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Epithelial cell

Sonam Gupta, Navdeep Raghuwanshi, Ritu Varshney, I M Banat, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Parul A Pruthi, Vikas Pruthi
A potent biosurfactant (BS) producing Bacillus licheniformis SV1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. KX130852) was isolated from oil contaminated soil sample. Physicochemical investigations (TLC, HPLC, FTIR, GC-MS and NMR) revealed it to be glycolipid in nature. Fibroblast culture assay showed cytocompatibility and increased cell proliferation of 3T3/NIH fibroblast cells treated with this biosurfactant when checked using MTT assay and DAPI fluorescent staining. To evaluate the wound healing potential, BS ointment was formulated and checked for its spreadability and viscosity consistency...
August 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Muneeb Mohideen, Elias Quijano, Eric Song, Yang Deng, Gauri Panse, Wei Zhang, Meredith R Clark, W Mark Saltzman
New methods for long-lasting protection against sexually transmitted disease, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are needed to help reduce the severity of STD epidemics, especially in developing countries. Intravaginal delivery of therapeutics has emerged as a promising strategy to provide women with local protection, but residence times of such agents are greatly reduced by the protective mucus layer, fluctuating hormone cycle, and complex anatomical structure of the reproductive tract. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) capable of encapsulating the desired cargo, penetrating through the mucosal surfaces, and delivering agents to the site of action have been explored...
August 15, 2017: Biomaterials
Dennis E Discher, Lawrence J Dooling
The cell and molecular mechanisms that cause a smooth epithelium to become topographically patterned during development are poorly understood. In a recent issue of Science, Shyer et al. (2017) show that myosin II contractility drives the smooth dermal mesenchyme into a pattern of surface bumps that triggers epithelial gene expression.
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
T Zhang, J G Wan, J B Liu, M Deng
The forkhead box F2 (Foxf2) gene suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the modulation of transcription of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (Zeb1) and epithelial (E)-cadherin, thereby inhibiting tumor metastasis. Additionally, the specific binding of microRNA (miR)-200c to Foxf2 mRNA impedes metastatic pulmonary cancer. However, the role of miR-200c in breast cancer is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, miR-200c mimics were transfected into the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Yan Qi, Ning Wang, Yonglai He, Jun Zhang, Hong Zou, Wenjie Zhang, Wenyi Gu, Yalan Huang, Xiaojuan Lian, Jianming Hu, Jin Zhao, Xiaobin Cui, Lijuan Pang, Feng Li
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process (the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition [MET]) have been shown to be associated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in different carcinomas. The EMT and MET have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenic processes of sarcomas, which are completely different from those of carcinomas. However, the definitive roles of the EMT in the tumorigenesis of synovial sarcomas remain unknown. Here, we explored whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, an important oncogenic event in synovial sarcoma, modulates tumor cell characteristics related to the EMT, such as cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation...
2017: PloS One
Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Sultan Sonbul, Rachel Surridge, Abhik Mukherjee, Carlos Caldas, Maria Diez-Rodriguez, Ibraheem Ashankyty, Khalil I Albrahim, Ahmed M Elmouna, Ritu Aneja, Stewart G Martin, Ian O Ellis, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in breast cancer (BC) has been demonstrated in several independent studies. However, identification of driver molecules for LVI remains a challenging task. Large-scale transcriptomic profiling of histologically validated LVI can potentially identify genes that regulate LVI. METHODS: Integrative bio-informatics analyses of the METABRIC study were performed utilising a subset of strictly defined LVI using histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) criteria...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Hongwei Xu, Biao Dong, Qiaoqin Xiao, Xueke Sun, Xinran Zhang, Jiekai Lyu, Yudan Yang, Lin Xu, Xue Bai, Shuang Zhang, Hongwei Song
Artificial fractal structures have attracted considerable scientific interest in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection and capture, which plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Herein, we designed a bionic TiO2 inverse opal photonic crystal (IOPC) structure for highly efficient immunocapture of CTCs by combination of a magnetic Fe3O4@C6@silane nanoparticles with anti-EpCAM and microchannel structure. Porous structure and dimension of IOPC TiO2 can be precisely controlled for mimic to cellular components, and anti-EpCAM antibody (anti-EpCAM,anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule) was further modified on IOPC interface by conjugating with polydopamine (PDA)...
