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tonsils, allergy

Shingo Ichimiya, Ryuta Kamekura, Koji Kawata, Motonari Kamei, Tetsuo Himi
T follicular helper cells (Tfh cells), which are a prototypic subset of effector CD4(+) T cells, regulate the production of high-affinity antibodies by controlling B cells at initial and recall phases. Since the discovery of Tfh cells in human tonsils, many notable studies focusing on Tfh cells have clarified mechanisms underlying Tfh-cell-related physiological and pathological settings. Results of these studies revealed a chief regulatory function of BCL6 in Tfh cells and the involvement of Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of various disorders including autoimmune diseases, allergies and cancers...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Bruno Peres Paulucci, Juliana Pereira, Patricia Picciarelli, Debora Levy, Renata Cantisani Di Francesco
BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 and 2 (CysLTR1 and CysLTR2) are involved in allergic processes and play a role in adenotonsillar hyperplasia (AH). Clinically, only CysLTR1 may be blocked by montelukast. Our objective was to compare the expression of CysLTR1 and CysLTR2 in the B and T cells of hyperplasic tonsils of sensitized (SE) and control (NS) snoring children. METHODS: Sixty children, 5 to 10 years of age, referred for adenotonsillectomy, were divided into SE and NS groups, according to their responses to the skin-prick test...
May 25, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Bruno Peres Paulucci, Juliana Pereira, Patricia Picciarelli, Debora Levy, Renata Cantisani di Francesco
Cysteinyl-leukotriene receptors 1 and 2 (CysLTR1 and 2) are related to allergic inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated their role in lymphocyte division and maturation in the bone marrow. Few data are available about CysLTRs function in lymphocyte maturation in tonsils. The objectives of this study are to compare CysLTRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes with expression in maturating lymphocytes of hyperplasic tonsil and to check the influence of respiratory allergies in this process. Leukocytes of peripheral blood (PL) and hyperplasic tonsils of children were immunostained for CysLTR1, CysLTR2, CD3 (T cells), and CD19 (B cells) and read in flow cytometer...
June 2016: Inflammation
Chandima P Karunanayake, William Albritton, Donna C Rennie, Joshua A Lawson, Laura McCallum, P Jenny Gardipy, Jeremy Seeseequasis, Arnold Naytowhow, Louise Hagel, Kathleen McMullin, Vivian Ramsden, Sylvia Abonyi, Jo-Ann Episkenew, James A Dosman, Punam Pahwa, The First Nations Lung Health Project Research Team, The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study Team
Background. Ear infections in children are a major health problem and may be associated with hearing impairment and delayed language development. Objective. To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of ear infections in children 6-17 years old residing on two reserves and rural areas in the province of Saskatchewan. Methodology. Data were provided from two rural cross-sectional children studies. Outcome variable of interest was presence/absence of an ear infection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between ear infection and the other covariates...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
Soroush Amani, Parastoo Yarmohammadi
BACKGROUND & AIM: High prevalence of acute otitis media (AOM) in children represents a combination of the factors developing eustachian tube dysfunction and higher susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections in children. This disease is relatively prevalent in Iran and much cost is spent annually to treat it. This study investigated the effect of household parental smoking on development of AOM in children under 12 years. METHODS: In this case-control study all patients under the age of 12 years with AOM referring an ENT clinic in Shahrekord, southwest Iran between April 2014 and August 2014 were enrolled by convenience sampling...
September 2, 2015: Global Journal of Health Science
Salvatore Barberi, Giorgio Ciprandi, Elvira Verduci, Enza D'Auria, Piercarlo Poli, Benedetta Pietra, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Serena Buttafava, Franco Frati, Enrica Riva
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is characterized by eosinophil inflammation. Allergic inflammation may induce susceptibility to respiratory infections (RI). House dust mite (HDM) sensitization is very frequent in childhood. Allergen immunotherapy may cure allergy as it restores a physiologic immune and clinical tolerance to allergen and exerts anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether six-month high-dose, such as 300 IR (index of reactivity), HDM-sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) could affect RI in allergic children...
July 2015: Asia Pacific Allergy
E Lopez-Jiménez, R Barrios, J C Llodra Calvo, M T López de la Rosa, J Sánchez Campillo, J C Moreno Bayona, M Bravo
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to analyze the association of oral breathing with dental malocclusions and aspects of general health such as acute illnesses, oxygen saturation in blood and its possible implication in the process of nutrition. METHODS: A prevalence analytic study was carried out. Five dentists explored to children between 6 and 12 years and measured their oxygen saturation. Parents completed a questionnaire of 11 items about general health (colds, ear infections, tonsillitis and taking antibiotics) and the food preferences of their children...
