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attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#1
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#2
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
December 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168597/the-role-of-nutritional-supplements-in-the-treatment-of-adhd-what-the-evidence-says
#3
REVIEW
Klaus W Lange, Joachim Hauser, Katharina M Lange, Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda, Yukiko Nakamura, Andreas Reissmann, Yuko Sakaue, Tomoyuki Takano, Yoshihiro Takeuchi
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children and adolescents and may persist into adulthood. Insufficient nutritional supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and other components including various minerals has been suggested to play a role in the development of ADHD symptoms. This review presents the evidence regarding the role of nutritional PUFA, zinc, iron, and magnesium supplements in the treatment of ADHD with a focus on the critical evaluation of the relevant literature published from 2014 to April 2016...
February 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142338/toxicity-assessment-of-molindone-hydrochloride-a-dopamine-d2-d5-receptor-antagonist-in-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#4
Gopala Krishna, Gopa Gopalakrishnan, Saryu Goel
Neuroleptic drug molindone hydrochloride is a dopamine D2/D5 receptor antagonist and it is in late stage development for the treatment of impulsive aggression in children and adolescents who have attention deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This new indication for this drug would expand the target population to include younger patients, and therefore, toxicity assessments in juvenile animals were undertaken in order to determine susceptibility differences, if any, between this age group and the adult rats...
January 31, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138007/the-mediterranean-diet-and-adhd-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
Alejandra Ríos-Hernández, José A Alda, Andreu Farran-Codina, Estrella Ferreira-García, Maria Izquierdo-Pulido
OBJECTIVES: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and "unhealthy" diets, to date there are no studies that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. We hypothesized that a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet would be positively associated with an increase in ADHD diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 120 children and adolescents (60 with newly diagnosed ADHD and 60 controls) were studied in a sex- and age-matched case-control study...
January 30, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050211/auditory-processing-assessment-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-open-study-examining-methylphenidate-effects
#6
Bianca Pinheiro Lanzetta-Valdo, Giselle Alves de Oliveira, Jane Tagarro Correa Ferreira, Ester Miyuki Nakamura Palacios
Introduction Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046016/iron-status-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Yan Wang, Lan Huang, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. However, the pathogenesis of ADHD remains unclear. Iron, an important trace element, is implicated in brain function and dopaminergic activity. Recent studies have investigated the association between iron deficiency and ADHD, but the results are inconsistent. METHODS: A systemic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases was supplemented by manual searches of references of key retrieved articles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045139/chrna7-deficient-mice-manifest-no-consistent-neuropsychiatric-and-behavioral-phenotypes
#8
Jiani Yin, Wu Chen, Hongxing Yang, Mingshan Xue, Christian P Schaaf
The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, encoded by the CHRNA7 gene, has been implicated in various psychiatric and behavioral disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and is considered a potential target for therapeutic intervention. 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, caused by submicroscopic deletions on chromosome 15q. CHRNA7 is the only gene in this locus that has been deleted entirely in cases involving the smallest microdeletions...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943064/investigating-the-impact-of-cognitive-load-and-motivation-on-response-control-in-relation-to-delay-discounting-in-children-with-adhd
#9
Mary K Martinelli, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in impulse control across a range of behaviors, from simple actions to those involving complex decision-making (e.g., preference for smaller-sooner versus larger later rewards). This study investigated whether changes in motor response control with increased cognitive load and motivational contingencies are associated with decision-making in the form of delay discounting among 8-12 year old children with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD (n = 26; 8 girls) and typically developing controls (n = 40; 11 girls) completed a standard go/no-go (GNG) task, a GNG task with motivational contingencies, a GNG task with increased cognitive load, and two measures of delay discounting: a real-time task in which the delays and immediately consumable rewards are experienced in real-time, and a classic task involving choices about money at longer delays...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922243/late-diagnosed-phenylketonuria-in-an-eight-year-old-boy-with-dyslexia-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Yılmaz Yıldız, Ali Dursun, Ayşegül Tokatlı, Turgay Coşkun, Hatice Serap Sivri
Phenylketonuria, previously a common cause of severe intellectual disability, is a metabolic disorder now promptly diagnosed and effectively treated thanks to newborn screening programs. Here, we report a male patient presenting with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, who was diagnosed with mild phenylketonuria at eight years of age. Earlier recognition and treatment before the establishment of irreversible brain damage would have resulted in better neurobehavioural outcomes. Classical phenylketonuria and milder phenotypes of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cognitive and behavioural problems of unknown cause...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920735/lower-sensitivity-to-happy-and-angry-facial-emotions-in-young-adults-with-psychiatric-problems
#11
Charlotte Vrijen, Catharina A Hartman, Gerine M A Lodder, Maaike Verhagen, Peter de Jonge, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902448/rasgrp1-promotes-amphetamine-induced-motor-behavior-through-a-rhes-interaction-network-rhesactome-in-the-striatum
#12
Neelam Shahani, Supriya Swarnkar, Vincenzo Giovinazzo, Jenny Morgenweck, Laura M Bohn, Catherina Scharager-Tapia, Bruce Pascal, Pablo Martinez-Acedo, Kshitij Khare, Srinivasa Subramaniam
The striatum of the brain coordinates motor function. Dopamine-related drugs may be therapeutic to patients with striatal neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but these drugs have unwanted side effects. In addition to stimulating the release of norepinephrine, amphetamines, which are used for narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trigger dopamine release in the striatum. The guanosine triphosphatase Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) inhibits dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, is implicated in HD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, and has a role in striatal motor control...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805287/nutritional-status-and-feeding-problems-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Norsuhaila Sha'ari, Zahara Abdul Manaf, Mahadir Ahmad, Fairuz Nazri Abd Rahman
OBJECTIVE: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) maybe at risk for nutrient deficiencies due to attention demands required to sit through meals. This comparative cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the nutritional status and feeding problems of ADHD children aged 4-12 years. METHOD: Sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements and a three-day dietary intake were collected from 54 ADHD children and 54 typical development (TD) children...
