPs used in our previous studies lacked the signal strength to enable high-speed imaging with high pixel counts (large fields of view and/or high spatial resolution), which limits their use for certain time-constrained clinical applications...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657836/resistive-index-of-ophthalmic-artery-correlates-with-retinal-pigment-epithelial-alterations-on-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
Manila Khatri, Sandeep Saxena, Apjit Kaur, Shashi K Bhasker, Manoj Kumar, Carsten H Meyer
Background: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a significant role in maintenance of integrity of retinal photoreceptors and choriocapillaries. RPE derives its blood supply through ophthalmic artery (OA) via choriocapillaries. RPE topographic alterations have been observed to be associated with severity of retinopathy. The present study was undertaken to assess the correlation between resistive index (RI) of the OA with RPE topographic alterations on Spectral-Domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), to our knowledge, it is for the first time...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656284/findings-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-best-vitelliform-macular-dystrophy
#20
Xiao Na Wang, Qi Sheng You, Qian Li, Yang Li, Yu Mao, Feng Hu, Hui Ying Zhao, Frank F Tsai, Xiao Yan Peng
PURPOSE: To evaluate the vascular anatomy of eyes with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: This retrospective case-control study enrolled 11 consecutive BVMD patients and 13 age-matched healthy participants. Both eyes of each participant were imaged using a macular OCTA scan (3 × 3 mm) by 70-kHz 840-nm spectral-domain OCT. The flow signal was calculated using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm...
April 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
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