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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346713/spark-generated-microbubble-cell-sorter-for-microfluidic-flow-cytometry
#1
Jingjing Zhao, Zheng You
High-speed and accurate cell sorting is of great significance for cell analysis regarding both bioresearch and clinical application. Different from the jet-in-air sorting of commercial flow cytometers, sorting in fully enclosed and disposal microfluidic chips can avoid aerosols and crosscontamination, thus contributing to the improvement of biosafety and test accuracy. However, current microfluidic sorters usually require complicated structures, or otherwise cannot attain high throughput. In this article, a sorting mechanism for microfluidics is proposed for the first time based on the jet flow induced by the spark-generated cavitation microbubble that can be easily realized by a pair of electrodes...
January 18, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345326/live-animal-imaging-of-renal-function-by-multiphoton-microscopy
#2
Kenneth W Dunn, Timothy A Sutton, Ruben M Sandoval
Intravital microscopy, microscopy of living animals, is a powerful research technique that combines the resolution and sensitivity found in microscopic studies of cultured cells with the relevance and systemic influences of cells in the context of the intact animal. The power of intravital microscopy has recently been extended with the development of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy systems capable of collecting optical sections from deep within the kidney at subcellular resolution, supporting high-resolution characterizations of the structure and function of glomeruli, tubules, and vasculature in the living kidney...
January 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345261/an-inert-3d-emulsification-device-for-individual-precipitation-and-concentration-of-amorphous-drug-nanoparticles
#3
T Lorenz, S Bojko, H Bunjes, A Dietzel
Nanosizing increases the specific surface of drug particles, leading to faster dissolution inside the organism and improving the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. A novel approach for the preparation of drug nanoparticles in water using chemically inert microfluidic emulsification devices is presented in this paper. A lithographic fabrication sequence was established, allowing fabrication of intersecting and coaxial channels of different depths in glass as is required for 3D flow-focusing. Fenofibrate was used as a model for active pharmaceutical ingredients with very low water solubility in the experiments...
January 18, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341925/phase-contrast-tomography-at-lab-on-chip-scale-by-digital-holography
#4
REVIEW
F Merola, P Memmolo, L Miccio, M Mugnano, P Ferraro
High-throughput single-cell analysis is a challenging target for implementing advanced biomedical applications. An excellent candidate for this aim is label-free tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). In this paper, some of the methods used to obtain TPM are reviewed, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each of them. Moreover, an alternative tomographic technique is described for live cells analysis, and future trends of the method are foreseen. In particular, by exploiting random rolling of cells while they are flowing along a microfluidic channel, it is possible to obtain phase-contrast tomography thus obtaining complete retrieval of both 3D-position and orientation of rotating cells...
January 13, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340763/the-retinal-projection-to-the-nucleus-lentiformis-mesencephali-in-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-and-anna-s-hummingbird-calypte-anna
#5
Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Andrea H Gaede, Max R Dannish, Douglas L Altshuler, Douglas R Wylie
In birds, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM) are retinal recipient nuclei involved in the analysis of optic flow and the generation of the optokinetic response. In both pigeons and chickens, retinal inputs to the nBOR arise from displaced ganglion cells (DGCs), which are found at the margin of the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers. The LM receives afferents from retinal ganglion cells, but whether DGCs also project to LM is a matter of debate. Previous work in chickens had concluded that DGCs do not project to LM, but a recent study in pigeons found that both retinal ganglion cells and DGCs project to LM...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340648/a-novel-strategy-for-quantifying-choriocapillaris-flow-voids-using-swept-source-oct-angiography
#6
Qinqin Zhang, Fang Zheng, Elie H Motulsky, Giovanni Gregori, Zhongdi Chu, Chieh-Li Chen, Chunxia Li, Luis de Sisternes, Mary Durbin, Philip J Rosenfeld, Ruikang K Wang
Purpose: To achieve reproducible imaging of the choriocapillaris and associated flow voids using swept-source OCT angiography (SS-OCTA). Methods: Subjects were enrolled and SS-OCTA was performed using the 3 × 3 mm scan pattern. Blood flow was identified using the complex optical microangiography (OMAG) algorithm. The choriocapillaris was defined as a slab from the outer boundary of Bruch's membrane (BM) to approximately 20 μm below BM. Compensation for the shadowing effect caused by the RPE and BM complex on the choriocapillaris angiogram was achieved by using the structural information from the same slab...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339488/ultrafast-imaging-of-cell-elasticity-with-optical-microelastography
#7
Pol Grasland-Mongrain, Ali Zorgani, Shoma Nakagawa, Simon Bernard, Lia Gomes Paim, Greg Fitzharris, Stefan Catheline, Guy Cloutier
Elasticity is a fundamental cellular property that is related to the anatomy, functionality, and pathological state of cells and tissues. However, current techniques based on cell deformation, atomic force microscopy, or Brillouin scattering are rather slow and do not always accurately represent cell elasticity. Here, we have developed an alternative technique by applying shear wave elastography to the micrometer scale. Elastic waves were mechanically induced in live mammalian oocytes using a vibrating micropipette...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338126/physical-exercise-and-glaucoma-a-review-on-the-roles-of-physical-exercise-on-intraocular-pressure-control-ocular-blood-flow-regulation-neuroprotection-and-glaucoma-related-mental-health
#8
REVIEW
Ming Ming Zhu, Jimmy Shiu Ming Lai, Bonnie Nga Kwan Choy, Jennifer Wei Huen Shum, Amy Cheuk Yin Lo, Alex Lap Ki Ng, Jonathan Cheuk Hung Chan, Kwok Fai So
The benefits of physical exercise on health and well-being have been studied in a wide range of systemic and ocular diseases, including glaucoma, a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by accelerated apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and insufficient ocular perfusion have been postulated to be the two main theories in glaucoma development and progression. The effects of exercise in these two aspects have been demonstrated by numerous researches. A review in 2009 focusing on these two theories concluded that exercise results in transient IOP reduction but an inconsistent elevation in ocular perfusion...
