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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688865/brain-vascular-heterogeneity-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis-and-design-of-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-models
#1
REVIEW
Midrelle E Noumbissi, Bianca Galasso, Monique F Stins
The vertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CEC). The BBB acts as a semi-permeable cellular interface that tightly regulates bidirectional molecular transport between blood and the brain parenchyma in order to maintain cerebral homeostasis. The CEC phenotype is regulated by a variety of factors, including cells in its immediate environment and within functional neurovascular units. The cellular composition of the brain parenchyma surrounding the CEC varies between different brain regions; this difference is clearly visible in grey versus white matter...
April 23, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688063/evaluation-of-a-novel-biocompatible-magnetic-nanomedicine-based-on-beta-cyclodextrin-loaded-doxorubicin-curcumin-for-overcoming-chemoresistance-in-breast-cancer
#2
Roghayeh Rastegar, Hamid Akbari Javar, Mehdi Khoobi, Poua Dehghan Kelishadi, Gholam Hossein Yousefi, Mahmoud Doosti, Mohammad Hossien Ghahremani, Ahmad Sharif Tabrizi, Fatemeh Imanparast, Elham Gholibeglu, Mahdi Gholami
Codelivery of chemo-sensitizers with chemotherapeutics using combo nanomedicine is a promising platform for overcoming chemoresistance in breast cancer. However, tumor accumulation of nano-carriers based on enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is confounded by heterogeneity in tumor microenvironment. Adsorption of protein corona on surface of nanoparticle boost up clearance by reticulo-endothelial system. In this study, a surface functionalized magnetic nanocomposite (NC) for codelivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (CUR) is developed...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687698/microcirculatory-dysfunction-in-the-heart-and-the-brain
#3
Hernán Mejía-Rentería, Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Francesco Lauri, Miguel Yus, Javier Escaned
Coronary microcirculatory dysfunction is a major cause of myocardial ischemia that influences the outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease. The mechanisms of coronary microcirculatory dysfunction are heterogeneous and may result from a spectrum of biological and cardiovascular risk factors that may affect also the microcirculation of other vital organs. Microcirculatory dysfunction of the brain, known as cerebral small vessel disease, is increasingly being recognized as a cause of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders...
April 20, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687387/three-dimensional-magnetic-levitation-culture-system-simulating-white-adipose-tissue
#4
Hubert Tseng, Alexes C Daquinag, Glauco R Souza, Mikhail G Kolonin
White adipose tissue (WAT) has attracted interest for tissue engineering and cell-based therapies as an abundant source of adipose stem/stromal cells (ASC). However, technical challenges in WAT cell culture have limited its applications in regenerative medicine. Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models, which are essentially monolayers of cells on glass or plastic substrates, inadequately represent tissue architecture, biochemical concentration gradients, substrate stiffness, and most importantly for WAT research, cell phenotypic heterogeneity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680514/brain-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Alireza Mohammadi, Ehsan Rashidi, Vahid Ghasem Amooeian
Over the last decade, finding a reliable biomarker for the early detection of schizophrenia (Scz) has been a topic of interest. The main goal of the current review is to provide a comprehensive view of the brain, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum biomarkers of Scz disease. Imaging studies have demonstrated that the volumes of the corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampal formation, subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and amygdala-hippocampal complex were reduced in patients diagnosed with Scz...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679778/recapitulating-spatiotemporal-tumor-heterogeneity-in-vitro-through-engineered-breast-cancer-microtissues
#6
Claudia Mazio, Costantino Casale, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Paolo Antonio Netti
Tumor and microenvironmental heterogeneity hinders the study of breast cancer biology and the assessment of therapeutic strategies, being associated with high variability and drug resistance. In this context, it is mandatory to develop three-dimensional breast tumor models able to reproduce this heterogeneity and the dynamic interaction occurring between tumor cells and microenvironment. Here we show a new breast cancer microtissue model (T-µTP) uniquely able to present intra-tumor morphological heterogeneity in a dynamic and responsive endogenous matrix...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674687/celecoxib-exerts-protective-effects-in-the-vascular-endothelium-via-cox-2-independent-activation-of-ampk-creb-nrf2-signalling
#7
Fahad Al-Rashed, Damien Calay, Marie Lang, Clare C Thornton, Andrea Bauer, Allan Kiprianos, Dorian O Haskard, Anusha Seneviratne, Joseph J Boyle, Alex H Schönthal, Caroline P Wheeler-Jones, Justin C Mason
Although concern remains about the athero-thrombotic risk posed by cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2-selective inhibitors, recent data implicates rofecoxib, while celecoxib appears equivalent to NSAIDs naproxen and ibuprofen. We investigated the hypothesis that celecoxib activates AMP kinase (AMPK) signalling to enhance vascular endothelial protection. In human arterial and venous endothelial cells (EC), and in contrast to ibuprofen and naproxen, celecoxib induced the protective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Celecoxib derivative 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) which lacks COX-2 inhibition also upregulated HO-1, implicating a COX-2-independent mechanism...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673103/allopurinol-and-endothelial-function-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Manal M Alem
AIM: Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are two inter-related conditions commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. The enzyme, xanthine oxidase, is an important contributor to these phenomena but to a variable degree in different patient populations. This meta-analysis will summarize the effect of allopurinol, an established xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on endothelial function among patients with different co-morbidities. METHODS: Medline Complete, PubMed, ProQuest, ClinicalKey, Wiley Online Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched till 29th July, 2017...
