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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#1
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341879/mechanisms-of-mitochondrial-toxicity-of-the-kinase-inhibitors-ponatinib-regorafenib-and-sorafenib-in-human-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#2
Franziska Paech, Cécile Mingard, David Grünig, Vanessa F Abegg, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
Previous studies have shown that certain kinase inhibitors are mitochondrial toxicants. In the current investigation, we determined the mechanisms of mitochondrial impairment by the kinase inhibitors ponatinib, regorafenib, and sorafenib in more detail. In HepG2 cells cultured in galactose and exposed for 24 hours, all three kinase inhibitors investigated depleted the cellular ATP pools at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred, compatible with mitochondrial toxicity. The kinase inhibitors impaired the activity of different complexes of the respiratory chain in HepG2 cells exposed to the toxicants for 24 hours and in isolated mouse liver mitochondria exposed acutely...
January 13, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338964/validation-of-the-children-s-sleep-habits-questionnaire-in-a-sample-of-greek-children-with-allergic-rhinitis
#3
A Mavroudi, E-A Chrysochoou, R J Boyle, G Trypsianis, I Xinias, D Cassimos, G Imvrios, M Katotomichelakis, A Karagiannidou, N Karantaglis, G Kourentas, J O Warner
BACKGROUND: Obstructive respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma may impair sleep quality. The aim of this study is to validate the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) for Greek children from 6 to 14 years of age. No validated tool has been developed so far to assess sleep disturbances in Greek school-aged children. METHODS: We examined the reliability and validity of the CSHQ in a sample of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and a non-clinical population of parents of these children as a proxy measure of children's AR quality of life (QoL) as evaluated by the Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis Quality of Life (PedARQoL) questionnaire...
January 12, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338874/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#4
REVIEW
Theresa R Grover, Natalie E Rintoul, Holly L Hedrick
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital anomaly which impairs normal pulmonary development leading to acute and chronic respiratory failure, pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality. CDH is the most common non-cardiac indication for neonatal ECMO. Prenatal and postnatal predictors of CDH severity aid in patient selection. Centers vary in preferred mode of ECMO and timing of CDH repair. Survivors of severe CDH with ECMO are at risk for long-term sequelae including neurodevelopmental delays...
January 12, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337166/cd163-knockout-pigs-are-fully-resistant-to-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#5
Huaqiang Yang, Jian Zhang, Xianwei Zhang, Junsong Shi, Yongfei Pan, Rong Zhou, Guoling Li, Zicong Li, Gengyuan Cai, Zhenfang Wu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe economic losses to current swine production worldwide. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), originated from a genotype 2 PRRSV, is more virulent than classical PRRSV and further exacerbates the economic impact. HP-PRRSV has become the predominant circulating field strain in China since 2006. CD163 is a cellular receptor for PRRSV. The depletion of CD163 whole protein or SRCR5 region (interaction site for the virus) confers resistance to infection of several PRRSV isolates in pigs or cultured host cells...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337162/antiviral-activity-of-k22-against-members-of-the-order-nidovirales
#6
Julie Christiane Françoise Rappe, Adriaan de Wilde, Han Di, Christin Müller, Hanspeter Stalder, Philip V'kovski, Eric Snijder, Margo A Brinton, John Ziebuhr, Nicolas Ruggli, Volker Thiel
Recently, a novel antiviral compound (K22) that inhibits replication of a broad range of animal and human coronaviruses was reported to interfere with viral RNA synthesis by impairing double-membrane vesicle (DMV) formation (Lundin et al., 2014). Here we assessed potential antiviral activities of K22 against a range of viruses representing two (sub)families of the order Nidovirales, the Arteriviridae (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus [PRRSV], equine arteritis virus [EAV] and simian hemorrhagic fever virus [SHFV]), and the Torovirinae (equine torovirus [EToV] and White Bream virus [WBV])...
January 11, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335528/exd2-governs-germ-stem-cell-homeostasis-and-lifespan-by-promoting-mitoribosome-integrity-and-translation
#7
Joana Silva, Suvi Aivio, Philip A Knobel, Laura J Bailey, Andreu Casali, Maria Vinaixa, Isabel Garcia-Cao, Étienne Coyaud, Alexis A Jourdain, Pablo Pérez-Ferreros, Ana M Rojas, Albert Antolin-Fontes, Sara Samino-Gené, Brian Raught, Acaimo González-Reyes, Lluís Ribas de Pouplana, Aidan J Doherty, Oscar Yanes, Travis H Stracker
Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that are critical for meeting the bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs of the cell. Mitochondrial function relies on genes and RNA species encoded both in the nucleus and mitochondria, and on their coordinated translation, import and respiratory complex assembly. Here, we characterize EXD2 (exonuclease 3'-5' domain-containing 2), a nuclear-encoded gene, and show that it is targeted to the mitochondria and prevents the aberrant association of messenger RNAs with the mitochondrial ribosome...