August 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S-L Li, H-L Gao, X-K Lv, Y-R Hei, P-Z Li, J-X Zhang, N Lu
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as critical regulators of genes expression involved in tumor biological processes. The study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological role of miR-124 in gastric cancer (GC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: MiR-124 expression was analyzed from 88 GC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test was used to evaluate the association between miR-124 and the over survival (OS) time of GC patients...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Adam J Rossano, Michael F Romero
Epithelial ion transport is vital to systemic ion homeostasis as well as maintenance of essential cellular electrochemical gradients. Intracellular pH (pHi) is influenced by many ion transporters and thus monitoring pHi is a useful tool for assessing transporter activity. Modern Genetically Encoded pH-Indicators (GEpHIs) provide optical quantification of pHi in intact cells on a cellular and subcellular scale. This protocol describes real-time quantification of cellular pHi regulation in Malpighian Tubules (MTs) of Drosophila melanogaster through ex vivo live-imaging of pHerry, a pseudo-ratiometric GEpHI with a pKa well-suited to track pH changes in the cytosol...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cuiping Zhao, Nathan C Boles, Justine D Miller, Suzanne Kawola, Sally Temple, Richard J Davis, Jeffrey H Stern
Degenerative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. AMD is characterized by the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which are a monolayer of cells functionally supporting and anatomically wrapping around the neural retina. Current pharmacological treatments for the non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD) only slow down the disease progression but cannot restore vision, necessitating studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic strategies...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yueh-Hua Chung, Sung-Chou Li, Ying-Hsien Kao, Hao-Lun Luo, Yuan-Tso Cheng, Pey-Ru Lin, Ming-Hong Tai, Po-Hui Chiang
The involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer development and their potential as prognostic biomarkers are becoming increasingly known. However, the signature of miRNAs and their regulatory roles in tumorigenesis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to profile the miRNA expression pattern in UTUC tumor tissues and identify candidate miRNAs with prognostic and/or therapeutic functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected 22 UTUC tissue and adjacent normal tissues samples from patients who underwent nephroureterectomy...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniela Murtas, Cristina Maxia, Andrea Diana, Luca Pilloni, Claudia Corda, Luigi Minerba, Sara Tomei, Franca Piras, Caterina Ferreli, Maria Teresa Perra
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to have a driving role in the acquisition of a metastatic potential by melanoma cells. Important hallmarks of EMT include both E-cadherin downregulation and increased expression of N-cadherin. This switch in distinct classes of adhesion molecules leads melanoma cells to lose contact with adjacent keratinocytes and interact instead with stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells, thus promoting dermal and vascular melanoma invasion. Consequently, tumor cells migrate to distant host tissues and establish metastases...
August 21, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
M Isabel García-Laorden, José A Lorente, Carlos Flores, Arthur S Slutsky, Jesús Villar
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute inflammatory process of the lung caused by a direct or indirect insult to the alveolar-capillary membrane. Currently, ARDS is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical and physiological variables. The lack of a specific biomarker for ARDS is arguably one of the most important obstacles to progress in developing novel treatments for ARDS. In this article, we will review the current understanding of some appealing biomarkers that have been measured in human blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or exhaled gas that could be used for identifying patients with ARDS, for enrolling ARDS patients into clinical trials, or for better monitoring of patient's management...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Shikha Saxena, Bharat Sankhla, Krishna Sireesha Sundaragiri, Akshay Bhargava
The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common epithelial malignancies with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent observations indicate that the clinical and histological appearance of oral mucosa may not truly depict the damage occurring at the genetic level. This phenotypic and genotypic disparity may account in part for the failure to establish effective screening and surveillance protocols, based on the traditional clinical and microscopic examination. The tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
Maria Moustaki, Ioanna Loukou, Kostas N Priftis, Konstantinos Douros
Bronchiectasis is usually classified as cystic fibrosis (CF) related or CF unrelated (non-CF); the latter is not considered an orphan disease any more, even in developed countries. Irrespective of the underlying etiology, bronchiectasis is the result of interaction between host, pathogens, and environment. Vitamin D is known to be involved in a wide spectrum of significant immunomodulatory effects such as down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Respiratory epithelial cells constitutively express 1α-hydroxylase leading to the local transformation of the inactive 25(OH)-vitamin D to the active 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D...
