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attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050211/auditory-processing-assessment-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-open-study-examining-methylphenidate-effects
#1
Bianca Pinheiro Lanzetta-Valdo, Giselle Alves de Oliveira, Jane Tagarro Correa Ferreira, Ester Miyuki Nakamura Palacios
Introduction Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046016/iron-status-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Yan Wang, Lan Huang, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. However, the pathogenesis of ADHD remains unclear. Iron, an important trace element, is implicated in brain function and dopaminergic activity. Recent studies have investigated the association between iron deficiency and ADHD, but the results are inconsistent. METHODS: A systemic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases was supplemented by manual searches of references of key retrieved articles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045139/chrna7-deficient-mice-manifest-no-consistent-neuropsychiatric-and-behavioral-phenotypes
#3
Jiani Yin, Wu Chen, Hongxing Yang, Mingshan Xue, Christian P Schaaf
The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, encoded by the CHRNA7 gene, has been implicated in various psychiatric and behavioral disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and is considered a potential target for therapeutic intervention. 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, caused by submicroscopic deletions on chromosome 15q. CHRNA7 is the only gene in this locus that has been deleted entirely in cases involving the smallest microdeletions...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943064/investigating-the-impact-of-cognitive-load-and-motivation-on-response-control-in-relation-to-delay-discounting-in-children-with-adhd
#4
Mary K Martinelli, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in impulse control across a range of behaviors, from simple actions to those involving complex decision-making (e.g., preference for smaller-sooner versus larger later rewards). This study investigated whether changes in motor response control with increased cognitive load and motivational contingencies are associated with decision-making in the form of delay discounting among 8-12 year old children with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD (n = 26; 8 girls) and typically developing controls (n = 40; 11 girls) completed a standard go/no-go (GNG) task, a GNG task with motivational contingencies, a GNG task with increased cognitive load, and two measures of delay discounting: a real-time task in which the delays and immediately consumable rewards are experienced in real-time, and a classic task involving choices about money at longer delays...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922243/late-diagnosed-phenylketonuria-in-an-eight-year-old-boy-with-dyslexia-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Yılmaz Yıldız, Ali Dursun, Ayşegül Tokatlı, Turgay Coşkun, Hatice Serap Sivri
Phenylketonuria, previously a common cause of severe intellectual disability, is a metabolic disorder now promptly diagnosed and effectively treated thanks to newborn screening programs. Here, we report a male patient presenting with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, who was diagnosed with mild phenylketonuria at eight years of age. Earlier recognition and treatment before the establishment of irreversible brain damage would have resulted in better neurobehavioural outcomes. Classical phenylketonuria and milder phenotypes of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cognitive and behavioural problems of unknown cause...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920735/lower-sensitivity-to-happy-and-angry-facial-emotions-in-young-adults-with-psychiatric-problems
#6
Charlotte Vrijen, Catharina A Hartman, Gerine M A Lodder, Maaike Verhagen, Peter de Jonge, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902448/rasgrp1-promotes-amphetamine-induced-motor-behavior-through-a-rhes-interaction-network-rhesactome-in-the-striatum
#7
Neelam Shahani, Supriya Swarnkar, Vincenzo Giovinazzo, Jenny Morgenweck, Laura M Bohn, Catherina Scharager-Tapia, Bruce Pascal, Pablo Martinez-Acedo, Kshitij Khare, Srinivasa Subramaniam
The striatum of the brain coordinates motor function. Dopamine-related drugs may be therapeutic to patients with striatal neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but these drugs have unwanted side effects. In addition to stimulating the release of norepinephrine, amphetamines, which are used for narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trigger dopamine release in the striatum. The guanosine triphosphatase Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) inhibits dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, is implicated in HD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, and has a role in striatal motor control...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805287/nutritional-status-and-feeding-problems-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Norsuhaila Sha'ari, Zahara Abdul Manaf, Mahadir Ahmad, Fairuz Nazri Abd Rahman
OBJECTIVE: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) maybe at risk for nutrient deficiencies due to attention demands required to sit through meals. This comparative cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the nutritional status and feeding problems of ADHD children aged 4-12 years. METHOD: Sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements and a three-day dietary intake were collected from 54 ADHD children and 54 typical development (TD) children...