November 2, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790483/effect-of-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-administration-on-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Puneet Anand, Ankur Sachdeva
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood. Studies have indicated nutritional deficiencies, particularly Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) deficiency in these children and have suggested supplementation with PUFA for clinical improvement. AIM: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of PUFA administration in Indian children with ADHD. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted in the paediatrics and psychiatry departments of a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776572/mismatch-negativity-and-p3a-amplitude-in-young-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-a-comparison-with-adhd
#15
J Rydkjær, J R Møllegaard Jepsen, A K Pagsberg, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776326/hyperactivity-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-the-influence-of-underlying-visuospatial-working-memory-and-self-control-processes
#16
Connor H G Patros, R Matt Alderson, Kristen L Hudec, Stephanie J Tarle, Sarah E Lea
Changes in motor activity were examined across control and executive function (EF) tasks that differ with regard to demands placed on visuospatial working memory (VS-WM) and self-control processes. Motor activity was measured via actigraphy in 8- to 12-year-old boys with (n=15) and without (n=17) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the completion of VS-WM, self-control, and control tasks. Results indicated that boys with ADHD, relative to typically developing boys, exhibited greater motor activity across tasks, and both groups' activity was greater during EF tasks relative to control tasks...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736099/impaired-processing-of-task-irrelevant-salient-information-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#17
Elke Godefroid, Jan R Wiersema
The current study examined the mechanisms of attention allocation in adult ADHD to investigate the frequently reported diminished target processing in ADHD as well as the less consistently observed increased distractibility by task-irrelevant distracting stimuli. To this end, while high-density EEG was recorded, 25 adults with ADHD and 23 healthy controls completed a 4-stimulus oddball task that comprised a frequently presented standard stimulus and 3 different categories of equally infrequent stimuli: task-relevant targets, task-irrelevant nontargets, and task-irrelevant unfamiliar novels...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734716/a-review-of-the-role-of-synaptosomal-associated-protein-25-snap-25-in-neurological-disorders
#18
Aneeqa Noor, Saadia Zahid
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is one of the key proteins involved in formation of neural soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes, which are responsible for the calcium-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitters - a major step in neurotransmission and the key to normal functioning of brain. Several studies have reported abnormalities in its expression and structure and highlighted it as an important player in pathology of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficient hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy and few others...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678554/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufas-for-children-with-specific-learning-disorders
#19
May Loong Tan, Jacqueline J Ho, Keng Hwang Teh
BACKGROUND: About 5% of school children have a specific learning disorder, defined as unexpected failure to acquire adequate abilities in reading, writing or mathematics that is not a result of reduced intellectual ability, inadequate teaching or social deprivation. Of these events, 80% are reading disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which normally are abundant in the brain and in the retina, are important for learning. Some children with specific learning disorders have been found to be deficient in these PUFAs, and it is argued that supplementation of PUFAs may help these children improve their learning abilities...
September 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677260/gnb5-mutation-causes-a-novel-neuropsychiatric-disorder-featuring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severely-impaired-language-development-and-normal-cognition
#20
Hanan E Shamseldin, Ikuo Masuho, Ahmed Alenizi, Suad Alyamani, Dipak N Patil, Niema Ibrahim, Kirill A Martemyanov, Fowzan S Alkuraya
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are common forms of disability in humans. Despite recent progress in deciphering the genetics of these disorders, their phenotypic complexity continues to be a major challenge. Mendelian neuropsychiatric disorders are rare but their study has the potential to unravel novel mechanisms that are relevant to their complex counterparts. RESULTS: In an extended consanguineous family, we identified a novel neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by severe speech impairment, variable expressivity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and motor delay...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology
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