July 8, 2015: Minerva Pediatrica
F Ramadani, N Upton, P Hobson, Y-C Chan, D Mzinza, H Bowen, C Kerridge, B J Sutton, D J Fear, H J Gould
BACKGROUND: Research on the origins and development of human IgE-expressing (IgE(+) ) cells is required for understanding the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. These studies have been thwarted by the rarity of IgE(+) cells in vivo and the low frequency of class switch recombination (CSR) to IgE ex vivo. To determine the main source of IgE(+) cells, we investigated the relation between the phenotypic composition of tonsil B cells and the CSR to IgE ex vivo. METHODS: Human tonsil B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry (FACS) and cultured with IL-4 and anti-CD40 to induce CSR to IgE...
October 2015: Allergy
Mahmood Shishegar, Mohammad Motamedi-Far, Seyed Basir Hashemi, Abbas Bigham-Sadegh, Amir Emami
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most common causes of hearing loss (HL) in children. It has been reported that several factors such as eustachian tube dysfunction, insufficiencies in the aeration of the mastoid cells, allergies, immunity, and infections play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Little is known about the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in extragastric diseases. Because of the near location of the nose, sinuses, tonsils, and adenoids to the eustachian tube and middle ear, we believe it is possible to have H...
May 2015: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Pilar Rico-Ferreira, Antonio Palazón-Bru, Miriam Calvo-Pérez, Vicente Francisco Gil-Guillén
OBJECTIVES: Although previous studies have assessed nonadherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotic therapy in patients with pharyngotonsillitis (prescription of another antibiotic rather than one of first choice: amoxicillin and/or penicillin V, except in the case of penicillin allergy), none analyzed associated factors. Consequently, we conducted a study to assess the possible factors associated with the problem of nonadherence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed a sample of 417 patients with tonsillitis or pharyngotonsillitis treated with antibiotics during February 2014 in a Spanish region...
2015: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Klaus Stelter
Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
Franco Ameli, Fabio Brocchetti, Maria Angela Tosca, Irene Schiavetti, Giorgio Ciprandi
Tonsil hypertrophy (TH) is very common in children. Previously, it has been reported that an inverse relationship exists between adenoid hypertrophy (AH) and allergic rhinitis (AR). This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between tonsil volume and AR diagnosis in a group of children complaining of upper airways obstruction. Globally, 171 children (91 boys; mean age, 6.6 years) were studied. Clinical visit, nasal endoscopy, and skin-prick test were performed in all patients. TH and anterior nasal obstruction were graded using the Friedman's classifications...
January 2014: Allergy & Rhinology
Dong-Kyu Kim, Chae Seo Rhee, Pil-Young Yun, Jeong-Whun Kim
No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry...
November 2015: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Lais Martins Moreira Anjos, Mariana Barros Marcondes, Mariana Ferreira Lima, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Marina Politi Okoshi
Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis...
July 2014: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
K Stelter
Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis...
March 2014: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
T Jartti, O Palomares, M Waris, O Tastan, R Nieminen, T Puhakka, B Rückert, A Aab, T Vuorinen, T Allander, T Vahlberg, O Ruuskanen, M Akdis, C A Akdis
BACKGROUND: The relationships between tonsillar immune responses, and viral infection and allergy are incompletely known. OBJECTIVE: To study intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detections and in vivo expressions of T-cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors, and type I/II/III interferons in human tonsils. METHODS: Palatine tonsil samples were obtained from 143 elective tonsillectomy patients. Adenovirus, bocavirus-1, coronavirus, enteroviruses, influenza virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were detected using PCR...
May 2014: Allergy
Philippe Moingeon
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is established as a safe and efficacious treatment for patients with type I respiratory allergies. The ability of SLIT to elicit antigen (allergen)-specific tolerance is linked to the peculiar biology of oral antigen-presenting cells. In the absence of danger signals, Langerhans cells, myeloid dendritic cells, and macrophages located in oral tissues, tonsils, and draining cervical lymph nodes are biased toward the induction of T(H)1 and IL-10-producing CD4(+) regulatory T cells, thus supporting tolerance as opposed to inflammation...
May 2013: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1950: Marginalia Otolaryngologica
Emanuel Capistrano Costa Jr, Henrique Augusto Cantareira Sabino, Carolina Sponchiado Miura, Carolina Brotto de Azevedo, Ullissis Pádua de Menezes, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valera, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo-Lima
UNLABELLED: Mouth breathers use the oral cavity as their principal breathing route. The main causes include: adenotonsillar hypertrophy and inflammatory diseases such as allergic rhinitis. OBJECTIVE: To look for atopy, the main allergens involved and to check for atopy as a comorbidity with the degree of hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids in mouth breathers. METHOD: A historical cohort study with cross-sectional review of 308 medical charts of patients treated at a mouth breather care center of a tertiary hospital in the period of 2008-2010...
November 2013: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
O Palomares
Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergy is a type 2 helper T cell (TH2)-dependent disease whose prevalence is increasing in industrialized countries as a direct consequence of reduced tolerance to food antigens. The generation of regulatory T cells (Treg) is a key component of oral tolerance, and compelling experimental evidence has demonstrated that functional allergen-specific Treg cells play a major role in healthy immune responses to allergens and clinically successful allergen-specific immunotherapy...
2013: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
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