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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449469/cd90-positive-cells-exhibit-aggressive-radioresistance-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Yuandong Wang, Chi Zhang, Hongcheng Zhu, Junwei Tang, Shu Zhang, Jinhua Luo, Xinchen Sun
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are widely abundant and considered to be an important factor in therapy resistance. They are also promising potential targets for conquering tumors. We explored the effects of radiation on stem cell-like tumor cells via the candidate marker CD90 to provide new ideas for the comprehensive treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: We constructed CD90 overexpression ESCC cells by lentiviral transfection and observed differences of toxicity, proliferation, clone number, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and in vivo tumor formation after irradiation...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449098/insights-on-persistent-airway-infection-by-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Christian P Ahearn, Mary C Gallo, Timothy F Murphy
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common bacterial cause of infection of the lower airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Infection of the COPD airways causes acute exacerbations, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. NTHi has evolved multiple mechanisms to establish infection in the hostile environment of the COPD airways, allowing the pathogen to persist in the airways for months to years. Persistent infection of the COPD airways contributes to chronic airway inflammation that increases symptoms and accelerates the progressive loss of pulmonary function, which is a hallmark of the disease...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448995/cytoprotective-effect-of-heat-shock-protein-27-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-apoptosis-of-renal-epithelial-hk-2-cells
#3
Chunmei Li, Jiang Wu, Yuan Li, Guangqun Xing
BACKGROUND: In response to various stimuli, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) functions as an anti-apoptotic or/and anti-inflammatory factor which confers a survival advantage to cells. This study was aimed to explore whether Hsp27 also has a cytoprotective role in human renal tubular epithelial cells, and to evaluate its potential in treating septic acute kidney injury (septic AKI). METHODS: HK-2 cells were subjected to different concentrations (0-10 µg/mL) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for various times (0-24 h) to establish a septic AKI model in vitro...
April 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448959/detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-tumor-microemboli-in-gastric-cancer
#4
Xiumei Zheng, Li Fan, Pengfei Zhou, Hong Ma, Shaoyi Huang, Dandan Yu, Lei Zhao, Shengli Yang, Jun Liu, Ai Huang, Congli Cai, Xiaomeng Dai, Tao Zhang
PURPOSE: Gastric cancer studies indicated a potential correlation between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood and tumor relapse/metastasis. The prevalence and significance of circulating tumor microemboli (CTM) in gastric cancer remain unknown. We investigated the prevalence and prognostic value of CTCs and CTM for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Eighty-one gastric cancer patients consented to provide 5ml of peripheral blood before systematic therapy...
April 24, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448850/perturbation-of-drosha-and-dicer-expression-by-human-papillomavirus-16-oncoproteins
#5
Mallory E Harden, Karl Munger
Many tumors, including cervical carcinoma, show dysregulated expression of the microRNA processing machinery, specifically DROSHA and DICER. Some cervical cancers exhibit chromosome 5p amplifications and DROSHA is the most significantly upregulated transcript and is observed in all tumors with 5p gain. DROSHA and DICER mRNA levels, however, are higher in HPV positive cancer lines than in an HPV negative cervical carcinoma line. We show that high-risk HPV E6/E7 expression in HPV negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells and primary human epithelial cell causes increased expression of DROSHA and DICER mRNA and protein...
April 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448849/regulation-of-the-human-papillomavirus-type-16-late-promoter-by-transcriptional-elongation
#6
William K Songock, Matthew L Scott, Jason M Bodily
Transcripts from the late promoter of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are upregulated upon host cell differentiation. Differentiation-dependent transcript regulation is thought to sequester viral antigens in the uppermost epithelial layers, facilitating immune evasion. The mechanisms regulating late promoter upregulation during differentiation are poorly characterized. We show that the late promoter is upregulated at the transcriptional level and that the viral enhancer stimulates promoter activity. Using kinase inhibition and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we show evidence for differentiation-dependent enhancement of transcript elongation...
April 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448722/immunostaining-of-immunoglobulin-g4-in-the-lacrimal-sac
#7
Yasuhiro Takahashi, Hiroshi Ikeda, Emiko Takahashi, Hirohiko Kakizaki
PURPOSE: To immunohistochemically examine the lacrimal sac walls harvested during dacryocystorhinostomy using an immunostain for immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4). METHODS: Forty-four lacrimal sac walls were evaluated. We determined "intensively positive," "sparsely positive," or "negative" staining when the specimens showed IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic staining with or without >50 IgG4-positive cells/high-power field, or the absence of stained IgG4-positive cells...
