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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232767/a-comparative-immunohistochemical-study-of-anal-canal-epithelium-in-humans-and-swine-focusing-on-the-anal-transitional-zone-epithelium-and-the-anal-glands
#1
Futoshi Muranaka, Tomoyuki Nakajima, Mai Iwaya, Keiko Ishii, Kayoko Higuchi, Naoko Ogiwara, Shinichi Miyagawa, Hiroyoshi Ota
To better understand the cellular origins and differentiation of anal canal epithelial neoplasms, the immunohistochemical profiles of the anal canal epithelium in humans and swine were evaluated. Formalin-fixed tissue sections were immunostained for mucin (MUC: MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B), desmoglein 3 (DGS3), p63, CDX2, SOX2, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The anal transitional zone (ATZ) epithelium covered the anal sinus and consisted of a stratified epithelium with mucous cells interspersed within the surface lining...
December 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232759/involvement-of-cyp1b1-in-interferon-%C3%AE-induced-alterations-of-epithelial-barrier-integrity
#2
Mireille Alhouayek, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Christopher J Fowler
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 are important extra hepatic cytochromes, expressed in the colon and implicated in the metabolism of dietary constituents and exogenous compounds. CYP1B1 expression is increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines and it has been recently implicated in regulation of blood brain barrier function. We investigated its involvement in the increased permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier observed in inflammatory conditions. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: (IFNγ, 10 ng...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232637/copper-ii-complexes-based-on-tripodal-pyrazolyl-amines-synthesis-structure-magnetic-properties-and-anticancer-activity
#3
Salah S Massoud, Febee R Louka, Gerard T Ducharme, Roland C Fischer, Franz A Mautner, Ján Vančo, Radovan Herchel, Zdeněk Dvořák, Zdeněk Trávníček
The Cu(II) complexes [Cu(bpdmpz)Cl]ClO4 (1), [Cu(bdmpzp)Cl]ClO4 (2-ClO4), [Cu(bdmpzp)Cl]PF6 (2-PF6) and [Cu(tdmpza)Cl]ClO4 (3), bpdmpzp=[bis[((2-pyridylmethyl)-di(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolyl)methyl)]amine, bdmpzp=[bis((di(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolyl)methyl)-(2-pyridylmethyl)]amine and tdmpza=tris[di(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolyl)-methyl)]amine were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic and conductivity measurements, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, infrared and electronic spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232628/epithelial-plasticity-in-the-mammary-gland
#4
REVIEW
Lindsey Seldin, Armelle Le Guelte, Ian G Macara
Many epithelial tissues rely on multipotent stem cells for the proper development and maintenance of their diverse cell lineages. Nevertheless, the identification of multipotent stem cell populations within the mammary gland has been a point of contention over the past decade. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the various lineage-tracing studies performed to address this issue and conclude that although multipotent stem cells exist in the embryonic mammary placode, the postnatal mammary gland instead contains distinct unipotent progenitor populations that contribute to stage-specific development and homeostasis...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232557/myeloid-cell-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-induce-epithelial-mutagenesis
#5
Özge Canli, Adele M Nicolas, Jalaj Gupta, Fabian Finkelmeier, Olga Goncharova, Marina Pesic, Tobias Neumann, David Horst, Martin Löwer, Ugur Sahin, Florian R Greten
Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to initiate and promote tumorigenesis by inducing DNA damage and to suppress tumor development by triggering apoptosis and senescence. The contribution of individual cell types in the tumor microenvironment to these contrasting effects remains poorly understood. We provide evidence that during intestinal tumorigenesis, myeloid cell-derived H2O2 triggers genome-wide DNA mutations in intestinal epithelial cells to stimulate invasive growth. Moreover, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in myeloid cells initiates tumor growth in various organs also in the absence of a carcinogen challenge in a paracrine manner...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232178/rapid-decrease-in-krt14-and-tp53-mrna-expression-in-the-buccal-mucosa-of-patients-receiving-total-body-irradiation-for-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
J Chmara, J W L Browning, H Atkins, M Sabloff, B C McKay
The only curative treatment option for relapsed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and leukemic blast cells is achieved through the systemic administration of DNA damaging agents, including total-body irradiation (TBI) prior to transplantation. Since other tissues are radiosensitive, the identification of biomarkers could facilitate the management of additional toxicities. Buccal keratinocytes are readily accessible and could provide a source of cells for RNA analysis...
