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attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624671/practitioner-review-emotional-dysregulation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-implications-for-clinical-recognition-and-intervention
#1
REVIEW
Stephen V Faraone, Anthony L Rostain, Joseph Blader, Betsy Busch, Ann C Childress, Daniel F Connor, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Because emotional symptoms are common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and associate with much morbidity, some consider it to be a core feature rather than an associated trait. Others argue that emotional symptoms are too nonspecific for use as diagnostic criteria. This debate has been difficult to resolve due, in part, to the many terms used to describe emotional symptoms in ADHD and to concerns about overlap with mood disorders. METHODS: We sought to clarify the nature of emotional symptoms in ADHD by reviewing conceptual and measurement issues and by examining the evidence base regarding specificity of such symptoms for ADHD...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595626/a-case-of-congenital-insensitivity-to-pain-with-anhidrosis-comorbid-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-clinical-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#2
Elham Shirazi, Shirin Sayyahfar, Mahtab Motamed, Javad Alaghband-Rad
Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK1) gene. CIPA is accompanied by abnormal catecholamine metabolism and decreased blood concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of heterogeneous etiology and presentation, and recent reports have suggested a pathophysiological role of neurotrophins in ADHD...
April 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560310/neural-mechanisms-underlying-successful-and-deficient-multi-component-behavior-in-early-adolescent-adhd
#3
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558816/prenatal-primary-prevention-of-mental-illness-by-micronutrient-supplements-in-pregnancy
#4
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554125/git1-regulates-synaptic-structural-plasticity-underlying-learning
#5
Amanda C Martyn, Krisztian Toth, Robert Schmalzigaug, Nathan G Hedrick, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Ryohei Yasuda, William C Wetsel, Richard T Premont
The signaling scaffold protein GIT1 is expressed widely throughout the brain, but its function in vivo remains elusive. Mice lacking GIT1 have been proposed as a model for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, due to alterations in basal locomotor activity as well as paradoxical locomotor suppression by the psychostimulant amphetamine. Since we had previously shown that GIT1-knockout mice have normal locomotor activity, here we examined GIT1-deficient mice for ADHD-like behavior in more detail, and find neither hyperactivity nor amphetamine-induced locomotor suppression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545976/improvements-in-negative-parenting-mediate-changes-in-children-s-autonomic-responding-following-a-preschool-intervention-for-adhd
#6
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525285/prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-hyperactivity-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
March 3, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494508/iodine-as-essential-nutrient-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life
#8
REVIEW
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461118/emotional-face-recognition-in-individuals-withattention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-review-article
#9
Khatereh Borhani, Vahid Nejati
This review focuses on facial emotion recognition (FER) in individuals with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behavioral studies of FER in ADHD have resulted in inconsistent findings. Here, we discuss the factors that vary across studies and the way that they influence FER processes in ADHD. Across reviewed studies, fear was the most deficient facial expression to be recognized. Our review suggested that FER deficit in ADHD does not alleviate across development and is partially distinct from ADHD symptoms...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457912/decreased-resting-gamma-activity-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
László Tombor, Brigitta Kakuszi, Szilvia Papp, János Réthelyi, István Bitter, Pál Czobor
OBJECTIVES: To delineate task-free gamma activity in adult ADHD and healthy control subjects based on high-density EEG recordings. Relationship of gamma activity with symptom severity was also examined, since gamma activity is considered as an index of network functions in the brain that underlie higher-order cognitive processes. METHODS: Spontaneous-EEG was recorded in adult ADHD subjects (N = 42;25 methylphenidate-naïve and 17 on methylphenidate treatment) and controls (N = 59) with eyes open...
February 19, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457493/the-impact-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#11
Hatem Hamed Elshorbagy, Naglaa Fathy Barseem, Waleed Elsayed Abdelghani, Hany Abdelaziz Ibrahim Suliman, Ashraf Hamed Al-Shokary, Sameh Elsayed Abdulsamea, Akram Elshafey Elsadek, Yehia Hamed Abdel Maksoud, Dalia Mohamed Abd El-Hassib Nour El Din
BACKGROUND: The role of nutrients and dietary factors in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the serum vitamin D level in children with a diagnosis of ADHD. The secondary objective was to detect the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive function in those with vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: A total of 50 children with ADHD and 40 healthy controls were included in the study...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438455/vitamin-d-status-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#12
Yadollah Khoshbakht, Reza Bidaki, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
An association between vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been proposed by several researchers in recent years; however, the investigations have led to inconsistent results. The present study was conducted to summarize the published observational data on the relation between vitamin D status and the likelihood of ADHD. Online databases, including PubMed, the ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus, were checked up to June 2017 for relevant observational studies. A random-effects model was incorporated to summarize the study results...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407547/genetic-variants-of-the-folate-metabolic-system-and-mild-hyperhomocysteinemia-may-affect-adhd-associated-behavioral-problems
#13
Tanusree Saha, Mahasweta Chatterjee, Deepak Verma, Anirban Ray, Swagata Sinha, Usha Rajamma, Kanchan Mukhopadhyay
An etiologically complex disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is often associated with various levels of cognitive deficit. Folate/vitamin B9 is crucial for numerous biochemical pathways including neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of gene expression, neurotransmitter synthesis, myelin synthesis and repair, etc. and a scarcity has often been linked to cognitive deficit. Our pilot study in the field revealed significant association of few genetic variants with ADHD...