April 27, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448600/mscs-feeder-layers-induce-smg-self-organization-and-branching-morphogenesis
#8
Mahmoud Farahat, Gulsan Ara Sathi, Emilio Satoshi Hara, Hiroaki Taketa, Takuo Kuboki, Takuya Matsumoto
Dysfunction of salivary glands leads to several oral health problems, including dental caries, mastication and swallowing dysfunctions and multiple oral infections. Conventional treatments for such condition fell short of providing satisfying therapeutic results. Recent advances in organ regeneration therapy which utilize tissue stem cells to fabricate bioengineered 3D organ buds, have introduced a promising therapeutic tool for full functional organ regeneration. However, finding a sustainable and easily accessible cell source for such approaches is still challenging, especially in case of severely atrophied tissues such as irradiated salivary glands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448456/upregulation-of-mirna-4776-in-influenza-virus-infected-bronchial-epithelial-cells-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-nfkbib-and-increased-viral-survival
#9
Sreekumar Othumpangat, Nicole B Bryan, Donald H Beezhold, John D Noti
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One key transcription factor that is activated upon IAV infection is nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB). NF-κB regulation involves the inhibitor proteins NF-κB inhibitor beta (NFKBIB), (also known as IκB β), which form complexes with NF-κB to sequester it in the cytoplasm. In this study, microarray data showed differential expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) on exposure to IAV. Target scan analysis revealed that miR-4776, miR-4514 and miR-4742 potentially target NFKBIB messenger RNA (mRNA)...
April 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448446/renalase-protects-against-renal-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-the-activation-of-the-erk-signaling-pathways
#10
Yiru Wu, Liyan Wang, Dai Deng, Qidong Zhang, Wenhu Liu
Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common pathway for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease. Renalase, acting as a signaling molecule, has been reported to have cardiovascular and renal protective effects. However, its role in renal fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of renalase in rats with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and examined the inhibitory effects of renalase on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human proximal renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448057/mixed-primary-cultures-of-murine-small-intestine-intended-for-the-study-of-gut-hormone-secretion-and-live-cell-imaging-of-enteroendocrine-cells
#11
Arianna Psichas, Gwen Tolhurst, Cheryl A Brighton, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
The gut is the largest endocrine organ of the body, with hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells located along the length of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Despite their physiological importance, enteroendocrine cells represent only a small fraction of the epithelial cell population and in the past, their characterization has presented a considerable challenge resulting in a reliance on cell line models. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of mixed murine small intestinal cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448023/induction-of-mesenchymal-epithelial-transitions-in-sarcoma-cells
#12
Kathryn E Ware, Shivee Gilja, Shenghan Xu, Samantha Shetler, Mohit K Jolly, Xueyang Wang, Suzanne Bartholf Dewitt, Alexander J Hish, Sarah Jordan, William Eward, Herbert Levine, Andrew J Armstrong, Jason A Somarelli
Phenotypic plasticity refers to a phenomenon in which cells transiently gain traits of another lineage. During carcinoma progression, phenotypic plasticity drives invasion, dissemination and metastasis. Indeed, while most of the studies of phenotypic plasticity have been in the context of epithelial-derived carcinomas, it turns out sarcomas, which are mesenchymal in origin, also exhibit phenotypic plasticity, with a subset of sarcomas undergoing a phenomenon that resembles a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448013/precision-cut-mouse-lung-slices-to-visualize-live-pulmonary-dendritic-cells
#13
Miranda R Lyons-Cohen, Seddon Y Thomas, Donald N Cook, Hideki Nakano
Inhalation of allergens and pathogens elicits multiple changes in a variety of immune cell types in the lung. Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for quantitative analysis of cell surface proteins on immune cells, but it provides no information on the localization and migration patterns of these cells within the lung. Similarly, chemotaxis assays can be performed to study the potential of cells to respond to chemotactic factors in vitro, but these assays do not reproduce the complex environment of the intact lung...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447937/il17-factors-are-early-regulators-in-the-gut-epithelium-during-inflammatory-response-to-vibrio-in-the-sea-urchin-larva
#14
Katherine M Buckley, Eric Chun Hei Ho, Taku Hibino, Catherine S Schrankel, Nicholas W Schuh, Guizhi Wang, Jonathan Patrick Rast
IL17 cytokines are central mediators of mammalian immunity. In vertebrates, these factors derive from diverse cellular sources. Sea urchins share a molecular heritage with chordates that includes the IL17 system. Here, we characterize the role of epithelial expression of IL17 in the larval gut-associated immune response. The purple sea urchin genome encodes ten IL17 subfamilies (35 genes) and two IL17 receptors. Most of these subfamilies are conserved throughout echinoderms. Two IL17 subfamilies are sequentially strongly upregulated and attenuated in the gut epithelium in response to bacterial disturbance...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447757/molecular-mechanism-of-smurf2-in-regulating-the-expression-of-snon-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Zhuojia Xu, Zongli Diao, Ruixia Liu, Wenhu Liu