April 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670052/aneuploid-ctc-and-cec
#9
REVIEW
Peter Ping Lin
Conventional circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection technologies are restricted to large tumor cells (> white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. With respect to detecting the full spectrum of highly heterogeneous circulating rare cells (CRCs), including CTCs and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), it is imperative to develop a strategy systematically coordinating all tri-elements of nucleic acids, biomarker proteins, and cellular morphology, to effectively enrich and comprehensively identify CRCs...
April 18, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661969/mutations-in-plasmalemma-vesicle-associated-protein-cause-severe-syndromic-protein-losing-enteropathy
#10
Ilse Julia Broekaert, Kerstin Becker, Ingo Gottschalk, Friederike Körber, Jörg Dötsch, Holger Thiele, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Christoph Hünseler, Sebahattin Cirak
BACKGROUND: Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is characterised by gastrointestinal protein leakage due to loss of mucosal integrity or lymphatic abnormalities. PLE can manifest as congenital diarrhoea and should be differentiated from other congenital diarrhoeal disorders. Primary PLEs are genetically heterogeneous and the underlying genetic defects are currently emerging. OBJECTIVES: We report an infant with fatal PLE for whom we aimed to uncover the underlying pathogenic mutation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659729/t-helper-17-1-cells-associate-with-multiple-sclerosis-disease-activity-perspectives-for-early-intervention
#11
Jamie van Langelaar, Roos M van der Vuurst de Vries, Malou Janssen, Annet F Wierenga-Wolf, Isis M Spilt, Theodora A Siepman, Wendy Dankers, Georges M G M Verjans, Helga E de Vries, Erik Lubberts, Rogier Q Hintzen, Marvin M van Luijn
Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients...
April 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655510/histopathological-validation-of-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-of-the-coronary-arteries
#12
REVIEW
Kenichi Fujii, Rika Kawakami, Seiichi Hirota
Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a catheter-based imaging modality for the visualization of coronary arteries, is widely used during percutaneous coronary intervention to improve the understanding of the anatomy of coronary artery stenosis and to elucidate the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. In this review, we provide a short description of the histopathological validations of OCT for visualizing atherosclerotic plaques and vascular healing response after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Because OCT measures the intensity of light returning from within a tissue, tissue having a higher heterogeneity of optical index of refraction, such as microcalcification deposition and foam cell accumulation on the luminal surface, may exhibit stronger optical scattering that appears as a thin-cap fibroatheroma image...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629949/cooperation-of-indian-hedgehog-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-tumor-angiogenesis-and-growth-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinomas-an-immunohistochemical-study
#13
Yang Li, Yang Liu, Guangxi Wang, Yuxiang Wang, Limei Guo
The Hedgehog pathway was recently shown to be involved in vascular development and neovascularization in human embryogenesis and disease. However, the role of Hedgehog pathway in modulating tumor angiogenesis is still unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with immunohistochemical staining and compared the immunoreaction data with various clinicopathologic characteristics...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627966/spatiotemporal-heterogeneity-and-patterning-of-developing-renal-blood-vessels
#14
Edward Daniel, D Berfin Azizoglu, Anne R Ryan, Tezin A Walji, Christopher P Chaney, Gabrielle I Sutton, Thomas J Carroll, Denise K Marciano, Ondine Cleaver
The kidney vasculature facilitates the excretion of wastes, the dissemination of hormones, and the regulation of blood chemistry. To carry out these diverse functions, the vasculature is regionalized within the kidney and along the nephron. However, when and how endothelial regionalization occurs remains unknown. Here, we examine the developing kidney vasculature to assess its 3-dimensional structure and transcriptional heterogeneity. First, we observe that endothelial cells (ECs) grow coordinately with the kidney bud as early as E10...