November 2, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790483/effect-of-poly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-administration-on-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Puneet Anand, Ankur Sachdeva
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood. Studies have indicated nutritional deficiencies, particularly Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) deficiency in these children and have suggested supplementation with PUFA for clinical improvement. AIM: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of PUFA administration in Indian children with ADHD. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted in the paediatrics and psychiatry departments of a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776572/mismatch-negativity-and-p3a-amplitude-in-young-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-a-comparison-with-adhd
#10
J Rydkjær, J R Møllegaard Jepsen, A K Pagsberg, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776326/hyperactivity-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-the-influence-of-underlying-visuospatial-working-memory-and-self-control-processes
#11
Connor H G Patros, R Matt Alderson, Kristen L Hudec, Stephanie J Tarle, Sarah E Lea
Changes in motor activity were examined across control and executive function (EF) tasks that differ with regard to demands placed on visuospatial working memory (VS-WM) and self-control processes. Motor activity was measured via actigraphy in 8- to 12-year-old boys with (n=15) and without (n=17) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the completion of VS-WM, self-control, and control tasks. Results indicated that boys with ADHD, relative to typically developing boys, exhibited greater motor activity across tasks, and both groups' activity was greater during EF tasks relative to control tasks...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736099/impaired-processing-of-task-irrelevant-salient-information-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#12
Elke Godefroid, Jan R Wiersema
The current study examined the mechanisms of attention allocation in adult ADHD to investigate the frequently reported diminished target processing in ADHD as well as the less consistently observed increased distractibility by task-irrelevant distracting stimuli. To this end, while high-density EEG was recorded, 25 adults with ADHD and 23 healthy controls completed a 4-stimulus oddball task that comprised a frequently presented standard stimulus and 3 different categories of equally infrequent stimuli: task-relevant targets, task-irrelevant nontargets, and task-irrelevant unfamiliar novels...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734716/a-review-of-the-role-of-synaptosomal-associated-protein-25-snap-25-in-neurological-disorders
#13
Aneeqa Noor, Saadia Zahid
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is one of the key proteins involved in formation of neural soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes, which are responsible for the calcium-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitters - a major step in neurotransmission and the key to normal functioning of brain. Several studies have reported abnormalities in its expression and structure and highlighted it as an important player in pathology of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficient hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy and few others...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678554/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufas-for-children-with-specific-learning-disorders
#14
May Loong Tan, Jacqueline J Ho, Keng Hwang Teh
BACKGROUND: About 5% of school children have a specific learning disorder, defined as unexpected failure to acquire adequate abilities in reading, writing or mathematics that is not a result of reduced intellectual ability, inadequate teaching or social deprivation. Of these events, 80% are reading disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which normally are abundant in the brain and in the retina, are important for learning. Some children with specific learning disorders have been found to be deficient in these PUFAs, and it is argued that supplementation of PUFAs may help these children improve their learning abilities...
September 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677260/gnb5-mutation-causes-a-novel-neuropsychiatric-disorder-featuring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severely-impaired-language-development-and-normal-cognition
#15
Hanan E Shamseldin, Ikuo Masuho, Ahmed Alenizi, Suad Alyamani, Dipak N Patil, Niema Ibrahim, Kirill A Martemyanov, Fowzan S Alkuraya
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are common forms of disability in humans. Despite recent progress in deciphering the genetics of these disorders, their phenotypic complexity continues to be a major challenge. Mendelian neuropsychiatric disorders are rare but their study has the potential to unravel novel mechanisms that are relevant to their complex counterparts. RESULTS: In an extended consanguineous family, we identified a novel neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by severe speech impairment, variable expressivity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and motor delay...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666382/suboptimal-maternal-diets-alter-mu-opioid-receptor-and-dopamine-type-1-receptor-binding-but-exert-no-effect-on-dopamine-transporters-in-the-offspring-brain
#16
Panayotis K Thanos, Jianmin Zhuo, Lisa Robison, Ronald Kim, Mala Ananth, Ilon Choai, Adam Grunseich, Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Foteini Delis, Teresa M Reyes
Birthweight is a marker for suboptimal fetal growth and development in utero. Offspring can be born large for gestational age (LGA), which is linked to maternal obesity or excessive gestational weight gain, as well as small for gestational age (SGA), arising from nutrient or calorie deficiency, placental dysfunction, or other maternal conditions (hypertension, infection). In humans, LGA and SGA babies are at an increased risk for certain neurodevelopmental disorders, including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and social and mood disorders...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637873/-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-forensic-psychiatry-a-review
#17
D Galland, I Tisserant, L Notardonato
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. METHODS: A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582084/kcna4-deficiency-leads-to-a-syndrome-of-abnormal-striatum-congenital-cataract-and-intellectual-disability
#18
Namik Kaya, Maysoon Alsagob, Maria Cristina D'Adamo, Albandary Al-Bakheet, Sonia Hasan, Maria Muccioli, Faten B Almutairi, Rawan Almass, Mazhor Aldosary, Dorota Monies, Osama M Mustafa, Banan Alyounes, Rosan Kenana, Jawaher Al-Zahrani, Eva Naim, Faisal S Binhumaid, Alya Qari, Fatema Almutairi, Brian Meyer, Timothy F Plageman, Mauro Pessia, Dilek Colak, Mohammed Al-Owain
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated potassium channels are highly diverse proteins representing the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from structural and functional perspectives. Deficiency of these channels usually results in various human disorders. OBJECTIVES: To describe a novel autosomal recessive syndrome associated with KCNA4 deficiency leading to congenital cataract, abnormal striatum, intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581496/application-of-the-dual-component-model-of-working-memory-to-adhd-greater-secondary-memory-deficit-despite-confounded-cognitive-differences
#19
Bradley S Gibson, Dawn M Gondoli, Kathryn J Ralph, Pedro Sztybel
The dual-component model postulates that working memory capacity consists of two dissociable components: maintenance in primary memory (PM) and retrieval from secondary memory (SM). Recent application of this model to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has revealed that the SM component is more deficient than the PM component across both verbal and spatial modalities. The present study attempts to strengthen this conclusion by addressing two weaknesses in the previous study. First, the present study shows that the SM component continues to be more deficient than the PM component across both modalities under conditions in which (1) all participants were instructed to use the same recall strategy (resulting in the exclusion of fewer participants); and, (2) individual differences in this strategy were controlled...
August 31, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565249/neural-correlates-of-attention-bias-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Noa Herz, Inbal Reuveni, Abraham Goldstein, Tuvia Peri, Shaul Schreiber, Yuval Harpaz, Omer Bonne
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit hyper arousal symptoms and attention problems which were frequently investigated using the P3 event-related potentials (ERPs). Our study aimed at providing more precise knowledge of the functional significance of the P3 alteration seen in PTSD by revealing its spatio-temporal dynamics. METHODS: Fifteen PTSD patients and fifteen healthy trauma-exposed controls participated in a three-tone "oddball" task while their brain activity was recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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