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endothelial heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631889/microrna-containing-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-modulate-angiogenesis-during-ischaemic-retinopathy
#1
Margaret Dellett, Eoin D Brown, Jasenka Guduric-Fuchs, Anna O'Connor, Alan W Stitt, Reinhold J Medina, David A Simpson
Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a defined subtype of endothelial progenitors that modulate vascular repair and promote perfusion in ischaemic tissues. Their paracrine activity on resident vasculature is ill-defined, but mediated, at least in part, by the transfer of extracellular vesicles (EVs). To evaluate the potential of isolated EVs to provide an alternative to cell-based therapies, we first performed a physical and molecular characterization of those released by ECFCs. Their effects upon endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo in a model of proliferative retinopathy were assessed...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630875/contribution-of-the-microenvironmental-niche-to-glioblastoma-heterogeneity
#2
REVIEW
Ivy A W Ho, Winston S N Shim
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive cancer of the brain. The dismal prognosis is largely attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the tumor, which in addition to intrinsic molecular and genetic changes is also influenced by the microenvironmental niche in which the glioma cells reside. The cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesis suggests that all cancers arise from CSCs that possess the ability to self-renew and initiate tumor formation. CSCs reside in specialized niches where interaction with the microenvironment regulates their stem cell behavior...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624707/substrate-stiffness-and-ve-cadherin-mechano-transduction-coordinate-to-regulate-endothelial-monolayer-integrity
#3
Roberto C Andresen Eguiluz, Kerim B Kaylan, Gregory H Underhill, Deborah E Leckband
The vascular endothelium is subject to diverse mechanical cues that regulate vascular endothelial barrier function. In addition to rigidity sensing through integrin adhesions, mechanical perturbations such as changes in fluid shear stress can also activate force transduction signals at intercellular junctions. This study investigated how extracellular matrix rigidity and intercellular force transduction, activated by vascular endothelial cadherin, coordinate to regulate the integrity of endothelial monolayers...
June 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624691/immaturity-for-gestational-age-of-microvasculature-and-placental-barrier-in-term-placentas-with-high-weight
#4
L Seidmann, Y Kamyshanskiy, S Z Martin, A Fruth, W Roth
OBJECTIVE: Villous immaturity for gestational age is a multifactorial developmental deviation associated with unexpected placental insufficiency, fetal hypoxia and term fetal death. In our previous work we have shown that immature CD15+/CD31+/CD34+ endothelial cells were an important indicator of placental villous immaturity and chronic insufficiency. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of CD15-marked immaturity in the vessel walls between normal and pathological term placentas of clinically and structurally heterogenous groups with normal, low and high weight...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621310/single-cell-profiling-reveals-heterogeneity-and-functional-patterning-of-gpcr-expression-in-the-vascular-system
#5
H Kaur, J Carvalho, M Looso, P Singh, R Chennupati, J Preussner, S Günther, J Albarrán-Juárez, D Tischner, S Classen, S Offermanns, N Wettschureck
G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expression is extensively studied in bulk cDNA, but heterogeneity and functional patterning of GPCR expression in individual vascular cells is poorly understood. Here, we perform a microfluidic-based single-cell GPCR expression analysis in primary smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC). GPCR expression is highly heterogeneous in all cell types, which is confirmed in reporter mice, on the protein level and in human cells. Inflammatory activation in murine models of sepsis or atherosclerosis results in characteristic changes in the GPCR repertoire, and we identify functionally relevant subgroups of cells that are characterized by specific GPCR patterns...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619073/genome-wide-pathway-analysis-identifies-vegf-pathway-association-with-oral-ulceration-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
Adrià Aterido, Antonio Julià, Patricia Carreira, Ricardo Blanco, José Javier López-Longo, José Javier Pérez Venegas, Àlex Olivé, José Luís Andreu, Maria Ángeles Aguirre-Zamorano, Paloma Vela, Joan M Nolla, José Luís Marenco-de la Fuente, Antonio Zea, José María Pego, Mercedes Freire, Elvira Díez, María López-Lasanta, Mireia López-Corbeto, Núria Palau, Raül Tortosa, Josep Lluís Gelpí, Devin Absher, Richard M Myers, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, Sara Marsal
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a genetically complex rheumatic disease characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations of unknown etiology. Recent studies have suggested the existence of a genetic basis for SLE heterogeneity. The objective of the present study was to identify new genetic variation associated with the clinically relevant phenotypes in SLE. METHODS: A two-stage pathway-based approach was used to identify the genetic variation associated with the main clinical phenotypes in SLE...