January 16, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338061/feasibility-of-cell-based-therapy-combined-with-descemetorhexis-for-treating-fuchs-endothelial-corneal-dystrophy-in-rabbit-model
#9
Naoki Okumura, Daiki Matsumoto, Yuya Fukui, Masataka Teramoto, Hirofumi Imai, Tetta Kurosawa, Tomoki Shimada, Friedrich Kruse, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Shigeru Kinoshita, Noriko Koizumi
Corneal transparency is maintained by the corneal endothelium through its pump and barrier function. Severe corneal endothelial damage results in dysregulation of water flow and eventually causes corneal haziness and deterioration of visual function. In 2013, we initiated clinical research of cell-based therapy for treating corneal decompensation. In that study, we removed an 8-mm diameter section of damaged corneal endothelium without removing Descemet's membrane (the basement membrane of the corneal endothelium) and then injected cultured human corneal endothelial cells (CECs) into the anterior chamber...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334081/bio-inspired-all-optical-artificial-neuromast-for-2d-flow-sensing
#10
Ben J Wolf, Jonathan A S Morton, William Bill N MacPherson, Sietse M van Netten
We present the design, fabrication and testing of a novel all-optical 2D flow velocity sensor, inspired by a fish lateral line neuromast. This artificial neuromast consists of optical fibres inscribed with Bragg gratings supporting a fluid force recipient sphere. Its dynamic response is modelled based on the Stokes solution for unsteady flow around a sphere and found to agree with experimental results. Tuneable mechanical resonance is predicted, allowing a deconvolution scheme to accurately retrieve fluid flow speed and direction from sensor readings...
January 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334079/first-heating-measurements-of-endovascular-stents-in-magnetic-particle-imaging
#11
Franz Wegner, Thomas Friedrich, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, Sarah Vaalma, Jan Peter Goltz, Florian M Vogt, Martin A Koch, Thorsten M Buzug, Joerg Barkhausen, Julian Haegele
Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a three-dimensional imaging method which visualizes the spatial distribution of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIOs) with oscillating and static magnetic fields. It is a quantitative method as the intensity of its signal is proportional to the concentration of the SPIOs. Due to its quantitativeness, high temporal resolution and kidney-safe tracers it is proposed to be a very promising noninvasive method for cardiovascular imaging. In this regard MPI in the presence of endovascular stents and assessment of stent patency with MPI has to be evaluated...
January 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333854/cucurbit-8-uril-based-giant-supramolecular-vesicles-highly-stable-versatile-carriers-for-photoresponsive-and-targeted-drug-delivery
#12
Cuihua Hu, Ningning Ma, Fei Li, Yu Fang, Yao Liu, Linlu Zhao, Shanpeng Qiao, Xiumei Li, Xiaojia Jiang, Tiezhu Li, Fangzhong Shen, Yibing Huang, Quan Luo, Junqiu Liu
Highly stable giant supramolecular vesicles were constructed by hierarchical self-assembly of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8])-based supra-amphiphiles for photoresponsive and targeted intracellular drug delivery. These smart vesicles can encapsulate the model drugs with high loading efficiencies, and then release them by manipulating photoswitchable CB[8] heteroternary complexation to regulate the formation and dissociation of supra-amphiphiles that cause dramatic morphological changes of the assemblies to achieve remote optically-controlled drug delivery...
