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Kenia Martínez, Jessica Merchán-Naranjo, Laura Pina-Camacho, Yasser Alemán-Gómez, Leticia Boada, David Fraguas, Carmen Moreno, Celso Arango, Joost Janssen, Mara Parellada
Executive function (EF) performance is associated with measurements of white matter microstructure (WMS) in typical individuals. Impaired EF is a hallmark symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it is unclear how impaired EF relates to variability in WMS. Twenty-one male youth (8-18 years) with ASD and without intellectual disability and twenty-one typical male participants (TP) matched for age, intelligence quotient, handedness, race and parental socioeconomic status were recruited. Five EF domains were assessed and several DTI-based measurements of WMS [fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD)] were estimated for eighteen white matter tracts...
April 26, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
April 13, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Letitia R Naigles, Ryan Johnson, Ann Mastergeorge, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, David G Amaral, Christine Wu Nordahl
Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The boys were assigned to subgroups according to their level of language development (Low: no/low language, Middle: small vocabulary, High: large vocabulary and grammar), based on their raw scores on the expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) sections of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
February 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Lauren E Libero, Wesley K Burge, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Franco Pestilli, Rajesh K Kana
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder found to have widespread alterations in the function and synchrony of brain regions. These differences may underlie alterations in microstructural organization, such as in white matter pathways. To investigate the diffusion of major white matter tracts, the current study examined multiple indices of white matter diffusion in 42 children and adults with ASD and 44 typically developing (TD) age- and IQ-matched peers using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 2016: Brain Connectivity
Thomas S Higbee, Ana Paula Aporta, Alice Resende, Mateus Nogueira, Celso Goyos, Joy S Pollard
Discrete-trial instruction (DTI) is a behavioral method of teaching young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that has received a significant amount of research support. Because of a lack of qualified trainers in many areas of the world, researchers have recently begun to investigate alternative methods of training professionals to implement behavioral teaching procedures. One promising training method is interactive computer training, in which slides with recorded narration, video modeling, and embedded evaluation of content knowledge are used to teach a skill...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Marwa M T Ismail, Robert S Keynton, Mahmoud M M O Mostapha, Ahmed H ElTanboly, Manuel F Casanova, Georgy L Gimel'farb, Ayman El-Baz
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities have emerged as powerful means that facilitate non-invasive clinical diagnostics of various diseases and abnormalities since their inception in the 1980s. Multiple MRI modalities, such as different types of the sMRI and DTI, have been employed to investigate facets of ASD in order to better understand this complex syndrome. This paper reviews recent applications of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to study autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
V M Vogan, B R Morgan, R C Leung, E Anagnostou, K Doyle-Thomas, M J Taylor
Diffusion tensor imaging studies show white matter (WM) abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, investigations are often limited by small samples, particularly problematic given the heterogeneity of ASD. We explored WM using DTI in a large sample of 130 children and adolescents (7-15 years) with and without ASD, whether age-related changes differed between ASD and control groups, and the relation between DTI measures and ASD symptomatology. Reduced fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity were observed in ASD in numerous WM tracts, including the corpus callosum and thalamocortical fibres-tracts crucial for interhemispheric connectivity and higher order information processing...
2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Melissa Kirkovski, Peter G Enticott, Jerome J Maller, Susan L Rossell, Paul B Fitzgerald
Abnormalities within white matter (WM) have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there is some support for greater neurobiological deficits among females with ASD, there is little research investigating sex differences in WM in ASD. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate WM aberration in 25 adults with high-functioning ASD and 24 age-, sex- and IQ-matched controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to explore differences in WM in major tract bundles. The effects of biological sex were also investigated...
July 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Christine Wu Nordahl, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Lee Michael Perry, Robert Dougherty, Aaron Lee, Deana Li, Michael H Buonocore, Tony Simon, Sally Rogers, Brian Wandell, David G Amaral
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the corpus callosum have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but few studies have evaluated young children. Sex differences in callosal organization and diffusion characteristics have also not been evaluated fully in ASD. METHODS: Structural and diffusion-weighted images were acquired in 139 preschool-aged children with ASD (112 males/27 females) and 82 typically developing (TD) controls (53 males/29 females)...
2015: Molecular Autism
Lauren E Libero, Thomas P DeRamus, Adrienne C Lahti, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Rajesh K Kana
Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) have uncovered evidence for widespread functional and anatomical brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggesting it to be a system-wide neural systems disorder. Nevertheless, most previous studies have focused on examining one index of neuropathology through a single neuroimaging modality, and seldom using multiple modalities to examine the same cohort of individuals...