December 12, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232160/microrna-145-antagonism-reverses-tgf-%C3%AE-inhibition-of-f508del-cftr-correction-in-airway-epithelia
#7
Farruk Lutful Kabir, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Gang Liu, Peng Li, George M Solomon, Charitharth V Lal, Marina Mazur, Brian Halloran, Tomasz Szul, William T Gerthoffer, Steven M Rowe, William T Harris
INTRODUCTION: microRNAs (miRNAs) destabilize mRNA transcripts and inhibit protein translation. miR-145 is of particular interest in cystic fibrosis (CF) as it has a direct binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of CFTR and is upregulated by the CF genetic modifier TGF-β. HYPOTHESIS: miR-145 mediates TGF-β inhibition of CFTR synthesis and function in airway epithelia. METHODS: Primary human CF (F508del homozygous) and non-CF airway epithelial cells (AECs) were grown to terminal differentiation at air-liquid interface on permeable supports...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232153/respiratory-responses-to-ozone-exposure-the-multicenter-ozone-study-in-older-subjects-moses
#8
Mehrdad Arjomandi, John R Balmes, Mark W Frampton, Philip Bromberg, Paul Stark, Neil E Alexis, David Q Rich, Maria Costantini, Danielle Hollenbeck-Pringle, Nicholas Dagincourt, Milan J Hazucha
RATIONALE: Acute respiratory effects of low-level ozone exposure are not well defined in older adults. OBJECTIVE: The Multicenter Ozone Study in oldEr Subjects (MOSES), although primarily focused on acute cardiovascular effects, provided an opportunity to assess respiratory responses to low concentrations of ozone in older healthy adults. METHODS: We performed a randomized crossover, controlled exposure study of 87 healthy adults (59.9±4...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232104/the-effects-of-biological-fluids-on-colloidal-stability-and-sirna-delivery-of-a-ph-responsive-micellar-nanoparticle-delivery-system
#9
Dominic W Malcolm, Jomy J Varghese, Janet E Sorrells, Catherine E Ovitt, Danielle S W Benoit
Nanoparticles (NP) interact with complex protein milieus in biological fluids, and these interactions have profound effects on NP physicochemical properties and function. Surprisingly, most studies neglect the impact of these interactions, especially with respect to NP-mediated siRNA delivery. Here, the effects of serum on colloidal stability and siRNA delivery of a pH-responsive micellar NP delivery system were characterized. Results show cationic NP-siRNA complexes aggregate in  2% serum in buffer, but are stable in serum-free media...
December 12, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231994/nes1-klk10-promotes-trastuzumab-resistance-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-gastric-cancer
#10
Laiqin Tang, Zhiguo Long, Guangjia Feng, Xianzhi Guo, Minghua Yu
Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), exhibits remarkable therapeutic efficacy against HER2-positive gastric cancer. Acquired resistance to trastuzumab remains a barrier to patient survival and the mechanisms underlying this are still not well understood. The normal epithelial cell-specific-1 (NES1) gene, also named as KLK10, is recognized as a potential therapeutic target for reversing trastuzumab resistance. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of KLK10 in trastuzumab resistance (TR) gastric cancer cells...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231975/the-precise-subcellular-localization-of-dlg-in-the-drosophila-larva-body-wall-using-improved-pre-embedding-immuno-em
#11
Guangming Gan, Chenchen Zhang
Discs-large (Dlg) plays important roles in nerve tissue and epithelial tissue in Drosophila. However, the precise positioning of Dlg in the neuromuscular junction remains to be confirmed using an optimized labeling method. In this study, we improved the method of pre-embedding immunogold electron microscopy without the osmic tetroxide procedure, and we found that Lowicryl K4 M resin and low temperature helped to preserve the authenticity of the labeling signal with relatively good contrast. Dlg was strongly expressed in the entire subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) membrane of type Ib boutons, expressed in parts of the SSR membrane of type Is boutons, weakly expressed in axon terminals and axons, and not expressed in pre- or postsynaptic membranes of type Is boutons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231907/activated-hgf-c-met-axis-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Levi Arnold, Jonathan Enders, Sufi Mary Thomas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly morbid disease. Recent developments including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved molecular targeted agent's pembrolizumab and cetuximab show promise but did not improve the five-year survival which is currently less than 40%. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor; also known as mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and regulates tumor progression and response to therapy...
December 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231896/differential-expression-of-serum-micrornas-supports-cd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-differentiation-into-th2-th17-cells-in-severe-equine-asthma
#13
Alicja Pacholewska, Matthias F Kraft, Vincent Gerber, Vidhya Jagannathan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and may be exported from cells via exosomes or in partnership with RNA-binding proteins. MiRNAs in body fluids can act in a hormone-like manner and play important roles in disease initiation and progression. Hence, miRNAs are promising candidates as biomarkers. To identify serum miRNA biomarkers in the equine model of asthma we investigated small RNA derived from the serum of 34 control and 37 asthmatic horses. These samples were used for next generation sequencing, novel miRNA identification and differential miRNA expression analysis...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231875/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-does-not-enhance-epithelial-barrier-integrity-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-model-of-the-large-intestine
#14
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Nicole C Roy
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation...