January 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334783/frailty-a-global-measure-of-the-multisystem-impact-of-copd
#8
Nichola S Gale, Ali M Albarrati, Margaret M Munnery, Ruth E Hubbard, Ruth Tal-Singer, John R Cockcroft, Dennis J Shale
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multisystem disease that resembles the accumulation of multiple impairments seen in aging. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) captures multisystem deficits, from which a frailty index (FI) can be derived. We hypothesized that patients with COPD would be frailer than a comparator group free from respiratory disease. In this cross-sectional analysis, the CGA questionnaire was completed and used to derive an FI in 520 patients diagnosed with COPD and 150 comparators...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333085/next-generation-sequencing-expression-profiling-of-mitochondrial-subunits-in-men-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#9
Michele Salemi, Laura Cimino, Marika Marino, Rossella Cannarella, Rosita A Condorelli, Corrado Romano, Sandro La Vignera, Aldo E Calogero
Objectives: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common sex-chromosome disorders as it affects up to 1 in every 600-1000 newborn males. Men with KS carry one extra X chromosome and they usually present a 47,XXY karyotype, but less frequent variants have also been reported in literature. KS typical symptoms include tall stature, gynecomastia, broad hips, hypogonadism and absent spermatogenesis. The syndrome is also related to a wide range of cognitive deficits, among which language-based learning disabilities and verbal cognition impairment are frequently diagnosed...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332634/reports-of-wheezing-and-of-diagnosed-asthma-are-associated-with-impaired-social-functioning-secondary-analysis-of-the-cross-sectional-world-health-survey-data
#10
Adrian Loerbroks, Jos A Bosch, Aziz Sheikh, Shelby Yamamoto, Raphael M Herr
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether there are associations between asthma and social functioning in adults from Western and non-Western countries. METHODS: We analyzed data on individuals (94% aged 20+, 52% female) from 50 countries participating in the cross-sectional World Health Survey. We used information on self-reports of wheezing and an asthma diagnosis. Social functioning was defined by reports of severe or extreme difficulties related to personal relationships or participation in the community...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330514/a-comparison-of-static-and-dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-during-mild-whole-body-cold-stress-in-individuals-with-and-without-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#11
Jan W van der Scheer, Yoshi-Ichiro Kamijo, Christof A Leicht, Philip J Millar, Manabu Shibasaki, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Fumihiro Tajima
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. OBJECTIVES: To characterize static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) compared to able-bodied controls in response to moderate increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) caused by mild whole-body cold stress. SETTING: Japan METHODS: Five men with complete autonomic cervical SCI (sustained > 5 y) and six age-matched able-bodied men participated in hemodynamic, temperature, catecholamine and respiratory measurements for 60 min during three consecutive stages: baseline (10 min; 33 °C water through a thin-tubed whole-body suit), mild cold stress (20 min; 25 °C water), and post-cold recovery (30 min; 33 °C water)...
January 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327685/the-role-of-pepsin-in-the-laryngopharyngeal-reflux
#12
Katarzyna Kowalik, Antoni Krzeski
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common defect among laryngological and phoniatric patients. Although LPR is categorized as a superficial gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), differential diagnosis should treat these two diseases separately. LPR symptoms can be assessed in the interview using as a tool the reflux symptom index (RSI). In addition, changes in the larynx that occur during LPR might be seen during laryngoscopy and classified according to the reflux finding score (RFS). One of the main mucosal irritants in LPR is pepsin which digests proteins and impairs the functions of the upper respiratory tract cells by affecting carbonate anhydrase (CAIII) and the Sep 70 protein...
December 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327616/nintedanib-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Francesco Varone, Giacomo Sgalla, Bruno Iovene, Teresa Bruni, Luca Richeldi
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease characterized by the progressive loss of pulmonary function, ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Two novel compounds, nintedanib and pirfenidone, have shown efficacy in reducing the rate of decline of lung function in IPF patients. The multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib has extensively being studied as a potential angiogenesis inhibitor in clinical against various neoplastic disorders. Afterwards, this compound was successfully tested in IPF...
