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Chris Doe

Terrence B Ritzman, Claire E Terhune, Philipp Gunz, Chris A Robinson
The fossils from Malapa cave, South Africa, attributed to Australopithecus sediba, include two partial skeletons-MH1, a subadult, and MH2, an adult. Previous research noted differences in the mandibular rami of these individuals. This study tests three hypotheses that could explain these differences. The first two state that the differences are due to ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism, respectively. The third hypothesis, which is relevant to arguments suggesting that MH1 belongs in the genus Australopithecus and MH2 in Homo, is that the differences are due to the two individuals representing more than one taxon...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Brian J Martin, Chris McGlory, Martin J MacInnis, Mary K Allison, Stuart M Phillips, Martin J Gibala
We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise but via an unknown mechanism. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics upon ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21±2 y; BMI=23±4 kg•m(-2), VO2peak=38±7 ml•kg(-1)•min(-1); mean±SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7-d in a double-blind, crossover design...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Abby R Rosenberg, Joanne Wolfe, Lori Wiener, Maureen Lyon, Chris Feudtner
Importance: For clinicians caring for adolescent patients living with progressive, life-threatening illness, discussions regarding prognosis, goals of care, and treatment options can be extremely challenging. While clinicians should respect and help to facilitate adolescents' emerging autonomy, they often must also work with parents' wishes to protect patients from the emotional distress of hearing bad news. Observations: We reviewed the ethical justifications for and against truth-telling, and we considered the published ethical and practice guidance, as well as the perspectives of patients, parents, and clinicians involved in these cases...
October 17, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Efeturi Abraham Onoabedje, Akachukwu Ibezim, Sunday Nwankwor Okafor, Ufuoma Shalom Onoabedje, Uchechukwu Chris Okoro
Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are normal constituents of bacterial which are absent in mammalian cells. The theoretical binding modes of known oxazin-5-ones toward the protein were used as a guide to synthesis new inhibitors. Structural studies of protein-ligand complexes revealed that conformational discrepancies of the derivatives in the protein's binding site gave rise to the variation in their inhibition constant which ranged from 68.58 μM to 2.04 mM. Biological assay results further confirmed the antibiotic potencies of the studied compounds...
2016: PloS One
Chris Maher, Martin Underwood, Rachelle Buchbinder
Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review...
October 10, 2016: Lancet
Pedro F Soler-Lloréns, Chris R Quance, Sara D Lawhon, Tod P Stuber, John F Edwards, Thomas A Ficht, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, David O'Callaghan, Anne Keriel
Brucella are highly infectious bacterial pathogens responsible for brucellosis, a frequent worldwide zoonosis. The Brucella genus has recently expanded from 6 to 11 species, all of which were associated with mammals; The natural host range recently expanded to amphibians after some reports of atypical strains from frogs. Here we describe the first in depth phenotypic and genetic characterization of a Brucella strains isolated from a frog. Strain B13-0095 was isolated from a Pac-Man frog (Ceratophyrus ornate) at a veterinary hospital in Texas and was initially misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Damir Omerbašić, Ewan St J Smith, Mirko Moroni, Johanna Homfeld, Ole Eigenbrod, Nigel C Bennett, Jane Reznick, Chris G Faulkes, Matthias Selbach, Gary R Lewin
The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Heather Morgan, Elizabeth Treasure, Mo Tabib, Majella Johnston, Chris Dunkley, Deborah Ritchie, Sean Semple, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking can cause health complications in pregnancy. Particulate matter (PM2.5) metrics applied to second hand smoke (SHS) concentrations provide indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements and have been used to promote smoking behaviour change among parents of young children. Here, we present the qualitative results from a study designed to use IAQ measurements to help pregnant women who smoke to quit smoking. METHODS: We used IAQ measurements in two centres (Aberdeen and Coventry) using two interventions: 1...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Patrick Mahoney, Justyna J Miszkiewicz, Rosie Pitfield, Chris Deter, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Ramón González-Méndez, Peter Watts, David Olivenza-León, D Fraser Reich, Stephen J Mullock, Clive A Corlett, Stuart Cairns, Peter Hickey, Matthew Brookes, Chris Anthony Mayhew
A key issue with any analytical system based on mass spectrometry with no initial separation of compounds is to have a high level of confidence in assignment. This is particularly true for areas of security, such as airports, and recent terrorist attacks have highlighted the need for reliable analytical instrumentation. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry is a useful technology for these purposes because the chances of false positives are small owing to the use of a mass spectrometric analysis. However, the detection of an ion at a given m/z for an explosive does not guarantee that that explosive is present...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Moritz Armbruster, Elizabeth Hanson, Chris G Dulla
: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are abundantly expressed by astrocytes, rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular environment, and restrict the temporal and spatial extent of glutamate signaling. Studies probing EAAT function suggest that their capacity to remove glutamate is large and does not saturate, even with substantial glutamate challenges. In contrast, we report that neuronal activity rapidly and reversibly modulates EAAT-dependent glutamate transport. To date, no physiological manipulation has shown changes in functional glutamate uptake in a nonpathological state...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yung Wa Sin, Chris Newman, Hannah L Dugdale, Christina Buesching, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Geetha Annavi, Terry Burke, David W Macdonald
The innate immune system provides the primary vertebrate defence system against pathogen invasion, but it is energetically costly and can have immune pathological effects. A previous study in sticklebacks found that intermediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity correlated with a lower leukocyte coping capacity (LCC), compared to individuals with fewer, or many, MHC alleles. The organization of the MHC genes in mammals, however, differs to the highly duplicated MHC genes in sticklebacks by having far fewer loci...
