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Chris Doe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720512/ahrq-series-on-complex-intervention-systematic-reviews-paper-5-advanced-analytic-methods
#1
Terri Pigott, Jane Noyes, Craig A Umscheid, Evan Myers, Sally C Morton, Rongwei Fu, Gillian D Sanders-Schmidler, Emily E Beth Devine, M Hassan Murad, Michael P Kelly, Chris Fonnesbeck, Mark Petticrew, Leila Kahwati, S Natasha Beretvas
BACKGROUND: Advanced analytic methods for synthesizing evidence about complex interventions continue to be developed. In this paper, we emphasize that the specific research question posed in the review should be used as a guide for choosing the appropriate analytic method. RATIONALE: We present advanced analytic approaches that address four common questions that guide reviews of complex interventions: 1) How effective is the intervention?; 2) For whom does the intervention work and in what contexts?; 3) What happens when the intervention is implemented?; and 4) What decisions are possible given the results of the synthesis? DISCUSSION: The analytic approaches presented in this paper are particularly useful when each primary study differs in components, mechanisms of action, context, implementation, timing, and many other domains...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707628/brainframe-a-node-level-heterogeneous-accelerator-platform-for-neuron-simulations
#2
Georgios Smaragdos, Georgios Chatzikonstantis, Rahul Kukreja, Harry Sidiropoulos, Dimitrios Rodopoulos, Ioannis Sourdis, Zaid Al-Ars, Christoforos Kachris, Dimitrios Soudris, Chris de Zeeuw, Christos Strydis
OBJECTIVE: The advent of High-Performance Computing (HPC) in recent years has led to its increasing use in brain study through computational models. The scale and complexity of such models are constantly increasing, leading to challenging computational requirements. Even though modern HPC platforms can often deal with such challenges, the vast diversity of the modeling field does not permit for a homogeneous acceleration platform to effectively address the complete array of modeling requirements...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700080/anal-hpv-16-and-18-viral-load-a-comparison-between-hiv-negative-and-hiv-positive-msm-and-association-with-persistence
#3
Elske Marra, Audrey King, Elske van Logchem, Pascal van der Weele, Sofie H Mooij, Titia Heijman, Chris J L M Meijer, Dominique W M Verhagen, Marianne A B van der Sande, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
Objective Does anal HPV viral load explain the difference in anal HPV persistence between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM)? Methods MSM ≥18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 2010-2011. Anal self-swabs were collected every 6 months and genotyped (SPF10 -PCR-DEIA-LIPA25 -system). HPV16 and HPV18 load was determined with a type specific quantitative (q)PCR, and compared between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men using ranksum test. Persistence was defined as ≥3 positive samples for the same HPV-type...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694797/genome-data-provides-high-support-for-generic-boundaries-in-burkholderia-sensu-lato
#4
Chrizelle W Beukes, Marike Palmer, Puseletso Manyaka, Wai Y Chan, Juanita R Avontuur, Elritha van Zyl, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Dimitrios Stamatis, T B K Reddy, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Victor Markowitz, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, Jochen Blom, William B Whitman, Stephanus N Venter, Emma T Steenkamp
Although the taxonomy of Burkholderia has been extensively scrutinized, significant uncertainty remains regarding the generic boundaries and composition of this large and heterogeneous taxon. Here we used the amino acid and nucleotide sequences of 106 conserved proteins from 92 species to infer robust maximum likelihood phylogenies with which to investigate the generic structure of Burkholderia sensu lato. These data unambiguously supported five distinct lineages, of which four correspond to Burkholderia sensu stricto and the newly introduced genera Paraburkholderia, Caballeronia, and Robbsia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656157/opportunities-lost-and-gained-changes-in-progenitor-competence-during-nervous-system-development
#5
REVIEW
Dylan R Farnsworth, Chris Q Doe
During development of the central nervous system, a small pool of stem cells and progenitors generate the vast neural diversity required for neural circuit formation and behavior. Neural stem and progenitor cells often generate different progeny in response to the same signaling cue (e.g. Notch or Hedgehog), including no response at all. How does stem cell competence to respond to signaling cues change over time? Recently, epigenetics particularly chromatin remodeling - has emerged as a powerful mechanism to control stem cell competence...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654817/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-recognition-memory
#6
REVIEW
Chris M Bird
Many theories of declarative memory propose that it is supported by partially separable processes underpinned by different brain structures. The hippocampus plays a critical role in binding together item and contextual information together and processing the relationships between individual items. By contrast, the processing of individual items and their later recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), particularly when recognition is based on feelings of familiarity without the retrieval of any associated information...
