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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811568/dynamic-x-ray-radiography-reveals-particle-size-and-shape-orientation-fields-during-granular-flow
#1
François Guillard, Benjy Marks, Itai Einav
When granular materials flow, the constituent particles segregate by size and align by shape. The impacts of these changes in fabric on the flow itself are not well understood, and thus novel non-invasive means are needed to observe the interior of the material. Here, we propose a new experimental technique using dynamic X-ray radiography to make such measurements possible. The technique is based on Fourier transformation to extract spatiotemporal fields of internal particle size and shape orientation distributions during flow, in addition to complementary measurements of velocity fields through image correlation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810657/anti-exudation-effects-of-sodium-ferulate-and-oxymatrine-combination-via-modulation-of-aquaporin-1
#2
Songmei Sun, Xing Du, Mengxin Xu, Meijuan Liu, Zhifeng Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-exudative effects of sodium ferulate combined with oxymatrine in a mouse model of acetic acid-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms were explored by determining the effects of these drugs on the volume and aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression in vascular endothelial cells on omentum majus and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Treatment with sodium ferulate combined with oxymatrine was shown to significantly inhibit acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in the peritonitis model mice and furthermore to significantly decrease the optical density of Evans blue, the leukocyte number and the levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and interferon-γ in peritoneal lavage fluid...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810047/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-retinal-cavernous-hemangioma
#3
Luisa Pierro, Alessandro Marchese, Marco Gagliardi, Francesco Bandello
Retinal cavernous hemangioma is a rare, benign, retinal tumor characterized by angiomatous proliferation of vessels within the inner retina or the optic disc.1 Here we report a case of retinal cavernous hemangioma on the margin of the optic disc in the right eye of a 61-year-old asymptomatic female. The lesion was studied with multimodal imaging which included structural optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, blue fundus auto-fluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and visual field examination...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810037/quantitative-features-of-the-choriocapillaris-in-healthy-individuals-using-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#4
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Maximilian Pfau, Akihito Uji, Phillip P Le, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To quantify vessel density (VD) and grey value (GV) as a measure of flow in the choriocapillaris (CC) in healthy subjects with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, noncomparative case series, 3 mm × 3 mm OCTA images of 36 eyes of 22 healthy individuals were obtained using a swept-source instrument. VD and GV levels were calculated on CC en face slabs in the central 1-mm (subfoveal field) and surrounding 2...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810036/evaluation-of-macular-perfusion-in-healthy-smokers-by-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#5
Ziya Ayhan, Mahmut Kaya, Taylan Ozturk, Omer Karti, F Hakan Oner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the macular perfusion changes in healthy smokers by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: OCTA measurements were taken for the right eyes of 40 smokers (Group 1) and age- and sex-matched control cases (Group 2). Group 1 underwent OCTA scanning with the XR Avanti AngioVue OCTA (Optovue, Fremont, CA) at baseline and at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after one standard cigarette smoking...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809879/zak-phase-induced-multiband-waveguide-by-two-dimensional-photonic-crystals
#6
Yuting Yang, Tao Xu, Yun Fei Xu, Zhi Hong Hang
Interface states in photonic crystals provide efficient approaches to control the flow of light. Photonic Zak phase determines the bulk band properties of photonic crystals, and, by assembling two photonic crystals with different bulk band properties together, deterministic interface states can be realized. By translating each unit cell of a photonic crystal by half the lattice constant, another photonic crystal with identical common gaps but a different Zak phase at each photonic band can be created. By assembling these two photonic crystals together, multiband waveguide can thus be easily created and then experimentally characterized...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809101/a-microsphere-supported-lipid-bilayer-platform-for-dna-reactions-on-a-fluid-surface
#7
Aurora Fabry-Wood, Madalyn Elise Fetrow, Carl W Brown Iii, Nicholas A Baker, Nadiezda Fernandez Oropeza, Andrew P Shreve, Gabriel A Montano, Darko Stefanovic, Matthew R Lakin, Steven W Graves
We report a versatile microsphere-supported lipid bilayer system that can serve as a general-purpose platform for implementing DNA nanotechnologies on a fluid surface. To demonstrate our platform, we implemented both toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) and DNAzyme reactions, which are typically performed in solution and which are the cornerstone of DNA-based molecular logic and dynamic DNA nanotechnology, on the surface. We functionalized microspheres bearing supported lipid bilayers (µSLBs) with membrane-bound nucleic acid components...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803065/flow-induced-adherens-junction-remodeling-driven-by-cytoskeletal-forces
