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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764657/does-host-plant-adaptation-lead-to-pesticide-resistance-in-generalist-herbivores
#1
REVIEW
Wannes Dermauw, Adam Pym, Chris Bass, Thomas Van Leeuwen, René Feyereisen
Most herbivorous arthropods feed on one or a few closely related plant species; however, certain insect and mite species have a greatly expanded host range. Several of these generalists also show a remarkable propensity to evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. In this review, we ask if the evolution of mechanisms to tolerate the diversity of plant secondary metabolites that generalist herbivores encounter, has pre-adapted them to resist synthetic pesticides. Critical examination of the evidence suggests that a generalist life-style per se is not a predictor of rapid resistance evolution to pesticides...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763326/three-dimensional-spin-texture-in-hybrid-perovskites-and-its-impact-on-optical-transitions
#2
Xie Zhang, Jimmy-Xuan Shen, Chris G Van de Walle
Hybrid perovskites such as MAPbI3 (MA=CH3 NH3 ) exhibit a unique spin texture. The spin texture (as calculated within the Rashba effective model) has been suggested to be responsible for a suppression of radiative recombination due to a mismatch of spins at the band edges. Here we compute the spin texture from first principles and demonstrate that it does not suppress recombination. The exact spin texture is dominated by the inversion asymmetry of the local electrostatic potential, which is determined by the structural distortion induced by the MA molecule...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759099/procedural-sedation-by-advanced-care-paramedics-for-emergency-gastrointestinal-endoscopy
#3
Hana M Wiemer, Michael B Butler, Patrick C Froese, Allan Lapierre, Chris Carriere, Glen R Etsell, Dana Farina, Jennifer Jones, Jock Murray, Samuel G Campbell
CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? Advanced care paramedics (ACPs) in our emergency department (ED) successfully perform procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) for several procedures, including orthopedic manipulations. What did this study ask? How does the novel practice of ACP-led ED PSA for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy compare to that for orthopedic procedures? What did this study find? Adverse events occurred more frequently during UGI endoscopy sedations than orthopedic sedations (41...
May 15, 2018: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754790/aortic-clamping-strategy-and-postoperative-stroke
#4
Mohamad Alaeddine, Vinay Badhwar, Maria V Grau-Sepulveda, Lawrence M Wei, Chris C Cook, Michael E Halkos, Vinod H Thourani, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Roland Matsouaka, James Meza, Matthew Brennan, Thomas G Gleason, Danny Chu
OBJECTIVE: The effect of aortic clamping strategy on short-term stroke during proximal graft construction for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains undefined. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that partial occluding clamp (POC) technique does not increase incidence of postoperative stroke compared with single clamp (SC) technique for performing proximal coronary anastomoses. METHODS: We identified 52,611 patients who underwent on-pump CABG in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database from July 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748189/pacemaker-cybersecurity-local-experience-with-a-firmware-upgrade
#5
Adrian Baranchuk, Bryce Alexander, Debra Campbell, Sohaib Haseeb, Damian Redfearn, Chris Simpson, Ben Glover
In August 2016, Muddy Waters LLC released a short-sell report outlining potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities in several St. Jude Medical (now Abbott) pacemaker models following a demonstration of a "crash attack" and a "battery drain attack" by vulnerability research firm MedSec.1 The motivation behind the release of this report does not appear to have been focused on patient safety; rather than inform Abbott or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) directly, the information was released to the public sector...
May 10, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744945/understanding-the-development-of-a-regulated-market-approach-to-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-new-zealand-using-punctuated-equilibrium-theory
#6
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). METHODS: The analysis draws on three years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739827/hyperfiltration-in-ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-deleted-mice
#7
Naomi C Boisvert, Chet E Holterman, Jean-François Thibodeau, Rania Nasrallah, Eldjonai Kamto, Cesar H Comin, Luciano da F Costa, Anthony Carter, Richard L Hébert, Alexey Gutsol, Gregory O Cron, Baptiste Lacoste, Douglas A Gray, Chris R Kennedy
Neuronal ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that maintains intracellular ubiquitin pools and promotes axonal transport. Uchl1 deletion in mice leads to progressive axonal degeneration, affecting the dorsal root ganglion that harbours axons emanating to the kidney. Innervation is a crucial regulator of renal hemodynamics, though the contribution of neuronal UCHL1 to this is unclear. Immunofluorescence revealed significant neuronal UCHL1 expression in mouse kidney, including periglomerular axons...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737049/sustainable-phosphorus-chemistry-a-silylphosphide-synthon-for-the-generation-of-value-added-phosphorus-chemicals
#8
J Chris Slootweg
Avoiding white phosphorus: Cummins and Geeson have recently described the conversion of phosphoric acid into the novel bis(trichlorosilyl)phosphide anion, which serves as a key intermediate in the synthesis of organophosphines, hexafluorophosphate, and phosphine gas in a reaction sequence that does not rely on white phosphorus.