June 15, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614297/multilineage-communication-regulates-human-liver-bud-development-from-pluripotency
#7
J Gray Camp, Keisuke Sekine, Tobias Gerber, Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Hans Binder, Malgorzata Gac, Sabina Kanton, Jorge Kageyama, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Lenka Belicova, Marc Bickle, Rico Barsacchi, Ryo Okuda, Emi Yoshizawa, Masaki Kimura, Hiroaki Ayabe, Hideki Taniguchi, Takanori Takebe, Barbara Treutlein
Conventional two-dimensional differentiation from pluripotency fails to recapitulate cell interactions occurring during organogenesis. Three-dimensional organoids generate complex organ-like tissues; however, it is unclear how heterotypic interactions affect lineage identity. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing to reconstruct hepatocyte-like lineage progression from pluripotency in two-dimensional culture. We then derive three-dimensional liver bud organoids by reconstituting hepatic, stromal, and endothelial interactions, and deconstruct heterogeneity during liver bud development...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603493/role-of-atypical-chemokine-receptors-in-microglial-activation-and-polarization
#8
REVIEW
Valentina Salvi, Francesca Sozio, Silvano Sozzani, Annalisa Del Prete
Inflammatory reactions occurring in the central nervous system (CNS), known as neuroinflammation, are key components of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying several neurological diseases. The chemokine system plays a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of immune and non-immune cells in the brain, as well as in the regulation of microglia phenotype and function. Chemokines belong to a heterogeneous family of chemotactic agonists that signal through the interaction with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594443/growth-factors-for-angiogenesis-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#9
REVIEW
Vitali Gorenoi, Michael U Brehm, Armin Koch, Anja Hagen
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with a high clinical and socioeconomic burden. Treatments to alleviate the symptoms of PAD and decrease the risks of amputation and death are a high societal priority. A number of growth factors have shown a potential to stimulate angiogenesis. Growth factors delivered directly (as recombinant proteins), or indirectly (e.g. by viral vectors or DNA plasmids encoding these factors), have emerged as a promising strategy to treat patients with PAD...
June 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588507/neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-blood-brain-barrier-hyperpermeability-contribute-to-schizophrenia-neurobiology-a-theoretical-integration-of-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Souhel Najjar, Silky Pahlajani, Virginia De Sanctis, Joel N H Stern, Amanda Najjar, Derek Chong
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. It is a pathoetiologically heterogeneous disorder involving complex interrelated mechanisms that include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurovascular endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability are established mechanisms in neurological disorders with comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585197/human-protein-kinases-and-obesity
#11
Atilla Engin
The action of protein kinases and protein phosphatases is essential for multiple physiological responses. Each protein kinase displays its own unique substrate specificity, and a regulatory mechanism that may be modulated by association with other proteins. Protein kinases are classified by the target amino acid in their substrates. Some protein kinases can phosphorylate both serine/threonine, as well as tyrosine residues. This group of kinases has been known as dual specificity kinases. Unlike the dual specificity kinases, a heterogeneous group of protein phosphatases are known as dual-specificity phosphatases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581635/targeted-unlabeled-mrm-analysis-of-cell-markers-for-the-study-of-sample-heterogeneity-in-isolated-rat-brain-cortical-microvessels
#12
David Gomez-Zepeda, Catarina Chaves, Meryam Taghi, Philippe Sergent, Wang-Qing Liu, Cerina Chhuon, Michel Vidal, Martin Picard, Elizabeth Thioulouse, Isabelle Broutin, Ida-Chiara Guerrera, Jean-Michel Scherrmann, Yannick Parmentier, Xavier Decleves, Marie-Claude Menet
LC-MS/MS-based targeted absolute protein quantification (in fmol of the analyte protein per μg of total protein) is employed for the molecular characterization of the blood brain barrier (BBB) using isolated brain microvessels. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of the sample regarding the levels of different cells co-isolated within the microvessels and BSA contamination (from buffers) are not always evaluated. We developed an unlabeled targeted LC-MS/MS method to survey the levels of endothelial cells (ECs), astrocytes and pericytes, as well as BSA contaminant in rat cortical microvessels...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580888/kinetic-modelling-of-11-c-pbr28-for-18%C3%A2-kda-translocator-protein-pet-data-a-validation-study-of-vascular-modelling-in-the-brain-using-xbd173-and-tissue-analysis
#13
Mattia Veronese, Tiago Reis Marques, Peter S Bloomfield, Gaia Rizzo, Nisha Singh, Deborah Jones, Erjon Agushi, Dominic Mosses, Alessandra Bertoldo, Oliver Howes, Federico Roncaroli, Federico E Turkheimer
The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is a marker of microglia activation in the central nervous system and represents the main target of radiotracers for the in vivo quantification of neuroinflammation with positron emission tomography (PET). TSPO PET is methodologically challenging given the heterogeneous distribution of TSPO in blood and brain. Our previous studies with the TSPO tracers [(11)C]PBR28 and [(11)C]PK11195 demonstrated that a model accounting for TSPO binding to the endothelium improves the quantification of PET data...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574936/coronary-microcirculatory-dysfunction-in-human-cardiomyopathies-a-pathologic-and-pathophysiologic-review
#14
Kristina Selthofer-Relatic, Martina Mihalj, Aleksandar Kibel, Ana Stupin, Marko Stupin, Ivana Jukic, Akos Koller, Ines Drenjancevic
Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium. The term cardiomyopathy involves a wide range of pathogenic mechanisms that affect the structural and functional states of cardiomyocytes, extravascular tissues, and coronary vasculature, including both epicardial coronary arteries and the microcirculation. In the developed phase, cardiomyopathies present with various clinical symptoms: dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, swelling of the extremities, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death...
