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Tahereh Farkhondeh, Saeed Samarghandian, Fariborz Samini, Ali Rajabpour Sanati
Crocetin, an active ingredient of saffron, has been recognized as a potent antioxidant. Plant extracts or their components may be useful in ameliorating the various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. This study investigated the effects of crocetin on oxidative damage induced by chronic restraint stress in the rat brain. For this reason, rats were kept in the restrainers for 1 hour every day, for 21 consecutive days. The animals were injected of crocetin (20, 40, 60 mg/kg) or vehicle daily for 21 days...
May 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Zahra Khorasanchi, Mojtaba Shafiee, Farnoush Kermanshahi, Majid Khazaei, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Behnoush Kermanshahi, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
BACKGROUND: Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is a highly valued agricultural product that is used mainly as a food coloring and flavoring agent. Three main secondary metabolites of Crocus sativus including crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal are responsible for the color, the bitter taste and for the odor and aroma, respectively. As a component of traditional medicine, saffron has been utilized as a medicinal herb for treating various ailments including cramps, asthma, liver disease, menstruation disorders, pain, and in the pathogenesis of cancer...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, Luis F Pacios, Araceli Diaz-Perales, María Garrido-Arandia, Javier Argandoña, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, Oussama Ahrazem
In saffron, the cleavage of zeaxanthin by means of CCD2 generates crocetin dialdehyde, which is then converted by an unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase to crocetin. A proteome from saffron stigma was released recently and, based on the expression pattern and correlation analyses, five aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) were suggested as possible candidates to generate crocetin from crocetin dialdehydes. We selected four of the suggested ALDHs and analyzed their expression in different tissues, determined their activity over crocetin dialdehyde, and performed structure modeling and docking calculation to find their specificity...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ghaidafeh Akbari, Seyyed Ali Mard, Ali Veisi
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury affects o2 -dependent organs including liver, kidneys, heart, brain, and intestine. I/R injury is described as the cellular injury in an organ caused by ischemia and then further aggravated during the reperfusion due to intracellular alterations. It is a process that happens in clinical settings such as organ transplantation, reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy, and coronary angioplasty. Crocus sativus L. known as saffron used in folk medicine for its beneficial effects...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Navneet Singh, Rahul Ranjan
The genus Orybina Snellen, 1895, a member of tribe Pyralini of the subfamily Pyralinae and family Pyralidae, was established as the objective replacement name for Oryba Walker, 1863. The original genus Oryba was established for its type species Oryba flaviplaga Walker, 1863 (by monotypy) from North Hindostan [North India]. Recently, the genus is reviewed by Qi et al. (2017) with inclusion of eight species and one subspecies in the World: Orybina kobesi Roesler, 1984, Orybina plangonalis (Walker, 1859), Orybina regalis (Leech, 1889), Orybina bellatulla Qi Li, 2017, Orybina puerensis Qi Li, 2017, Orybina hoenei Caradja, 1935, Orybina flaviplaga (Walker, 1863), Orybina imperatrix Caradja, 1925 and Orybina flaviplaga kiangsualis Caradja, 1925...
March 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Ding-Qiang Luo, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yu-Rong Tang, Qing-Jun Wang, Hai-Jing Liu, Shuang-Cheng Ma
To evaluate the effect of 60 Co-γ irradiation sterilization technology on the chemical composition of saffron, we collected 10 batches of saffron samples and treated them with different irradiation doses. UPLC characteristic chromatogram showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation on 13 common peak areas. The results of cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that there were no differences in the chemical composition in nonirradiated and irradiated samples. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS identified 40 characteristic components of saffron, and the results showed that all of these were detected in the saffron samples both with and without irradiation...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Carla Da Porto, Andrea Natolino
Analysis of the extraction kinetic modelling for natural compounds is essential for industrial application. The second order rate model was applied to estimate the extraction kinetics of conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of total polyphenols (TPC) from saffron floral bio-residues at different solid-to-liquid ratios (RS/L )(1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:50 g ml-1 ), ethanol 59% as solvent and 66 °C temperature. The optimum solid-to-liquid ratios for TPC kinetics were 1:20 for CLSE, 1:30 for UAE and 1:50 for MAE...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Carounanidy Usha, Sathyanarayanan Rama Rao, Geena Mary George
Introduction: Resin composite restorative materials can mimic the natural color and shade of the tooth. However, exogenous colorants from food and drinks can stain them due to adsorption. The influence of Indian food colorants and spices on resin composite restorations has not been evaluated extensively. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the staining capacity of microhybrid and nanohybrid resin-based composites, to saffron extract, tandoori powder, and turmeric powder...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Benjamin Moras, Loïc Loffredo, Stéphane Rey
A new UHPLC-DAD-MS method based on a Core-Shell particles column was developed to realize the rapid separation of saffron stigma metabolites (Crocus sativus L.). A single separation of 35 compounds included cis and trans-crocetin esters (crocins), cis-crocetin, trans-crocetin, kaempferol derivatives, safranal, and picrocrocin from pure saffron stigmas. This method permitted the detection of 11 picrocrocin derivatives as the typical group of compounds from saffron as well as the detection of gardenia-specific compounds as typical adulterant markers...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Seyed Iman Hosseini, Naser Farrokhi, Khadijeh Shokri, Mohammad Reza Khani, Babak Shokri
In this study cold low pressure radiofrequency oxygen plasma was used for the first time to inactivate toxicogenic fungi proliferation on saffron. Varieties of plasma produced reactive oxygen species which were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. The data were indicative of the absence of UV radiation. Effects of plasma treatment on antioxidant activity, metabolic content, colour, odour and flavour parameters and physical impact on saffron were investigated. A range of plasma powers and exposure times were assayed in suppression of fungal growth...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lijian Tong, Guoxian Qi
The phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a major initiating factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB) initiates a number of biological processes that contribute to VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch. Crocin, a component of saffron, has been reported to inhibit atheromatous plaque formation. However, the effects of crocin on PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of crocin on PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMCs proliferation and phenotypic switch and its underlying mechanisms...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hassan Sereshti, Sahar Ataolahi, Ghazaleh Aliakbarzadeh, Shahin Zarre, Zahra Poursorkh
Saffron quality is commonly determined by three parameters: color, aroma, and taste. Several factors including harvesting and post-harvesting conditions, affect these parameters. In this study, the effect of storage time on saffron quality was evaluated. At first, the relative concentration of the saffron secondary metabolites in freshly dried and 2 years stored saffron samples prepared with ISO 3632 and UA-DLLME methods and then measured using UV-Vis and GC-FID techniques. In order to find saffron storage time biomarkers, the obtained data were subjected to several data analysis steps including data preprocessing, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and variable selection methods...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Kenza Mansoor, Fadi Qadan, Andreas Hinum, Caroline Schneider, Klaus Hechenbichler, Mathias Schmidt, Georg Linsinger, Khalid Matalka
OBJECTIVE: A herbal combination (saffron extract, passion flower herb extract, cocoa seed extract, radish extract and black cumin extract) called "Relief" was designed as a supportive therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). This combination was based on the scientific evidence of each constituent effect on AWS-like symptoms. In addition, our preclinical studies have shown the effectiveness of Relief on AWS detoxification. The rationale of the study was to document whether the oral intake of the designed content of Relief could have a positive effect on the course of alcohol detoxification by reducing some of the AWS in hospitalized patients...
March 1, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Lu Wen, Yuan Xu, Qiqiu Wei, Wuhai Chen, Gang Chen
Background: Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a scarce plant that has been used as food flavoring agent, coloring agent, and traditional herbal medicine. Methods: The bioactivity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from an endophytic fungus of C. sativus was examined for the first time by antioxidative, antitumor, and antibacterial assays. The extraction conditions for EPS were optimized by combining the response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design. Results: EPS exhibited excellent scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, and moderate cytotoxicities against K562, A549, HL-60, and HeLa cells...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Jerome Sarris
This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders...
March 25, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Francesco Fancello, Giacomo Petretto, Maria Lina Sanna, Giorgio Pintore, Mounira Lage, Severino Zara
Saffron may be spoiled by a variety of microorganisms during cultivation, harvesting, and post harvesting. As saffron can be dried and stored in different ways, this preliminary study explored the natural microbiota present in Moroccan saffron when subjected to different drying techniques. An analysis of the carotenoid-derived volatiles present in the saffron was also carried out. The culturable microbiota of the saffron samples dried using different methods, namely in the shade (also called natural), in the sun, or in the oven, were studied using classical and molecular approaches...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Amjad M Husaini, Kyoko Morimoto, Balakumaran Chandrasekar, Steven Kelly, Farnusch Kaschani, Daniel Palmero, Jianbing Jiang, Markus Kaiser, Oussama Ahrazem, Hermen S Overkleeft, Renier A L van der Hoorn
With nearly 140 α-glycosidases in 14 different families, plants are well equipped with enzymes that can break the α-glucosidic bonds in a large diversity of molecules. Here, we introduce activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of α-glycosidases in plants using α-configured cyclophellitol aziridine probes carrying various fluorophores or biotin. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these probes label members of the GH31 family of Glycosyl Hydrolases, including ER-resident α-glucosidase-II RSW3/PSL5 (Radial Swelling-3/Priority for Sweet Life-5) and Golgi-resident α-mannosidase-II HGL1, both of which trim N-glycans on glycoproteins...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
Samaneh Sepahi, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri, Seyedeh Maryam Hosseini, Elham Khodaverdi, Nasser Shoeibi, Maral Namdari, Sayyed Abolghasem Sajadi Tabassi
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the most important sight-threatening complications in patients with diabetes. Due to neuroprotective properties, crocin, as the main constituent in saffron, is thought to be useful in the treatment and prevention of diabetic maculopathy. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of crocin as a supplement on reducing inflammation in patients with diabetic maculopathy. DESIGN: Double blind, placebo controlled, phase 2 randomized clinical trial...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
R Armellini, I Peinado, P Pittia, M Scampicchio, A Heredia, A Andres
Saffron, used in cookery as a flavouring and colouring agent, is well-known for its antioxidant and beneficial health properties. In the present work, the effect of saffron addition (0-control, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%, w/w) in the formulation of fresh pasta was evaluated on textural, physical-chemical, and sensory properties of the cooked product. Content and retention of the bioactive molecules of saffron (crocins) were evaluated by HPLC along with the corresponding antioxidant activity of enriched pasta. The presence of saffron significantly influenced textural and physical-chemical properties of pasta...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Farzad Jalali, Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi
BACKGROUND: From one hand, depression is one of the symptoms that occur after abstinence from methamphetamine. On the other people living with HIV/AIDS are in isolation due to the nature of their illness and depression is one of the most common mental health problems they experience. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of saffron on reducing depression among recovered consumers of methamphetamine living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The design of this study was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control (placebo) groups...
March 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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