August 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Yan Sun, Minxiao Wang, Leilei Li, Li Zhou, Xiaocheng Wang, Ping Zheng, Haiyan Yu, Chaolun Li, Song Sun
Deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are numerically dominant macrofauna in many cold seep and hydrothermal vent ecosystems worldwide, and they depend on organic carbon produced by symbionts present in the epithelial cells of the gills. Although Bathymodiolus platifrons represents typical methanotrophic endosymbiosis, our understanding of molecular mechanisms of methane oxidization and carbon fixation is still in its infancy. Moreover, the laboratory maintenance of B. platifrons and the symbiont abundance dynamics during maintenance has not been reported...
2017: PeerJ
Dimitrios Athanasiou, Lowell T Edgar, Mohammad Jafarnejad, Katherine Nixon, Delfim Duarte, Edwin D Hawkins, Samira Jamalian, Paula Cunnea, Cristina Lo Celso, Shunichi Kobayashi, Christina Fotopoulou, James E Moore
The lymphatic system has a major significance in the metastatic pathways in women's cancers. Lymphatic pumping depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, and the mechanical behavior of lymphatic vessels regulates the function of the system. However, data on the mechanical properties and function of human lymphatics are lacking. Our aim is to characterize, for the first time, the passive biomechanical behavior of human collecting lymphatic vessels removed at pelvic lymph node dissection during primary debulking surgeries for epithelial ovarian cancer...
2017: PloS One
Anna Bennis, Jacoline B Ten Brink, Perry D Moerland, Vivi M Heine, Arthur A Bergen
BACKGROUND: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a neural monolayer lining the back of the eye. Degeneration of the RPE leads to severe vision loss in, so far incurable, diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa. A promising future replacement therapy may be autologous iris epithelial cell transdifferentiation into RPE in vitro and, subsequently, transplantation. In this study we compared the gene expression profiles of the iris epithelium (IE) and the RPE...
2017: PloS One
Katrin E Hostettler, Amiq Gazdhar, Petra Khan, Spasenija Savic, Luca Tamo, Didier Lardinois, Michael Roth, Michael Tamm, Thomas Geiser
RATIONALE: Stem cells have been identified in the human lung; however, their role in lung disease is not clear. We aimed to isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from human lung tissue and to study their in vitro properties. METHODS: MSC were cultured from lung tissue obtained from patients with fibrotic lung diseases (n = 17), from emphysema (n = 12), and normal lungs (n = 3). Immunofluorescence stainings were used to characterize MSC. The effect of MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) on fibroblast proliferation and on lung epithelial wound repair was studied...
2017: PloS One
Murat R Gainullin, Ilya Yu Zhukov, Xiaoying Zhou, Yingxi Mo, Lidiia Astakhova, Ingemar Ernberg, Liudmila Matskova
Expression of cofilin is directly associated with metastatic activity in many tumors. Here, we studied the role of Latent Membrane Protein 2 A (LMP2A) of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in the accumulation of cofilin observed in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) tumor cells. We used LMP2A transformed NPC cell lines to analyze cofilin expression. We used mutation analysis, ectopic expression and down-regulation of Cbl, AIP4 and Syk in these cell lines to determine the effect of the LMP2A viral protein on cofilin degradation and its role in the assembly of a cofilin degrading protein complex...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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