#8
Deepika Verma, Vivek Bajpai, Nannan Ye, Mohammad M Maneshi, Deekshitha Jetta, Stelios T Andreadis, Frederick Sachs, Susan Z Hua
Adherens junctions (AJs) are a key structural component for tissue organization and function. Under fluid shear stress, AJs exhibit dynamic assembly/disassembly, but how shear stress couples to AJs is unclear. In MDCK cells we measured simultaneously the forces in cytoskeletal α-actinin and the density and length of AJs using a genetically coded optical force sensor, actinin-sstFRET, and fluorescently labeled E-cadherin (E-cad). We found that shear stress of 0.74dyn/cm(2) for 3hours significantly enhanced E-cad expression at cell-cell contacts and this phenomenon has two phases...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802195/measurements-and-simulation-of-liquid-films-during-drainage-displacements-and-snap-off-in-constricted-capillary-tubes
#9
Sophie Roman, Moataz O Abu-Al-Saud, Tetsu Tokunaga, Jiamin Wan, Anthony R Kovscek, Hamdi A Tchelepi
When a wetting liquid is displaced by air in a capillary tube, a wetting film develops between the tube wall and the air that is responsible for the snap-off mechanism of the gas phase. By dissolving a dye in the wetting phase it is possible to relate a measure of the absorbance in the capillary to the thickness of liquid films. These data could be used to compare with cutting edge numerical simulations of the dynamics of snap-off for which experimental and numerical data are lacking. Drainage experiments in constricted capillary tubes were performed where a dyed wetting liquid is displaced by air for varying flow rates...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800207/optically-derived-metabolic-and-hemodynamic-parameters-predict-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#10
David Abookasis, Danit Lerman, Hava Roth, Mati Tfilin, Gadi Turgeman
In the present study, we made use of dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (DW-LSI) to assess cerebral blood flow in the BTBR genetic mouse model of Autism Spectrum Disorder, as well as control (C57Bl/6J) mice. Since the deficits in social behavior demonstrated by BTBR mice are attributed to changes in neural tissue structure and function, we postulated that these changes can be detected optically using DW-LSI. BTBR mice demonstrated reductions in both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ), as suggested by studies using conventional neuroimaging technologies to reflect impaired neuronal activation and cognitive function...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798842/a-low-cost-plug-and-play-inertial-microfluidic-helical-capillary-device-for-high-throughput-flow-cytometry
#11
Xiao Wang, Hua Gao, Nadja Dindic, Necati Kaval, Ian Papautsky
Glass capillary tubes have been widely used in microfluidics for generating microdroplets and microfibers. Here, we report on the application of glass capillary to inertial focusing of microparticles and cells for high-throughput flow cytometry. Our device uses a commercially available capillary tube with a square cross-section. Wrapping the tube into a helical shape induces the Dean vortices that aid focusing of cells or microbeads into a single position. We investigated the inertial focusing of microbeads in the device at various Re and concentrations and demonstrated 3D focusing with ∼100% efficiency for a wide range of microparticle diameters...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797412/optical-coherence-tomography-characterization-of-coronary-lithoplasty-for-treatment-of-calcified-lesions-first-description
#12
Ziad A Ali, Todd J Brinton, Jonathan M Hill, Akiko Maehara, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Keyvan Karimi Galougahi, Uday Illindala, Matthias Götberg, Robert Whitbourn, Nicolas Van Mieghem, Ian T Meredith, Carlo Di Mario, Jean Fajadet
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the mechanistic effects of a novel balloon-based lithoplasty system on heavily calcified coronary lesions and subsequent stent placement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). BACKGROUND: The Shockwave Coronary Rx Lithoplasty System (Shockwave Medical, Fremont, California) delivers localized, lithotripsy-enhanced disruption of calcium within the target lesion (i.e., lithoplasty) for vessel preparation before stent implantation...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797199/the-power-of-projectomes-genetic-mosaic-labeling-in-the-larval-zebrafish-brain-reveals-organizing-principles-of-sensory-circuits
#13
Estuardo Robles
In no vertebrate species do we possess an accurate, comprehensive tally of neuron types in the brain. This is in no small part due to the vast diversity of neuronal types that comprise complex vertebrate nervous systems. A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to construct comprehensive catalogs of cell types defined by structure, connectivity, and physiological response properties. This type of information will be invaluable for generating models of how assemblies of neurons encode and distribute sensory information and correspondingly alter behavior...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795849/doxorubicin-conjugated-d-glucosamine-and-folate-bi-functionalized-inp-zns-quantum-dots-for-cancer-cells-imaging-and-therapy
#14