June 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649236/the-validation-and-implications-of-using-whole-genome-sequencing-as-a-replacement-for-traditional-serotyping-for-a-national-salmonella-reference-laboratory
#7
Chris A Yachison, Catherine Yoshida, James Robertson, John H E Nash, Peter Kruczkiewicz, Eduardo N Taboada, Matthew Walker, Aleisha Reimer, Sara Christianson, Anil Nichani, Celine Nadon
Salmonella serotyping remains the gold-standard tool for the classification of Salmonella isolates and forms the basis of Canada's national surveillance program for this priority foodborne pathogen. Public health officials have been increasingly looking toward whole genome sequencing (WGS) to provide a large set of data from which all the relevant information about an isolate can be mined. However, rigorous validation and careful consideration of potential implications in the replacement of traditional surveillance methodologies with WGS data analysis tools is needed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649145/do-ssris-and-snris-reduce-the-frequency-and-or-severity-of-hot-flashes-in-menopausal-women
#8
Chris Stubbs, Lisa Mattingly, Steven A Crawford, Elizabeth A Wickersham, Jessica L Brockhaus, Laine H McCarthy
CLINICAL QUESTION: In menopausal women who experience regular hot flashes, does treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) reduce the frequency and/or severity of hot flashes? ANSWER: Yes. Review of the literature suggests that treatment with SSRIs or SNRIs reduces the frequency and severity of hot flashes in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Studies demonstrated that paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa) and escitolapram (Lexapro) were the most effective SSRIs, and venlafaxine (Effexor) was the most effective first line SNRI, with desvenlafaxine as a second option...
May 2017: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648172/serial-parallel-and-hierarchical-decision-making-in-primates
#9
Ariel Zylberberg, Jeannette Am Lorteije, Brian G Ouellette, Chris I De Zeeuw, Mariano Sigman, Pieter Roelfsema
The study of decision-making has mainly focused on isolated decisions where choices are associated with motor actions. However, problem-solving often involves considering a hierarchy of sub-decisions. In a recent study (Lorteije et al. 2015), we reported behavioral and neuronal evidence for hierarchical decision making in a task with a small decision tree. We observed a first phase of parallel evidence integration for multiple sub-decisions, followed by a phase in which the overall strategy formed. It has been suggested that a 'flat' competition between the ultimate motor actions might also explain these results...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647706/testing-joint-position-sense-does-it-matter-how-you-hold-the-toe
#10
Chris Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630146/er-stress-causes-widespread-protein-aggregation-and-prion-formation
#11
Norfadilah Hamdan, Paraskevi Kritsiligkou, Chris M Grant
Disturbances in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis create a condition termed ER stress. This activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which alters the expression of many genes involved in ER quality control. We show here that ER stress causes the aggregation of proteins, most of which are not ER or secretory pathway proteins. Proteomic analysis of the aggregated proteins revealed enrichment for intrinsically aggregation-prone proteins rather than proteins which are affected in a stress-specific manner...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623894/-doing-the-right-thing-factors-influencing-gp-prescribing-of-antidepressants-and-prescribed-doses
#12
Chris F Johnson, Brian Williams, Stephen A MacGillivray, Nadine J Dougall, Margaret Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant prescribing continues to increase, with 5-16% of adults receiving antidepressants annually. Total prescribing growth is due in part to increased long-term use, greater selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and the use of higher SSRI doses. Evidence does not support routine use of higher SSRI doses for depression treatment, and factors influencing the use of such doses are not well known. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing GPs' use of antidepressants and their doses to treat depression...
