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Zebrafish disease modelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157956/comparative-analysis-of-fixation-and-embedding-techniques-for-optimized-histological-preparation-of-zebrafish
#1
Jean E Copper, Lynn R Budgeon, Christina A Foutz, Damian B van Rossum, Daniel J Vanselow, Margaret J Hubley, Darin P Clark, David T Mandrell, Keith C Cheng
In recognition of the importance of zebrafish as a model organism for studying human disease, we have created a web-based reference atlas of zebrafish microanatomy for comparing histology and histopathology between model systems and with humans (http://bio-atlas.psu.edu). Fixation, decalcification, embedding, and sectioning were optimized to maximize section quality. A comparison of protocols involving six fixatives showed that 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin at 21°C for 24h yielded excellent results. Sectioning of juveniles and adults requires bone decalcification; EDTA at 0...
November 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157819/pro-angiogenic-effects-of-ilexsaponin-a1-on-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-in-vitro-and-zebrafish-in-vivo
#2
Jingjing Li, Jinming Zhang, Liang Zou, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Cui Yang, Sai-Wang Seto, George Pak-Heng Leung
BACKGROUND: Ilexsaponin A1 is the major bioactive ingredient of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Arn. This plant has been conventionally used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases including stroke, coronary arterial disease, and peripheral vascular diseases. PURPOSE: To investigate the pro-angiogenic effect of Ilexsaponin A1 and its mechanism of action. STUDY DESIGN: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and transgenic zebrafish Tg(fli1:EGFP) were employed as an in vitro and in vivo model respectively...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156675/glioblastoma-and-glioblastoma-stem-cells-are-dependent-on-functional-mth1
#3
Linda Pudelko, Pegah Rouhi, Kumar Sanjiv, Helge Gad, Christina Kalderén, Andreas Höglund, Massimo Squatrito, Alberto J Schuhmacher, Steven Edwards, Daniel Hägerstrand, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Thomas Helleday, Lars Bräutigam
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain cancer with poor prognosis. Cancer cells are characterized by a specific redox environment that adjusts metabolism to its specific needs and allows the tumor to grow and metastasize. As a consequence, cancer cells and especially GBM cells suffer from elevated oxidative pressure which requires antioxidant-defense and other sanitation enzymes to be upregulated. MTH1, which degrades oxidized nucleotides, is one of these defense enzymes and represents a promising cancer target...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155720/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-cell-activation-in-a-laser-induced-retinal-degeneration-and-regeneration-model-in-zebrafish
#4
Federica M Conedera, Petra Arendt, Carolyn Trepp, Markus Tschopp, Volker Enzmann
A fascinating difference between teleost and mammals is the lifelong potential of the teleost retina for retinal neurogenesis and regeneration after severe damage. Investigating the regeneration pathways in zebrafish might bring new insights to develop innovative strategies for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in mammals. Herein, we focused on the induction of a focal lesion to the outer retina in adult zebrafish by means of a 532 nm diode laser. A localized injury allows investigating biological processes that take place during retinal degeneration and regeneration directly at the area of damage...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155703/modeling-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-toxicity-and-neurodegeneration-in-adult-zebrafish-brain
#5
Prabesh Bhattarai, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak, Christos Papadimitriou, Violeta Mashkaryan, Yixin Zhang, Caghan Kizil
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease in which accumulation of toxic amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptides leads to synaptic degeneration, inflammation, neuronal death, and learning deficits. Humans cannot regenerate lost neurons in the case of AD in part due to impaired proliferative capacity of the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and reduced neurogenesis. Therefore, efficient regenerative therapies should also enhance the proliferation and neurogenic capacity of NSPCs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a regenerative organism, and we can learn the basic molecular programs with which we could design therapeutic approaches to tackle AD...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142988/proximal-tubular-expression-patterns-of-megalin-and-cubilin-in-proteinuric-nephropathies
#6
Jia Sun, Kjell Hultenby, Jonas Axelsson, Johan Nordström, Bing He, Annika Wernerson, Karin Lindström
Introduction: Receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubules. For albumin this process involves at least 2 interacting receptors, megalin and cubilin. Albumin is not usually present in the urine, indicating a highly efficient tubular reuptake under physiological conditions. However, early appearance of albuminuria may mean that the tubular system is overwhelmed by large quantities of albumin or that the function is impaired. Methods: To better understand the physiological role of megalin and cubilin in human renal disease, renal biopsies from 15 patients with a range of albuminuria and 3 healthy living donors were analyzed for proximal tubular expression of megalin and cubilin using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semiquantitative immune-electron microscopy...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130155/genome-editing-to-study-ca-2-homeostasis-in-zebrafish-cone-photoreceptors
#7
Susan E Brockerhoff