May 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707469/creation-of-a-central-under-flap-pocket-allows-secondary-implant-augmentation-of-perforator-flap-breast-reconstruction
#9
Craig A Blum, Frank J DellaCroce, Scott K Sullivan, Chris Trahan, M Whitten Wise
Background: When a single perforator flap does not provide adequate volume or projection for satisfactory breast reconstruction, the addition of an implant may be considered at the time of second-stage revisions. Dissection of an implant pocket beneath the flap may lead to the inadvertent injury of the flap pedicle as the tissue planes have been obscured by tissue ingrowth. The authors present a technique in which the boundaries of the implant pocket are predetermined at the time of flap reconstruction allowing an implant to be inserted at the second stage in ideal position with greater ease of dissection and minimal risk to the flap pedicle...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693016/application-of-calcium-sulfate-for-dead-space-management-in-soft-tissue-characterisation-of-a-novel-in-vivo-response
#10
Rema A Oliver, Vedran Lovric, Chris Christou, Sean S Aiken, John J Cooper, William R Walsh
Management of dead space (DS) is a fundamental aspect of surgery. Residual DS following surgery can fill with hematoma and provide an environment for bacterial growth, increasing the incidence of postoperative infection. Materials for managing DS include polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), which is nonresorbing and requires removal in a second surgical procedure. The use of calcium sulfate (CS) offers the advantage of being fully absorbed and does not require subsequent surgical removal. As CS has historically been used as a bone void filler, there are some concerns for the risk of heterotopic ossification (HO) when implanted adjacent to soft tissue...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689084/does-intrauterine-crowding-affect-locomotor-development-a-comparative-study-of-motor-performance-neuromotor-maturation-and-gait-variability-among-piglets-that-differ-in-birth-weight-and-vitality
#11
Charlotte Vanden Hole, Peter Aerts, Sara Prims, Miriam Ayuso, Steven Van Cruchten, Chris Van Ginneken
In polytocous species, such as pigs, the growth of an individual fetus is affected by competition from its littermates and the sow. This intrauterine competition greatly influences postnatal traits such as birth weight and vitality (physical strength). A lowered vitality is most often observed among low birth weight piglets. Since it has been argued that locomotion might be key to unraveling vitality-related differences, we compared gait development in piglets with a low birth weight and low vitality (L piglets) with piglets with a normal birth weight and normal vitality (N piglets) by means of spatio-temporal gait analysis during locomotion at self-selected speed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686479/does-manual-therapy-improve-pain-and-function-in-patients-with-plantar-fasciitis-a-systematic-review
#12
John J Fraser, Revay Corbett, Chris Donner, Jay Hertel
Objective: To assess if manual therapy (MT) in the treatment of plantar fasciitis (PF) patients improves pain and function more effectively than other interventions. Methods: A systematic review of all randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of MT in the treatment of human patients with PF, plantar fasciosis, and heel pain published in English on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases was conducted. Research quality was appraised utilizing the PEDro scale...
May 2018: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684192/the-exon-intron-gene-structure-upstream-of-the-initiation-codon-predicts-translation-efficiency
#13
Chun Shen Lim, Samuel J T Wardell, Torsten Kleffmann, Chris M Brown
Introns in mRNA leaders are common in complex eukaryotes, but often overlooked. These introns are spliced out before translation, leaving exon-exon junctions in the mRNA leaders (leader EEJs). Our multi-omic approach shows that the number of leader EEJs inversely correlates with the main protein translation, as does the number of upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Across the five species studied, the lowest levels of translation were observed for mRNAs with both leader EEJs and uORFs (29%). This class of mRNAs also have ribosome footprints on uORFs, with strong triplet periodicity indicating uORF translation...