June 17, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621653/increased-mortality-among-indigenous-persons-in-a-multisite-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#13
Anita C Benoit, Jaime Younger, Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Mona Loutfy, Renée Masching, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Doe O'Brien-Teengs, Wanda Whitebird, Art Zoccole, Mark Hull, Denise Jaworsky, Elizabeth Benson, Anita Rachlis, Sean B Rourke, Ann N Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Robert S Hogg, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio S G Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Janet Raboud
OBJECTIVE: Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort. METHODS: The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617444/heme-oxygenase-1-derived-carbon-monoxide-suppresses-a%C3%AE-1-42-toxicity-in-astrocytes
#14
Nishani T Hettiarachchi, John P Boyle, Mark L Dallas, Moza M Al-Owais, Jason L Scragg, Chris Peers
Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is extensively studied, and the involvement of astrocytes and other cell types in this process has been described. However, the responses of astrocytes themselves to amyloid β peptides ((Aβ; the widely accepted major toxic factor in AD) is less well understood. Here, we show that Aβ(1-42) is toxic to primary cultures of astrocytes. Toxicity does not involve disruption of astrocyte Ca(2+) homeostasis, but instead occurs via formation of the toxic reactive species, peroxynitrite...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567009/anatomical-modularity-of-verbal-working-memory-functional-anatomical-evidence-from-a-famous-patient-with-short-term-memory-deficits
#15
Eraldo Paulesu, Tim Shallice, Laura Danelli, Maurizio Sberna, Richard S J Frackowiak, Chris D Frith
Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554342/assessing-patient-s-perception-of-oral-teleconsultation
#16
Roland Petcu, Chris Kimble, Roxana Ologeanu-Taddei, Isabelle Bourdon, Nicolas Giraudeau
OBJECTIVES: The evaluation of telemedicine from the patient's point of view has focused on the patient pathway and patient satisfaction. However, research in this field does not provide us with the means to assess a patient's perception of the procedure if their reasoning ability is impaired. In this study, we use direct observation of a patient's behavior and mood to assess their perception of an oral teleconsultation procedure. METHODS: This study has been conducted in the context of a pilot project using an asynchronous teleconsultation to improve access to dental care for the dependent elderly, disabled people, and prisoners, some of whom may be cognitively impaired...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522970/automatic-optimization-of-the-computation-graph-in-the-nengo-neural-network-simulator
#17
Jan Gosmann, Chris Eliasmith
One critical factor limiting the size of neural cognitive models is the time required to simulate such models. To reduce simulation time, specialized hardware is often used. However, such hardware can be costly, not readily available, or require specialized software implementations that are difficult to maintain. Here, we present an algorithm that optimizes the computational graph of the Nengo neural network simulator, allowing simulations to run more quickly on commodity hardware. This is achieved by merging identical operations into single operations and restructuring the accessed data in larger blocks of sequential memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506903/ethnozoological-assessment-of-animals-used-by-mon-traditional-medicine-vendors-at-kyaiktiyo-myanmar
#18
Vincent Nijman, Chris R Shepherd
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506542/coronary-sinus-isoflurane-concentration-in-cardiac-surgery
#19
Ka Ting Ng, R Peter Alston, George Just, Chris McKenzie
OBJECTIVE: Volatile anesthetic agents such as isoflurane may be associated with fewer adverse myocardial events compared with total intravenous anesthesia in cardiac surgery. The authors aimed to determine whether reasonable isoflurane concentrations at tissue level were being achieved to protect the myocardium using this agent. The isoflurane concentration in myocardium has never been measured. The primary aim was to sample coronary sinus (CS) blood and measure its isoflurane concentration...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502981/mechanisms-of-gene-flow-in-archaea
#20
REVIEW
Alexander Wagner, Rachel J Whitaker, David J Krause, Jan-Hendrik Heilers, Marleen van Wolferen, Chris van der Does, Sonja-Verena Albers
Archaea are diverse, ecologically important, single-celled microorganisms. They have unique functions and features, such as methanogenesis and the composition of their cell envelope, although many characteristics are shared with the other domains of life, either through ancestry or through promiscuous horizontal gene transfer. The exchange of genetic material is a major driving force for genome evolution across the tree of life and has a role in archaeal speciation, adaptation and maintenance of diversity. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of archaeal mechanisms of DNA transfer and highlight the role of gene transfer in archaeal evolution...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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