May 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Takashi Itahashi, Takashi Yamada, Motoaki Nakamura, Hiromi Watanabe, Bun Yamagata, Daiki Jimbo, Seiji Shioda, Miho Kuroda, Kazuo Toriizuka, Nobumasa Kato, Ryuichiro Hashimoto
Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Stephanie H Ameis, Marco Catani
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms have been hypothesized to result from altered brain connectivity. The 'disconnectivity' hypothesis has been used to explain characteristic impairments in socio-emotional function, observed clinically in ASD. Here, we review the evidence for impaired white matter connectivity as a neural substrate for socio-emotional dysfunction in ASD. A review of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, and focused discussion of relevant post-mortem, structural, and functional neuroimaging studies, is provided...
January 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Jennifer R Pryweller, Kimberly B Schauder, Adam W Anderson, Jessica L Heacock, Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Cassandra R Newsom, Whitney A Loring, Carissa J Cascio
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
Manoj Kumar, Jeffery T Duda, Wei-Ting Hwang, Charles Kenworthy, Ranjit Ittyerah, Stephen Pickup, Edward S Brodkin, James C Gee, Ted Abel, Harish Poptani
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise an etiologically heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuroligin-3 (NL-3) is a cell adhesion protein that mediates synapse development and has been implicated in ASD. We performed ex-vivo high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and behavioral (social approach and zero maze) tests at 3 different time points (30, 50 and 70 days-of-age) on NL-3 and wild-type littermates to assess developmental brain abnormalities in NL-3 mice...
2014: PloS One
Stephanie H Ameis, Jin Fan, Conrad Rockel, Latha Soorya, A Ting Wang, Evdokia Anagnostou
OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined the cingulum bundle, a long-range white matter tract mediating dorsal limbic connectivity, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus controls. We hypothesised that cingulum bundle microstructure would be altered in ASD, based on evidence implicating abnormal white matter connectivity in this disorder. METHODS: DTI data were acquired for 19 ASD participants (IQ ⩾ 70; 7-18 years; mean = 12...
October 2013: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Thomas John Perkins, Mark Andrew Stokes, Jane Anne McGillivray, Alexander Julien Mussap, Ivanna Anne Cox, Jerome Joseph Maller, Richard Garth Bittar
There is evidence emerging from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) research that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with greater impairment in the left hemisphere. Although this has been quantified with volumetric region of interest analyses, it has yet to be tested with white matter integrity analysis. In the present study, tract based spatial statistics was used to contrast white matter integrity of 12 participants with high-functioning autism or Aspergers syndrome (HFA/AS) with 12 typically developing individuals...
November 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Yi-Shin Chang, Julia P Owen, Shivani S Desai, Susanna S Hill, Anne B Arnett, Julia Harris, Elysa J Marco, Pratik Mukherjee
Over 90% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) demonstrate atypical sensory behaviors. In fact, hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment is now included in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. However, there are children with sensory processing differences who do not meet an ASD diagnosis but do show atypical sensory behaviors to the same or greater degree as ASD children. We previously demonstrated that children with Sensory Processing Disorders (SPD) have impaired white matter microstructure, and that this white matter microstructural pathology correlates with atypical sensory behavior...
2014: PloS One
Madhura Ingalhalikar, William A Parker, Luke Bloy, Timothy P L Roberts, Ragini Verma
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by wide range of symptoms and severity including domains such as language impairment (LI). This study aims to create a quantifiable marker of ASD and a stratification marker for LI using multimodality imaging data that can handle missing data by including subjects that fail to complete all the aspects of a multimodality imaging study, obviating the need to remove subjects with incomplete data, as is done by conventional methods...
September 30, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Yasser Ghanbari, John Herrington, Ruben C Gur, Robert T Schultz, Ragini Verma
The high dimensionality of connectivity networks necessitates the development of methods identifying the connectivity building blocks that not only characterize the patterns of brain pathology but also reveal representative population patterns. In this paper, we present a non-negative component analysis framework for learning localized and sparse sub-network patterns of connectivity matrices by decomposing them into two sets of discriminative and reconstructive bases. In order to obtain components that are designed towards extracting population differences, we exploit the geometry of the population by using a graphtheoretical scheme that imposes locality-preserving properties as well as maintaining the underlying distance between distant nodes in the original and the projected space...
2013: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
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