July 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572400/hepatocyte-growth-factor-demonstrates-racial-heterogeneity-as-a-biomarker-for-coronary-heart-disease
#15
Suzette J Bielinski, Cecilia Berardi, Paul A Decker, Nicholas B Larson, Elizabeth J Bell, James S Pankow, Michele M Sale, Weihong Tang, Naomi Q Hanson, Christina L Wassel, Mariza de Andrade, Matthew J Budoff, Joseph F Polak, Hugues Sicotte, Michael Y Tsai
OBJECTIVE: To determine if hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a promising biomarker of coronary heart disease (CHD) given its release into circulation in response to endothelial damage, is associated with subclinical and clinical CHD in a racial/ethnic diverse population. METHODS: HGF was measured in 6738 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Highest mean HGF values (pg/mL) were observed in Hispanic, followed by African, non-Hispanic white, then Chinese Americans...
June 1, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566882/platelets-in-liver-disease-cancer-and-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Although viral hepatitis treatments have evolved over the years, the resultant liver cirrhosis still does not completely heal. Platelets contain proteins required for hemostasis, as well as many growth factors required for organ development, tissue regeneration and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, can manifest from decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis, as well as the role of platelets in CLD, is poorly understood...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562357/association-between-three-vegf-polymorphisms-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-susceptibility-a-meta-analysis
#17
Qi Hou, Mao-Yin Li, Wen-Tao Huang, Fang-Fang Wei, Jun-Ping Peng, Ming-Wu Lou, Jian-Guang Qiu
Several studies have reported an association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms rs2010963, rs3025039 and rs699947 and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the results remain inconclusive and controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate this association. Electronic databases were searched for relevant case-control studies up to November 2016. RevMan 5.2 software and STATA version 12.0 were used for statistical analysis in our meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 value...
May 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555333/the-value-of-11-c-acetate-pet-and-18-f-fdg-pet-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-before-and-after-treatment-with-transarterial-chemoembolization-and-bevacizumab
#18
Shuren Li, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Philipp Ubl, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Eva Rainer, Matthias Pinter, Hao Wang, Christian Nanoff, Klaus Kaczirek, Alexander Haug, Marcus Hacker
PURPOSE: This prospective study was to investigate the value of [(11)C]-acetate PET and [(18)F]-FDG PET in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before and after treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody (bevacizumab). METHODS: Twenty-two patients (three women, 19 men; 62 ± 8 years) with HCC verified by histopathology were treated with TACE and bevacizumab (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11)...
May 29, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537573/vascular-heterogeneity-and-specialization-in-development-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Michael Potente, Taija Mäkinen
Blood and lymphatic vessels pervade almost all body tissues and have numerous essential roles in physiology and disease. The inner lining of these networks is formed by a single layer of endothelial cells, which is specialized according to the needs of the tissue that it supplies. Whereas the general mechanisms of blood and lymphatic vessel development are being defined with increasing molecular precision, studies of the processes of endothelial specialization remain mostly descriptive. Recent insights from genetic animal models illuminate how endothelial cells interact with each other and with their tissue environment, providing paradigms for vessel type- and organ-specific endothelial differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536277/3d-mathematical-modeling-of-glioblastoma-suggests-that-transdifferentiated-vascular-endothelial-cells-mediate-resistance-to-current-standard-of-care-therapy
#20
Huaming Yan, Mónica Romero-López, Lesly I Benitez, Kaijun Di, Hermann B Frieboes, Christopher C W Hughes, Daniela A Bota, John S Lowengrub
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive brain tumor in human patients, is decidedly heterogeneous and highly vascularized. Glioma stem/initiating cells (GSC) are found to play a crucial role by increasing cancer aggressiveness and promoting resistance to therapy. Recently, crosstalk between GSC and vascular endothelial cells has been shown to significantly promote GSC self-renewal and tumor progression. Further, GSC also transdifferentiate into bona-fide vascular endothelial cells (GEC), which inherit mutations present in GSC and are resistant to traditional anti-angiogenic therapies...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Research
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