April 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680649/an-initiator-codon-mutation-in-sde2-causes-recessive-embryonic-lethality-in-holstein-cattle
#14
Sébastien Fritz, Chris Hoze, Emmanuelle Rebours, Anne Barbat, Méline Bizard, Amanda Chamberlain, Clémentine Escouflaire, Christy Vander Jagt, Mekki Boussaha, Cécile Grohs, Aurélie Allais-Bonnet, Maëlle Philippe, Amélie Vallée, Yves Amigues, Benjamin J Hayes, Didier Boichard, Aurélien Capitan
Researching depletions in homozygous genotypes for specific haplotypes among the large cohorts of animals genotyped for genomic selection is a very efficient strategy to map recessive lethal mutations. In this study, by analyzing real or imputed Illumina BovineSNP50 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) genotypes from more than 250,000 Holstein animals, we identified a new locus called HH6 showing significant negative effects on conception rate and nonreturn rate at 56 d in at-risk versus control mating. We fine-mapped this locus in a 1...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679836/physical-immobility-as-a-sensitive-indicator-of-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid-toxicity-towards-daphnia-magna
#15
Tamzin A Blewett, Perrine L M Delompré, Chris N Glover, Greg G Goss
The process of extracting hydrocarbon resources by hydraulic fracturing is an increasingly utilised technique worldwide, resulting in an effluent called flowback and produced water (FPW). This effluent is a complex mixture of salts, metals and organic compounds, and has been shown to be highly toxic to aquatic biota, an effect attributed mainly to its salt and organic components. However, in the current study we show that the water flea, Daphnia magna, is physically impaired by, and rendered immobile at the surface of, test waters containing FPW...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679561/drosophila-nucleostemin-3-is-required-to-maintain-larval-neuroblast-proliferation
#16
Patrick W Johnson, Chris Q Doe, Sen-Lin Lai
Stem cells must maintain proliferation during tissue development, repair and homeostasis, yet avoid tumor formation. In Drosophila, neural stem cells (neuroblasts) maintain proliferation during embryonic and larval development and terminate cell cycle during metamorphosis. An important question for understanding how tissues are generated and maintained is: what regulates stem cell proliferation versus differentiation? We performed a genetic screen which identified nucleostemin 3 (ns3) as a gene required to maintain neuroblast proliferation...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677322/attention-based-perceptual-learning-does-not-affect-access-to-awareness
#17
Chris L E Paffen, Surya Gayet, Micha Heilbron, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Visual information that is relevant for an observer gains prioritized access to awareness (Gayet, Van der Stigchel, & Paffen, 2014). Here we investigate whether information that was relevant for an extended duration is prioritized for access to awareness when it is no longer relevant. We applied a perceptual-learning paradigm, in which observers were trained for 3 days on a speed-discrimination task. This task used a stimulus consisting of two motion directions, of which one was relevant to the task and one irrelevant...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673388/neural-circuits-driving-larval-locomotion-in-drosophila
#18
REVIEW
Matthew Q Clark, Aref Arzan Zarin, Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Chris Q Doe
More than 30 years of studies into Drosophila melanogaster neurogenesis have revealed fundamental insights into our understanding of axon guidance mechanisms, neural differentiation, and early cell fate decisions. What is less understood is how a group of neurons from disparate anterior-posterior axial positions, lineages and developmental periods of neurogenesis coalesce to form a functional circuit. Using neurogenetic techniques developed in Drosophila it is now possible to study the neural substrates of behavior at single cell resolution...
April 19, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671314/emissions-during-and-real-world-frequency-of-heavy-duty-diesel-particulate-filter-regeneration
#19
Chris Ruehl, Jeremy D Smith, Yilin Ma, Jennifer Erin Shields, Mark Burnitzki, Wayne Sobieralski, Robert Ianni, Donald J Chernich, M-C Oliver Chang, John Francis Collins, Seungju Yoon, David Quiros, Shaohua Hu, Harry Dwyer
Recent tightening of particulate matter (PM) emission standards for heavy-duty engines has spurred the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPF), which need to be regenerated periodically to remove trapped PM. The total impact of DPFs therefore depends not only on their filtering efficiency during normal operation, but also on the emissions during and the frequency of regeneration events. We performed active (parked and driving) and passive regenerations on two heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), and report the chemical composition of emissions during these events, as well as the efficiency with which trapped PM is converted to gas-phase products...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670831/predicting-visual-disability-in-glaucoma-with-combinations-of-vision-measures
#20
Stephanie Lin, Aleksandra Mihailovic, Sheila K West, Chris A Johnson, David S Friedman, Xiangrong Kong, Pradeep Y Ramulu
Purpose: We characterized vision in glaucoma using seven visual measures, with the goals of determining the dimensionality of vision, and how many and which visual measures best model activity limitation. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 150 older adults with glaucoma, collecting seven visual measures: integrated visual field (VF) sensitivity, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), area under the log CS function, color vision, stereoacuity, and visual acuity with noise...
April 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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