2016: PloS One
Jayant S Vaidya, Frederik Wenz, Max Bulsara, Jeffrey S Tobias, David J Joseph, Christobel Saunders, Chris Brew-Graves, Ingrid Potyka, Stephen Morris, Hrisheekesh J Vaidya, Norman R Williams, Michael Baum
BACKGROUND: Based on our laboratory work and clinical trials we hypothesised that radiotherapy after lumpectomy for breast cancer could be restricted to the tumour bed. In collaboration with the industry we developed a new radiotherapy device and a new surgical operation for delivering single-dose radiation to the tumour bed - the tissues at highest risk of local recurrence. We named it TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT). From 1998 we confirmed its feasibility and safety in pilot studies...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Iain C Macaulay, Mabel J Teng, Wilfried Haerty, Parveen Kumar, Chris P Ponting, Thierry Voet
Parallel sequencing of a single cell's genome and transcriptome provides a powerful tool for dissecting genetic variation and its relationship with gene expression. Here we present a detailed protocol for G&T-seq, a method for separation and parallel sequencing of genomic DNA and full-length polyA(+) mRNA from single cells. We provide step-by-step instructions for the isolation and lysis of single cells; the physical separation of polyA(+) mRNA from genomic DNA using a modified oligo-dT bead capture and the respective whole-transcriptome and whole-genome amplifications; and library preparation and sequence analyses of these amplification products...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Tao Wen, M Clara Castro, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Chris M Hall, Toti Larson, Patrick Mickler, Roxana Darvari
This study places constraints on the source and transport mechanisms of methane found in groundwater within the Barnett Shale footprint in Texas using dissolved noble gases, with particular emphasis on (84)Kr and (132)Xe. Dissolved methane concentrations are positively correlated with crustal (4)He, (21)Ne, and (40)Ar and suggest that noble gases and methane originate from common sedimentary strata, likely the Strawn Group. In contrast to most samples, four water wells with the highest dissolved methane concentrations unequivocally show strong depletion of all atmospheric noble gases ((20)Ne, (36)Ar, (84)Kr, (132)Xe) with respect to air-saturated water (ASW)...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Sean J Johnson, Chris Alford, Karina Stewart, Joris C Verster
Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Doe Kumsa, Eric M Hudak, Fred W Montague, Shawn C Kelley, Darrel F Untereker, Benjamin P Hahn, Chris Condit, Martin Cholette, Hyowon Lee, Dawn Bardot, Pavel Takmakov
OBJECTIVE: Electrical neurostimulation has traditionally been limited to the use of charge-balanced waveforms. Charge-imbalanced and monophasic waveforms are not used to deliver clinical therapy, because it is believed that these stimulation paradigms may generate noxious electrochemical species that cause tissue damage. APPROACH: In this study, we investigated the dissolution of platinum as one of such irreversible reactions over a range of charge densities up to 160 μC cm(-2) with current-controlled first phase, capacitive discharge second phase waveforms of both cathodic-first and anodic-first polarity...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Laura Smit-Rigter, Rajeev Rajendran, Catia A P Silva, Liselot Spierenburg, Femke Groeneweg, Emma M Ruimschotel, Danielle van Versendaal, Chris van der Togt, Ulf T Eysel, J Alexander Heimel, Christian Lohmann, Christiaan N Levelt
Mitochondria buffer intracellular Ca(2+) and provide energy [1]. Because synaptic structures with high Ca(2+) buffering [2-4] or energy demand [5] are often localized far away from the soma, mitochondria are actively transported to these sites [6-11]. Also, the removal and degradation of mitochondria are tightly regulated [9, 12, 13], because dysfunctional mitochondria are a source of reactive oxygen species, which can damage the cell [14]. Deficits in mitochondrial trafficking have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, optic atrophy, and Alzheimer's disease [13, 15-19]...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Paul Comfort, Amy Regan, Lee Herrington, Chris Thomas, John McMahon, Paul Jones
CONTEXT: Regular performance (~2 x week) of Nordic curls has been shown to increase hamstring strength and reduce the risk of hamstring strain injury, although no consensus on ankle position has been provided. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of performing Nordic curls, with the ankle in a dorsiflexed (DF) or plantar flexed (PF) position, on muscle activity of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial gastrocnemius (MG). PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen (age 22...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Nicholas R Latimer, Chris Henshall, Uwe Siebert, Helen Bell
OBJECTIVES: Treatment switching refers to the situation in a randomized controlled trial where patients switch from their randomly assigned treatment onto an alternative. Often, switching is from the control group onto the experimental treatment. In this instance, a standard intention-to-treat analysis does not identify the true comparative effectiveness of the treatments under investigation. We aim to describe statistical methods for adjusting for treatment switching in a comprehensible way for nonstatisticians, and to summarize views on these methods expressed by stakeholders at the 2014 Adelaide International Workshop on Treatment Switching in Clinical Trials...
January 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
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