January 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332411/%C3%AE-1-integrin-mediated-multicellular-resistance-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-activation-of-the-fak-akt-pathway
#13
Tao Tian, Chun-Li Li, Xiao Fu, Shu-Hong Wang, Jun Lu, Hui Guo, Yu Yao, Ke-Jun Nan, Yu-Juan Yang
Objective To explore the role and mechanism of β1 integrin in the regulation of multicellular drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods This in vitro study used a liquid overlay technique to obtain multicellular spheroids of two human HCC cell lines, HepG2 and Bel-7402. The morphology of the spheroids was observed by optical and electron microscopy. The effects of exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) on cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis were assessed in monolayer cells and multicellular spheroids...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332249/correlation-of-flow-density-as-measured-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-with-structural-and-functional-parameters-in-glaucoma-patients
#14
Maged Alnawaiseh, Larissa Lahme, Viktoria Müller, André Rosentreter, Nicole Eter
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between flow density, as measured by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and structural and functional parameters in patients with open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients with open-angle glaucoma and 35 eyes of 35 healthy subjects were prospectively included in this study. OCTA was performed using RTVue XR Avanti with AngioVue. The macula was imaged with a 3 × 3 mm scan and the optic nerve head (ONH) with a 4...
January 13, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329053/long-term-safety-area-tracking-lt-sat-with-online-failure-detection-and-recovery-for-robotic-minimally-invasive-surgery
#15
Veronica Penza, Xiaofei Du, Danail Stoyanov, Antonello Forgione, Leonardo S Mattos, Elena De Momi
Despite the benefits introduced by robotic systems in abdominal Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), major complications can still affect the outcome of the procedure, such as intra-operative bleeding. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins by the surgical tools, and some of the possible risk factors are related to the lack of sub-surface visibilty. Assistive tools guiding the surgical gestures to prevent these kind of injuries would represent a relevant step towards safer clinical procedures...
December 22, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328334/computation-and-analysis-of-backward-ray-tracing-in-aero-optics-flow-fields
#16
Liang Xu, Deting Xue, Xiaoyi Lv
A backward ray-tracing method is proposed for aero-optics simulation. Different from forward tracing, the backward tracing direction is from the internal sensor to the distant target. Along this direction, the tracing in turn goes through the internal gas region, the aero-optics flow field, and the freestream. The coordinate value, the density, and the refractive index are calculated at each tracing step. A stopping criterion is developed to ensure the tracing stops at the outer edge of the aero-optics flow field...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328304/optofluidic-refractive-index-sensors-employing-bent-waveguide-structures-for-low-cost-rapid-chemical-and-biomedical-sensing
#17
I-Chen Liu, Pin-Chuan Chen, Lai-Kwan Chau, Guo-En Chang
We propose and develop an intensity-detection-based refractive-index (RI) sensor for low-cost, rapid RI sensing. The sensor is composed of a polymer bent ridge waveguide (BRWG) structure on a low-cost glass substrate and is integrated with a microfluidic channel. Different-RI solutions flowing through the BRWG sensing region induce output optical power variations caused by optical bend losses, enabling simple and real-time RI detection. Additionally, the sensors are fabricated using rapid and cost-effective vacuum-less processes, attaining the low cost and high throughput required for mass production...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328275/fabricated-nanogap-rich-plasmonic-nanostructures-through-an-optothermal-surface-bubble-in-a-droplet
#18
Farzia Karim, Erick S Vasquez, Chenglong Zhao
A rapid and cost-effective method for the fabrication of nanogap-rich structures is demonstrated in this Letter. The method utilizes the Marangoni convection around an optothermal surface bubble inside a liquid droplet with a nanoliter volume. The liquid droplet containing metallic nanoparticles reduces the sample consumption and confines the liquid flow. The optothermal surface bubble creates a strong convective flow that allows for the rapid deposition of the metallic nanoparticles to form nanogap-rich structures on any substrate under ambient conditions...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328268/backscatter-particle-image-velocimetry-via-optical-time-of-flight-sectioning
#19
Megan E Paciaroni, Yi Chen, Kyle P Lynch, Daniel R Guildenbecher
Conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV) configurations require a minimum of two optical access ports, inherently restricting the technique to a limited class of flows. Here, the development and application of a novel method of backscattered time-gated PIV requiring a single-optical-access port is described along with preliminary results. The light backscattered from a seeded flow is imaged over a narrow optical depth selected by an optical Kerr effect (OKE) time gate. The picosecond duration of the OKE time gate essentially replicates the width of the laser sheet of conventional PIV by limiting detected photons to a narrow time-of-flight within the flow...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328184/extinction-spectra-of-suspensions-of-microspheres-determination-of-the-spectral-refractive-index-and-particle-size-distribution-with-nanometer-accuracy
#20
Jonas Gienger, Markus Bär, Jörg Neukammer
A method is presented to infer simultaneously the wavelength-dependent real refractive index (RI) of the material of microspheres and their size distribution from extinction measurements of particle suspensions. To derive the averaged spectral optical extinction cross section of the microspheres from such ensemble measurements, we determined the particle concentration by flow cytometry to an accuracy of typically 2% and adjusted the particle concentration to ensure that perturbations due to multiple scattering are negligible...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
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