January 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325676/respiratory-function-in-healthy-ever-smokers-is-impaired-by-smoking-habits-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#14
Shinobu Osanai, Toshiyuki Ogasa, Kazuhiro Sumitomo, Naoyuki Hasebe
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the respiratory function of ever-smokers without lung disorders. We sought to assess the effects of smoking habits on respiratory function in subjects without lung disorders. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from among patients without any evidence of respiratory disorders who visited rural primary care clinics. Each participant was asked to answer a questionnaire that included questions smoking history. Their forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324771/impact-of-grouping-complications-on-mortality-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#15
Chung-Han Ho, Fu-Wen Liang, Jhi-Joung Wang, Chung-Ching Chio, Jinn-Rung Kuo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important health issue with high mortality. Various complications of physiological and cognitive impairment may result in disability or death after TBI. Grouping of these complications could be treated as integrated post-TBI syndromes. To improve risk estimation, grouping TBI complications should be investigated, to better predict TBI mortality. This study aimed to estimate mortality risk based on grouping of complications among TBI patients. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used in this study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323536/high-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-renders-spontaneous-effort-non-injurious
#16
Caio C A Morais, Yukiko Koyama, Takeshi Yoshida, Glauco M Plens, Susimeire Gomes, Cristhiano L A S Lima, Ozyres P Ramos, Sérgio M Pereira, Naomasa Kawaguchi, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Akinori Uchiyama, João B Borges, Marcos F Vidal Melo, Mauro R Tucci, Marcelo B P Amato, Brian P Kavanagh, Eduardo L V Costa, Yuji Fujino
RATIONALE: In ARDS, atelectatic 'solid-like' lung tissue impairs transmission of negative 'swings' in pleural pressure (Ppl) resulting from diaphragmatic contraction. The localization of more negative Ppl proportionally increases dependent lung stretch by drawing gas either from other lung regions, e.g., non-dependent lung (Pendelluft) or from the ventilator. Lowering of the level of spontaneous effort and/or converting solid-like to fluid-like lung might render spontaneous effort non-injurious...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320914/early-treatment-of-intrapericardial-teratoma-a-case-presentation-and-systematic-literature-review
#17
Candice Torres de Melo Bezerra Cavalcante, Valdester Cavalcante Pinto Júnior, Ronald Guedes Pompeu, João Victor Cabral Correia Férrer, Marcelo Borges Cavalcante, Edward Araujo Júnior, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Klebia Magalhães Castello Branco
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of an early treatment of cardiac intraperitoneal teratoma (IPT) in a newborn and its associated systematic literature review. METHODS: We presented a case of a newborn with IPT but without hydrops and having a good perinatal outcome after cardiac surgery. Using the PubMed database, we conducted a systematic literature review of articles regarding cases with cardiac IPT diagnosed and treated in the neonatal period and published in English from 2004 onward...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320791/-what-to-do-when-a-child-is-choking
#18
Jost Kaufmann, Michael Laschat, Frank Wappler
Both ingestion and aspiration of foreign bodies are common events in children. If a child had something in his mouth and thereafter respiratory or swallowing complaints occur, both aspiration and ingestion are possible causes. Both events can be immediately life threatening or, if a direct threat is absent, cause significant long-term impairments for the children. Therefore, the identification of any possible threat is essential. This paper identifies the diagnostic and therapeutic options and needs that will ensure the best possible safety and the least possible consequential harm...
January 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320742/defective-mitochondrial-trna-taurine-modification-activates-global-proteostress-and-leads-to-mitochondrial-disease
#19
Md Fakruddin, Fan-Yan Wei, Takeo Suzuki, Kana Asano, Takashi Kaieda, Akiko Omori, Ryoma Izumi, Atsushi Fujimura, Taku Kaitsuka, Keishi Miyata, Kimi Araki, Yuichi Oike, Luca Scorrano, Tsutomu Suzuki, Kazuhito Tomizawa
A subset of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) contains taurine-derived modifications at 34U of the anticodon. Loss of taurine modification has been linked to the development of mitochondrial diseases, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Here, we showed that taurine modification is catalyzed by mitochondrial optimization 1 (Mto1) in mammals. Mto1 deficiency severely impaired mitochondrial translation and respiratory activity. Moreover, Mto1-deficient cells exhibited abnormal mitochondrial morphology owing to aberrant trafficking of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins, including Opa1...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319723/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-intensive-care-unit-survivors-experience-of-a-multidisciplinary-outpatient-clinic-in-a-teaching-hospital
#20
Péricles A D Duarte, Jaquilene Barreto Costa, Silvana Trilo Duarte, Sheila Taba, Claudia Regina Felicetti Lordani, Erica Fernanda Osaku, Claudia Rejane Lima Macedo Costa, Dalas Cristina Miglioranza, Daniela Prochnow Gund, Amaury Cesar Jorge
OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience of an outpatient clinic with the multidisciplinary evaluation of intensive care unit survivors and to analyze their social, psychological, and physical characteristics in a low-income population and a developing country. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Adult survivors from a general intensive care unit were evaluated three months after discharge in a post-intensive care unit outpatient multidisciplinary clinic over a period of 6 years (2008-2014) in a University Hospital in southern Brazil...
December 2017: Clinics
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