Photoreceptors are specialized sensory neurons with unique biological features. Phototransduction is well understood due in part to the exclusive expression and function of the molecular components of this cascade. Many other processes are less well understood, but also extremely important for understanding photoreceptor function and for treating disease. One example is the role of Ca(2+) in the cell body and overall compartmentalization and regulation of Ca(2+) within the cell. The recent development of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing techniques has made it possible to rapidly and cheaply alter specific genes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127144/disruption-of-thrombocyte-and-t-lymphocyte-development-by-a-mutation-in-arpc1b
#8
Raz Somech, Atar Lev, Yu Nee Lee, Amos J Simon, Ortal Barel, Ginette Schiby, Camila Avivi, Iris Barshack, Michele Rhodes, Jiejing Yin, Minshi Wang, Yibin Yang, Jennifer Rhodes, Nufar Marcus, Ben-Zion Garty, Jerry Stein, Ninette Amariglio, Gideon Rechavi, David L Wiest, Yong Zhang
Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for normal development and function of the immune system, as evidenced by the severe immune abnormalities exhibited by patients bearing inactivating mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), a key regulator of actin dynamics. WASP exerts its effects on actin dynamics through a multisubunit complex termed Arp2/3. Despite the critical role played by Arp2/3 as an effector of WASP-mediated control over actin polymerization, mutations in protein components of the Arp2/3 complex had not previously been identified as a cause of immunodeficiency...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126989/anti-thrombotic-and-pro-angiogenic-effects-of-rubia-cordifolia-extract-in-zebrafish
#9
Yi Chen, Pei-Dong Chen, Bei-Hua Bao, Ming-Qiu Shan, Kai-Cheng Zhang, Fang-Fang Cheng, Yu-Dan Cao, Li Zhang, An-Wei Ding
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rubia cordifolia is a common traditional Chinese medicine that promotes blood circulation and eliminates blood stasis, and has been used to cure diseases related to blood stasis syndrome (BSS) clinically for many years. It has been previously demonstrated that anti-thrombosis and pro-angiogenesis can improve BSS. However, the anti-thrombotic and pro-angiogenic activities of Rubia cordifolia have not been well investigated. AIM OF STUDY: To determine the potential anti-thrombotic and pro-angiogenic activities of Rubia cordifolia and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113040/%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-attenuates-perfluorooctanoic-acid-toxicity-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-model
#10
Mary Jo Weiss-Errico, John P Berry, Kevin E O'Shea
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been linked to negative health outcomes including cancer, thyroid disease, infertility, and developmental delays. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), a cyclic sugar, has been previously shown to form strong host-guest complexes with PFOA, and is proposed as a means of environmental remediation with respect to this widespread contaminant. In the present study, β-CD was directly examined with regards to possible attenuation of the toxicity of PFOA specifically employing the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model...
November 4, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111817/structural-ultrastructural-and-morphometric-study-of-the-zebrafish-ocular-surface-a-model-for-human-corneal-diseases
#11
Domenico Puzzolo, Antonina Pisani, Consuelo Malta, Giuseppe Santoro, Alessandro Meduri, Francesco Abbate, Giuseppe Montalbano, Edward Wylegala, Rosa Alba Rana, Fabio Bucchieri, Antonio Ieni, Pasquale Aragona, Antonio Micali
PURPOSE: A morphological and morphometric study of the adult zebrafish ocular surface was performed to provide a comprehensive description of its parts and to evaluate its similarity to the human. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eyes of adult zebrafish were processed for light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and for immunohistochemical stain of corneal nerves; a morphometric analysis was also performed on several morphological parameters. RESULTS: The corneal epithelium was formed by five layers of cells...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109778/a-h2o2-responsive-theranostic-probe-for-endothelial-injury-imaging-and-protection
#12
Cheng-Kun Wang, Juan Cheng, Xing-Guang Liang, Chao Tan, Quan Jiang, Yong-Zhou Hu, Ying-Mei Lu, Kohji Fukunaga, Feng Han, Xin Li
Overproduction of H2O2 causes oxidative stress and is the hallmark of vascular diseases. Tracking native H2O2 in the endothelium is therefore indispensable to gain fundamental insights into this pathogenesis. Previous fluorescent probes for H2O2 imaging were generally arylboronates which were decomposed to emissive arylphenols in response to H2O2. Except the issue of specificity challenged by peroxynitrite, boric acid by-produced in this process is actually a waste with unknown biological effects. Therefore, improvements could be envisioned if a therapeutic agent is by-produced instead...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098121/using-zebrafish-to-model-liver-diseases-where-do-we-stand
#13
Duc-Hung Pham, Changwen Zhang, Chunyue Yin
Purpose of Review: The liver is the largest internal organ and performs both exocrine and endocrine function that is necessary for survival. Liver failure is among the leading causes of death and represents a major global health burden. Liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver diseases. Animal models advance our understanding of liver disease etiology and hold promise for the development of alternative therapies. Zebrafish has become an increasingly popular system for modeling liver diseases and complements the rodent models...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097697/3d-maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-a-single-cell-spatial-mapping-of-lipids-in-the-embryonic-development-of-zebrafish