April 7, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623971/the-impact-of-tumor-receptor-heterogeneity-on-the-response-to-anti-angiogenic-cancer-treatment
#15
Ding Li, Stacey D Finley
Multiple promoters and inhibitors mediate angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, and these factors represent potential targets for impeding vessel growth in tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor targeted in anti-angiogenic cancer therapies. In addition, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a major endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, and TSP1 mimetics are being developed as an alternative type of anti-angiogenic agent. The combination of bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF agent, and ABT-510, a TSP1 mimetic, has been tested in clinical trials to treat advanced solid tumors...
April 6, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615616/heterogeneity-in-vegfr3-levels-drives-lymphatic-vessel-hyperplasia-through-cell-autonomous-and-non-cell-autonomous-mechanisms
#16
Yan Zhang, Maria H Ulvmar, Lukas Stanczuk, Ines Martinez-Corral, Maike Frye, Kari Alitalo, Taija Mäkinen
Incomplete delivery to the target cells is an obstacle for successful gene therapy approaches. Here we show unexpected effects of incomplete targeting, by demonstrating how heterogeneous inhibition of a growth promoting signaling pathway promotes tissue hyperplasia. We studied the function of the lymphangiogenic VEGFR3 receptor during embryonic and post-natal development. Inducible genetic deletion of Vegfr3 in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) leads to selection of non-targeted VEGFR3+ cells at vessel tips, indicating an indispensable cell-autonomous function in migrating tip cells...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608905/regional-differences-in-endothelial-cell-cytoskeleton-junctional-proteins-and-phosphorylated-tyrosine-labeling-in-the-porcine-vortex-vein-system
#17
Priscilla Ern Zhi Tan, Paula K Yu, Hongfang Yang, Stephen J Cringle, Dao-Yi Yu
We previously demonstrated endothelial phenotype heterogeneity in the vortex vein system. This study is to further determine whether regional differences are present in the cytoskeleton, junctional proteins and phosphorylated tyrosine labeling within the system. The vortex vein system of twenty porcine eyes was perfused with labels for f-actin, claudin-5, VE-Cadherin, phosphorylated tyrosine and nucleic acid. The endothelial cells of eight different regions (choroidal veins, pre-ampulla, anterior ampulla, mid-ampulla, posterior ampulla, post-ampulla, intra-scleral canal and the extra-ocular vortex vein) were studied using confocal microscopy...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605639/multivessel-analysis-of-progressive-vascular-aging-in-the-rat-asynchronous-vulnerability-among-vascular-territories
#18
Mariam El Assar, Argentina Fernández, Alberto Sánchez-Ferrer, Javier Angulo, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas
Aging induces vascular dysfunction, representing the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to ascertain specific vulnerability of vascular territories to aging by evaluating the progressive impact of aging on vascular function in four different vascular beds: aorta, mesenteric artery (MA), coronary artery (CA), and penile corpus cavernosum (CC) from 3, 6, 9, 12, 20 or 24 months-old male rats. Contractile/relaxant responses were evaluated in organ chambers (A/CC) and wire myographs (MA/CA)...
March 29, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603903/photobiomodulation-of-freshly-isolated-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-by-pulsed-light-emitting-diodes-for-direct-clinical-application
#19
E Priglinger, J Maier, S Chaudary, C Lindner, C Wurzer, S Rieger, H Redl, S Wolbank, P Dungel
A highly interesting source for adult stem cells is adipose tissue, from which the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) - a heterogeneous cell population including the adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) - can be obtained. To enhance the regenerative potential of freshly isolated SVF cells low level light therapy (LLLT), was used. The effects of pulsed blue (475 nm), green (516 nm) and red light (635 nm) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) applied on freshly isolated SVF were analyzed regarding cell phenotype, cell number, viability, adenosine triphosphate content, cytotoxicity and proliferation, but also osteogenic, adipogenic and pro-angiogenic differentiation potential...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601337/future-of-liquid-biopsies-with-growing-technological-and-bioinformatics-studies-opportunities-and-challenges-in-discovering-tumor-heterogeneity-with-single-cell-level-analysis
#20
Naveen Ramalingam, Stefanie S Jeffrey
Liquid biopsy provides minimally invasive and readily obtainable access to tumor-associated biological material in blood or other body fluids. These samples provide important insights into cancer biology, such as primary tumor heterogeneity; real-time tumor evolution; response to therapy, including immunotherapy; and mechanisms of cancer metastasis. Initial biological materials studied were circulating tumor cells and circulating nucleic acids, including circulating tumor DNA and microRNAs; more recently, studies have expanded to investigate extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, microvesicles, and large oncosomes; tumor-derived circulating endothelial cells; and tumor-educated platelets...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
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