The aim of the present study was to examine the regulatory mechanism underlying the depression in Ski‑related novel protein N (SnoN) in diabetic nephrology (DN). NRK‑52E cells, a rat primary renal tubular epithelial cell line, were cultured to clarify the effect of small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (smurf2) on SnoN in a low glucose environment in vitro. NRK‑52E cells and DM rats were injected with adenoviruses AD‑smurf2 and AD‑shsmurf2, respectively, and the protein expression profiles of SnoN, smurf2 and phosphorylated (p)‑Smad2 were then detected...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447719/hepatocyte-growth-factor-inhibits-tubular-epithelial%C3%A2-myofibroblast-transdifferentiation-by-suppression-of-angiotensin-ii-via-the-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway
#16
Hong-Yue Wang, Chen Zhang, Qing-Fei Xiao, Hai-Chuan Dou, Yan Chen, Chun-Mei Gu, Ming-Ji Cui
Tubular epithelial‑myofibroblast transdifferentiation (TEMT) is important in the development of chronic renal failure. The present study investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) inhibits TEMT, and whether this function may be associated with the inhibition of angiotensin II (AngII) and the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway. Human HK‑2 kidney proximal tubular cells were divided into 4 groups and treated with AngII (1x10‑6 M), HGF (8x10‑3 M), AngII plus HGF or control conditions, followed by an assessment of apoptosis induction and the expression levels of α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), which is a marker of TEMT...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447703/conserved-effects-and-altered-trafficking-of-cetuximab-antibodies-conjugated-to-gold-nanoparticles-with-precise-control-of-their-number-and-orientation
#17
Lorena García-Fernández, Javier Garcia-Pardo, Olivia Tort, Ian Prior, Mathias Brust, Eudald Casals, Julia Lorenzo, Victor F Puntes
Gold nanoparticles (17 nm) have been functionalized with the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody drug Cetuximab at a well-defined orientation and coverage density of antibodies. Functionalization has been carried out through site-directed chemistry via the selective oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of antibodies linked to a thiolated hydrazide. A431 tumor cells have been exposed to these conjugates for in vitro evaluation of their effects. In addition to epithelial growth factor receptor blocking, trafficking and signaling alterations were also observed...
April 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447619/little-cigars-are-more-toxic-than-cigarettes-and-uniquely-change-the-airway-gene-and-protein-expression
#18
Arunava Ghosh, Sabri H Abdelwahab, Steven L Reeber, Boris Reidel, Abigail J Marklew, Andrew J Garrison, Shernita Lee, Hong Dang, Amy H Herring, Gary L Glish, Mehmet Kesimer, Robert Tarran
Little cigars (LCs) are regulated differently than cigarettes, allowing them to be potentially targeted at youth/young adults. We exposed human bronchial epithelial cultures (HBECs) to air or whole tobacco smoke from cigarettes vs. LCs. Chronic smoke exposure increased the number of dead cells, lactate dehydrogenase release, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion and decreased apical cilia, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein levels, and transepithelial resistance. These adverse effects were significantly greater in LC-exposed HBECs than cigarette exposed cultures...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447570/peptide-modified-chitosan-hydrogel-accelerates-skin-wound-healing-by-promoting-fibroblast-proliferation-migration-and-secretion
#19
Xionglin Chen, Min Zhang, Shixuan Chen, Xueer Wang, Zhihui Tian, Yinghua Chen, Pengcheng Xu, Lei Zhang, Lu Zhang, Lin Zhang
Skin wound healing is a complicated process that involves a variety of cells and cytokines. Fibroblasts play an important role in this process and participate in transformation into myofibroblasts, the synthesis of extracellular matrix and fibers, and the secretion of a variety of growth factors. This study assessed the effects of peptide SIKVAV (Ser-Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val)-modified chitosan hydrogels on skin wound healing. We investigated the capability of peptide SIKVAV to promote cell proliferation and migration, the synthesis of collagen and the secretion of a variety of growth factors using fibroblasts in vitro...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447000/8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-of-cancers-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-application-to-clinical-practice
#20
Thomas W Rice, Deepa T Patil, Eugene H Blackstone
The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of epithelial cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) presents separate classifications for clinical (cTNM), pathologic (pTNM), and postneoadjuvant (ypTNM) stage groups. Histopathologic cell type markedly affects survival of clinically and pathologically staged patients, requiring separate groupings for each cell type, but ypTNM groupings are identical for both cell types. Clinical categories, typically obtained by imaging with minimal histologic information, are limited by resolution of each method...
March 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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