Zahra Ranjbar-Navazi, Morteza Eskandani, Mohammad Johari-Ahar, Ali Nemati, Hamid Akbari, Soudabeh Davaran, Yadollah Omidi
Nanoscaled quantum dots (QDs), with unique optical properties have been used for development of theranostics. Here, InP/ZnS QDs were synthesized and functionalized with folate (QD-FA), D-glucosamine (QD-GA) or both (QD-FA-GA). The bi-functionalized QDs were further conjugated with doxorubicin (QD-FA-GA-DOX). Optimum Indium to fatty acid (In: MA) ratio was 1:3.5. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs revealed spherical morphology for the QDs (11 nm). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectrum confirmed the chemical composition of the QDs...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795674/-effect-of-autophagy-regulator-on-the-injury-of-rat-hippocampal-neurons-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#15
Tianen Zhou, Chaotao Zeng, Jiajun Fang, Longyuan Jiang, Tao Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of autophagy regulator on the injury of rat hippocampal neurons induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). METHODS: Rat hippocampal neurons were cultivated in primary and subjected to OGD to simulate neuronal hypoxic ischemia injury for 2 hours or 6 hours followed by reperfusion for 12 hours with or without 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 20 μmol/L) or rapamycin (0.2 μmol/L). The morphology of neurons was observed with optical microscope...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795246/bilateral-multiple-evanescent-white-dot-syndrome
#16
Chiara Veronese, Chiara Maiolo, Mariachiara Morara, Grayson W Armstrong, Antonio P Ciardella
PURPOSE: To present a single case of bilateral multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). METHODS: A single case with three months of follow-up using imaging studies including fundus color photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), en face SD-OCT and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is presented. RESULTS: The patient presented with bilateral MEWDS, ultimately with complete resolution of symptoms...
August 9, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793318/real-time-measurement-of-fibers-using-an-hy-differential-mobility-analyzer-with-an-optical-particle-counter-kofam
#17
Sungwon Choi, Kwangmyung Jang, Kyunghoon Park, Hyunwook Kim
This study investigated the applicability of an HY-differential mobility analyzer with an optical particle counter (HY-DMA/OPC), named as KOFAM, for counting fibrous matters in real time. Fibers separated from particles by the HY-DMA were counted with an OPC. To assess the KOFAM performance, the proposed method and the conventional gold standard phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method were compared in terms of variables such as recovery, relative difference, coefficient of determination, and conformity. The optimal sheath-to-aerosol (outlet) flow ratio of the internal flow in the HY-DMA was determined to be 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792207/toward-reservoir-on-a-chip-fabricating-reservoir-micromodels-by-in-situ-growing-calcium-carbonate-nanocrystals-in-microfluidic-channels
#18
Wei Wang, Sehoon Chang, Ayrat Gizzatov
We introduce a novel and simple method to fabricate calcium carbonate (CaCO3) micromodels by in situ growing a thin layer of CaCO3 nanocrystals with thickness of 1-2 µm in microfluidic channels. This approach enables us to fabricate synthetic CaCO3 reservoir micromodels having surfaces fully covered with calcite, while the dimension and geometries of the micromodels are controllable based on the original microfluidic channels. We have tuned the wettability of the CaCO3 coated microchannels at simulated oil reservoir conditions without introducing any chemical additives to the system; and thus the resulting oil-wet surface makes the micromodel more faithfully resemble a natural carbonate reservoir rock...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791532/diameter-changes-of-retinal-vessels-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
REVIEW
Toke Bek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diameter of retinal vessels is an important source of information about retinal blood flow and metabolism. The purpose of the present study is to review how diameter changes of retinal vessels contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy and may be a marker of the prognosis of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The early stages of diabetic retinopathy are accompanied with dilatation of the diameter of retinal vessels and reduced autoregulation...
August 8, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791491/retinal-vegf-levels-correlate-with-ocular-circulation-measured-by-a-laser-speckle-micro-system-in-an-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-rat-model
#20
Tadashi Matsumoto, Yuta Saito, Takashi Itokawa, Tomoaki Shiba, Mari S Oba, Haruo Takahashi, Yuichi Hori
PURPOSE: We used a Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG)-micro system to examine the relationship between ocular blood flow and retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at retinopathy onset in oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy (OIR) model rats. METHODS: Sixteen 50/10 OIR rats were compared with 17 control rats reared in room air. In postnatal day 14 (P14) and P18 rats, we measured and analyzed the left eye's mean blur rate (MBR) by setting a rubber band on the optic nerve head center, using the LSFG-Micro...
August 8, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
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