#14
Maria Emilia Dueñas, Jeffrey J Essner, Young Jin Lee
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been widely used as a model vertebrate system to study lipid metabolism, the roles of lipids in diseases, and lipid dynamics in embryonic development. Here, we applied high-spatial resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to map and visualize the three-dimensional spatial distribution of phospholipid classes, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI), in newly fertilized individual zebrafish embryos...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093022/giantin-knockout-models-reveal-a-feedback-loop-between-golgi-function-and-glycosyltransferase-expression
#15
Nicola L Stevenson, Dylan J M Bergen, Roderick E H Skinner, Erika Kague, Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone, Kate A Robson Brown, Chrissy L Hammond, David J Stephens
The Golgi is the cellular hub for complex glycosylation, controlling accurate processing of complex proteoglycans, receptors, ligands, and glycolipids. Its structure and organisation is dependent on golgins, which tether cisternal membranes and incoming transport vesicles. Here we show that knockout of the largest golgin, giantin, leads to substantial changes in gene expression despite only limited effects on Golgi structure. Notably, 22 Golgi-resident glycosyltransferases, but not glycan processing enzymes or the ER glycosylation machinery, are differentially expressed following giantin ablation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083959/screencube-a-3d-printed-system-for-rapid-and-cost-effective-chemical-screening-in-adult-zebrafish
#16
Adrian T Monstad-Rios, Claire J Watson, Ronald Y Kwon
Phenotype-based small molecule screens in zebrafish embryos and larvae have been successful in accelerating pathway and therapeutic discovery for diverse biological processes. Yet, the application of chemical screens to adult physiologies has been relatively limited due to additional demands on cost, space, and labor associated with screens in adult animals. In this study, we present a 3D printed system and methods for intermittent drug dosing that enable rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish...
October 30, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082716/-genetic-manipulation-in-zebrafish
#17
Yu Gao, Jiahui Liu, Xin Wang, Dong Liu
The increasing number of genetic manipulation approaches and high-resolution live imaging technique applied in zebrafish have propelled the rise of this organism as a mainstream model for developmental biology and human diseases studies. Zebrafish has many advantages for functional genomics analysis, allowing for easy, cheap and fast functional characterization of novel genes in the vertebrate genome. Here we provide an overview of the principles of genetic manipulation in zebrafish, such as Ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis, insertional mutagenesis, gene trapping mutagenesis, Morpholino mediated gene knockdown, targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING), genome editing with engineered nucleases ZFN (Zinc finger nuclease), TALEN (Transcription activator-like effector nuclease) and CRISPR/Cas9 system, and transgenic methods used in zebrafish...
October 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079063/neuroprotective-and-neuro-restorative-effects-of-minocycline-and-rasagiline-in-a-zebrafish-6-hydroxydopamine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Aileen Cronin, Maura Grealy
Parkinson's disease is a common, debilitating, neurodegenerative disorder for which the current gold standard treatment, levodopa (L-DOPA) is symptomatic. There is an urgent, unmet need for neuroprotective or, ideally, neuro-restorative drugs. We describe a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) zebrafish model to screen drugs for neuroprotective and neuro-restorative capacity. Zebrafish larvae at two days post fertilization were exposed to 6-OHDA for three days, with co-administration of test drugs for neuroprotection experiments, or for 32 h, with subsequent treatment with test drugs for neuro-restoration experiments...
October 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076082/using-the-zebrafish-as-an-approach-to-examine-the-mechanisms-of-vertebrate-erythropoiesis
#19
Martin D Kafina, Barry H Paw
The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a powerful model for the study of erythropoiesis and defining the genetic basis of hematological diseases. The mechanisms of erythroid differentiation are highly conserved in the zebrafish, permitting translational research studies and the modeling of erythropoiesis in higher vertebrates. An advantage of the system is the ability to manipulate gene expression and observe the effect on erythroid development in vivo, with relative ease and rapidity. The production of optically transparent embryos also makes it an attractive tool for visual analysis of circulating erythrocytes that can be used to study erythropoiesis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072526/rab-gtpases-in-cilium-formation-and-function
#20
Oliver E Blacque, Noemie Scheidel, Stefanie Kuhns
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles extending from a basal body at the surface of eukaryotic cells. Cilia regulate cell and fluid motility, sensation and developmental signaling, and ciliary defects cause human diseases (ciliopathies) affecting the formation and function of many tissues and organs. Over the past decade, various Rab and Rab-like membrane trafficking proteins have been shown to regulate cilia-related processes such as basal body maturation, ciliary axoneme extension, intraflagellar transport and ciliary signaling...
October 26, 2017: Small GTPases
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