January 31, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395182/infant-iron-deficiency-and-iron-supplementation-predict-adolescent-internalizing-externalizing-and-social-problems
#14
Jenalee R Doom, Blair Richards, Gabriela Caballero, Jorge Delva, Sheila Gahagan, Betsy Lozoff
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between iron supplementation and iron deficiency in infancy and internalizing, externalizing, and social problems in adolescence. STUDY DESIGN: The study is a follow-up of infants as adolescents from working-class communities around Santiago, Chile who participated in a preventive trial of iron supplementation at 6 months of age. Inclusionary criteria included birth weight ≥3.0 kg, healthy singleton term birth, vaginal delivery, and a stable caregiver...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335588/peripheral-iron-levels-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu-Shian Cheng, Cheng-Fang Yen, Yen-Wen Chen, Brendon Stubbs, Paul Whiteley, Andre F Carvalho, Dian-Jeng Li, Tien-Yu Chen, Wei-Cheng Yang, Chia-Hung Tang, Che-Sheng Chu, Wei-Chieh Yang, Hsin-Yi Liang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Pao-Yen Lin
There is growing recognition that the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children may be influenced by micronutrient deficiencies, including iron. We conducted this meta-analysis to examine the association between ADHD and iron levels/iron deficiency (ID). We searched for the databases of the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to August 9th , 2017. Primary outcomes were differences in peripheral iron levels in children with ADHD versus healthy controls (HCs) and the severity of ADHD symptoms in children with/without ID (Hedges' g) and the pooled adjusted odds ratio (OR) of the association between ADHD and ID...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286866/omega-3-fatty-acid-deficiency-impairs-frontostriatal-recruitment-following-repeated-amphetamine-treatment-in-rats-a-7-tesla-in-vivo-phmri-study
#16
Robert K McNamara, Jennifer D Schurdak, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist
Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid implicated in dopamine and glutamate synaptic plasticity, its role in neuroplastic brain changes that occur following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) treatment are not known. This study used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of repeated AMPH exposure and alterations in brain DHA levels on AMPH-induced brain activation patterns. Male rats were fed a diet with no n-3 fatty acids (Deficient, DEF, n = 20), a diet fortified with preformed DHA (fish oil, FO, n = 20), or a control diet fortified with alpha-linolenic acid (n = 20) from P21 to P90...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258410/different-cortical-source-activation-patterns-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-during-a-time-reproduction-task
#17
Shiva Khoshnoud, Mousa Shamsi, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Scott Makeig
Several neurocognitive studies have indicated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit cognitive deficits in perceptual timing functions; however, only a few electroencephalographic studies have investigated their time reproduction abilities. In the present research, 15 children with ADHD were studied along with 19 age-matched control subjects (aged 7-11 years) as they attempted to reproduce shorter (1000 ms) and longer (2200 ms) time intervals. Trial-mean event-related potential (ERP) and event-related spectral perturbation measures were used to compare the electroencephalography (EEG) source-level activity patterns of the ADHD and control subjects during the time-encoding and reproduction phases...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207797/audit-of-organic-acidurias-from-a-single-centre-clinical-and-metabolic-profile-at-presentation-with-long-term-outcome
#18
Seema Pavaman Sindgikar, Krithika Damodar Shenoy, Nutan Kamath, Rathika Shenoy
Introduction: Organic Acidurias (OA) accounts between 10% and 40% of confirmed Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM) in India. With prompt recognition and management, better survival but adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is reported. Aim: To study the clinical and metabolic presentation, management with immediate and long term outcome of symptomatic children with confirmed OA. Materials and Methods: Hospital based study of symptomatic children diagnosed to have OA between 2003 and 2009 and the survivors followed up over next five years...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178023/emotion-self-regulation-moderates-the-association-between-symptoms-of-adhd-and-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery
#19
Tamara M Williamson, Tavis S Campbell, Jo Ann Telfer, Joshua A Rash
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the combined effect of pre-surgical emotion self-regulation (ESR) and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (sADHD, i.e., inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) on weight loss 12 months following bariatric surgery independent of psychological distress and eating pathology. METHODS: Adults with obesity were recruited from a bariatric surgery specialty clinic in Canada. Patients completed measures of psychological distress (i...
November 24, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170079/practical-management-of-behavioral-problems-in-mucopolysaccharidoses-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Maria L Escolar, Simon A Jones, Elsa G Shapiro, Dafne D G Horovitz, Christina Lampe, Hernán Amartino
The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are caused by deficiencies of specific lysosomal enzymes, resulting in progressive glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation in cells and tissues throughout the body. Excessive GAG storage can lead to a variety of somatic manifestations as well as primary and secondary neurological symptoms. Behavioral problems (like hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and severe frustration) and sleeping problems are typical primary neurological symptoms of MPS caused by GAG accumulation in neurons, and are frequently observed in patients with MPS I, II, III, and VII...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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