December 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231810/shigella-entry-unveils-a-calcium-calpain-dependent-mechanism-for-inhibiting-sumoylation
#15
Pierre Lapaquette, Sabrina Fritah, Nouara Lhocine, Alexandra Andrieux, Giulia Nigro, Joëlle Mounier, Philippe Sansonetti, Anne Dejean
Disruption of the sumoylation/desumoylation equilibrium is associated with several disease states such as cancer and infections, however the mechanisms regulating the global SUMO balance remain poorly defined. Here, we show that infection by Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, switches off host sumoylation during epithelial cell infection in vitro and in vivo and that this effect is mainly mediated by a calcium/calpain-induced cleavage of the SUMO E1 enzyme SAE2, thus leading to sumoylation inhibition...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231261/lncrna-awpph-inhibits-smad4-via-ezh2-to-regulate-bladder-cancer-progression
#16
Feng Zhu, Xinjun Zhang, Qinnan Yu, Guangye Han, Fengxia Diao, Chunlei Wu, Yan Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of lncRNA AWPPH in bladder cancer (BC). Totally, 20 Ta-T1 stage BC tissues, 20 T2-T4 stage BC tissues and 20 normal bladder tissues, as well as human bladder epithelial cell line SV-HUC-1, human BC cell lines RT4 and T24 were obtained to detect the levels of AWPPH, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and SMAD4 using RT-qPCR or western blotting. RT4 cells were transfected with pc-AWPPH, pc-EZH2 or pc-control, and T24 cells were transfected with si-AWPPH, si-EZH2, si-control, or pc-AWPPH + pc-SMAD4, respectively...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231252/lncrna-ccat1-contributes-to-the-growth-and-invasion-of-gastric-cancer-via-targeting-mir-219-1
#17
Yanfeng Li, Guanyu Zhu, Yan Ma, Hongyan Qu
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most malignant tumors that seriously threaten to human health. Increased reports indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were associated with GC. This study aims to investigate the regulatory role of colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) in GC. The results exhibited that CCAT1 was higher expressed in 57 GC tissue samples than in 57 paired adjacent normal tissue samples. The expression of CCAT1 was also increased in GC cell lines (MKN45, Hs746T and SGC-7901) compared with gastric epithelial cell line GES-1...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231248/slurp-1-is-mutated-in-mal-de-meleda-a-potential-molecular-signature-for-melanoma-and-a-putative-squamous-lineage-tumor-suppressor-gene
#18
Christina Bergqvist, Humam Kadara, Lamiaa Hamie, Georges Nemer, Remi Safi, Mirna Karouni, Nadine Marrouche, Ossama Abbas, Divina J Hasbani, Abdul G Kibbi, Dany Nassar, Yutaka Shimomura, Mazen Kurban
BACKGROUND: Mal de Meleda (MDM) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) with transgrediens and caused by mutations in the SLURP1 gene. Uncommonly, cutaneous tumors have been found at PPK sites in MDM patients. OBJECTIVE: To study a Middle Eastern family with MDM with both PPK and skin tumors. METHODS: We studied a Middle Eastern (Palestinian) family with clinical features of MDM and cutaneous tumors...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230909/histatins-wound-healing-and-cell-migration
#19
Pedro Torres, Martín Castro, Montserrat Reyes, Vicente A Torres
Wounds in the oral mucosa heal faster and more efficiently than those in the skin, although the mechanisms underlying these differences are not completely clear. In the last 10 years, a group of salivary peptides, the histatins, have gained attention on behalf of their ability to improve several phases of the wound healing process. In addition to their roles as antimicrobial agents and in enamel maintenance, histatins elicit other biological effects, namely by promoting the migration of different cell types contained in the oral mucosa and in non-oral tissues...
December 12, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230817/ebv-encoded-mirnas-target-atm-mediated-response-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#20
Raymond W-M Lung, Pok-Man Hau, Ken H-O Yu, Kevin Y Yip, Joanna H-M Tong, W-P Chak, Anthony W-H Chan, Ka-Hei Lam, Angela K-F Lo, Edith K-Y Tin, Shuk-Ling Chau, Jesse C-S Pang, Johnny S-H Kwan, Pierre Busson, Lawrence S Young, Lee-Fah Yap, Sai-Wah Tsao, Ka-Fai To, Kwok-Wai Lo
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR-BARTs, the EBV-encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1-A rightward transcripts are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV-encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient-derived xenografts and an EBV-positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pathology
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