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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630146/er-stress-causes-widespread-protein-aggregation-and-prion-formation
#1
Norfadilah Hamdan, Paraskevi Kritsiligkou, Chris M Grant
Disturbances in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis create a condition termed ER stress. This activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which alters the expression of many genes involved in ER quality control. We show here that ER stress causes the aggregation of proteins, most of which are not ER or secretory pathway proteins. Proteomic analysis of the aggregated proteins revealed enrichment for intrinsically aggregation-prone proteins rather than proteins which are affected in a stress-specific manner...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623894/-doing-the-right-thing-factors-influencing-gp-prescribing-of-antidepressants-and-prescribed-doses
#2
Chris F Johnson, Brian Williams, Stephen A MacGillivray, Nadine J Dougall, Margaret Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant prescribing continues to increase, with 5-16% of adults receiving antidepressants annually. Total prescribing growth is due in part to increased long-term use, greater selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and the use of higher SSRI doses. Evidence does not support routine use of higher SSRI doses for depression treatment, and factors influencing the use of such doses are not well known. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing GPs' use of antidepressants and their doses to treat depression...
June 17, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621653/increased-mortality-among-indigenous-persons-in-a-multisite-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#3
Anita C Benoit, Jaime Younger, Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Mona Loutfy, Renée Masching, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Doe O'Brien-Teengs, Wanda Whitebird, Art Zoccole, Mark Hull, Denise Jaworsky, Elizabeth Benson, Anita Rachlis, Sean B Rourke, Ann N Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Robert S Hogg, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio S G Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Janet Raboud
OBJECTIVE: Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort. METHODS: The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617444/heme-oxygenase-1-derived-carbon-monoxide-suppresses-a%C3%AE-1-42-toxicity-in-astrocytes
#4
Nishani T Hettiarachchi, John P Boyle, Mark L Dallas, Moza M Al-Owais, Jason L Scragg, Chris Peers
Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is extensively studied, and the involvement of astrocytes and other cell types in this process has been described. However, the responses of astrocytes themselves to amyloid β peptides ((Aβ; the widely accepted major toxic factor in AD) is less well understood. Here, we show that Aβ(1-42) is toxic to primary cultures of astrocytes. Toxicity does not involve disruption of astrocyte Ca(2+) homeostasis, but instead occurs via formation of the toxic reactive species, peroxynitrite...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567009/anatomical-modularity-of-verbal-working-memory-functional-anatomical-evidence-from-a-famous-patient-with-short-term-memory-deficits
#5
Eraldo Paulesu, Tim Shallice, Laura Danelli, Maurizio Sberna, Richard S J Frackowiak, Chris D Frith
Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554342/assessing-patient-s-perception-of-oral-teleconsultation
#6
Roland Petcu, Chris Kimble, Roxana Ologeanu-Taddei, Isabelle Bourdon, Nicolas Giraudeau
OBJECTIVES: The evaluation of telemedicine from the patient's point of view has focused on the patient pathway and patient satisfaction. However, research in this field does not provide us with the means to assess a patient's perception of the procedure if their reasoning ability is impaired. In this study, we use direct observation of a patient's behavior and mood to assess their perception of an oral teleconsultation procedure. METHODS: This study has been conducted in the context of a pilot project using an asynchronous teleconsultation to improve access to dental care for the dependent elderly, disabled people, and prisoners, some of whom may be cognitively impaired...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522970/automatic-optimization-of-the-computation-graph-in-the-nengo-neural-network-simulator
#7
Jan Gosmann, Chris Eliasmith
One critical factor limiting the size of neural cognitive models is the time required to simulate such models. To reduce simulation time, specialized hardware is often used. However, such hardware can be costly, not readily available, or require specialized software implementations that are difficult to maintain. Here, we present an algorithm that optimizes the computational graph of the Nengo neural network simulator, allowing simulations to run more quickly on commodity hardware. This is achieved by merging identical operations into single operations and restructuring the accessed data in larger blocks of sequential memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506903/ethnozoological-assessment-of-animals-used-by-mon-traditional-medicine-vendors-at-kyaiktiyo-myanmar
#8
Vincent Nijman, Chris R Shepherd
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506542/coronary-sinus-isoflurane-concentration-in-cardiac-surgery
#9
Ka Ting Ng, R Peter Alston, George Just, Chris McKenzie
OBJECTIVE: Volatile anesthetic agents such as isoflurane may be associated with fewer adverse myocardial events compared with total intravenous anesthesia in cardiac surgery. The authors aimed to determine whether reasonable isoflurane concentrations at tissue level were being achieved to protect the myocardium using this agent. The isoflurane concentration in myocardium has never been measured. The primary aim was to sample coronary sinus (CS) blood and measure its isoflurane concentration...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502981/mechanisms-of-gene-flow-in-archaea
#10
REVIEW
Alexander Wagner, Rachel J Whitaker, David J Krause, Jan-Hendrik Heilers, Marleen van Wolferen, Chris van der Does, Sonja-Verena Albers
Archaea are diverse, ecologically important, single-celled microorganisms. They have unique functions and features, such as methanogenesis and the composition of their cell envelope, although many characteristics are shared with the other domains of life, either through ancestry or through promiscuous horizontal gene transfer. The exchange of genetic material is a major driving force for genome evolution across the tree of life and has a role in archaeal speciation, adaptation and maintenance of diversity. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of archaeal mechanisms of DNA transfer and highlight the role of gene transfer in archaeal evolution...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494699/lens-capsule-perforation-without-inflammation-in-4-rabbits-from-intravitreal-injection-studies
#11
Cindy Farman, Chris Schuetz, Florence Lorget, Vladimir Bantseev, David Calise, Evan A Thackaberry
Historically, it was thought that lens protein was sequestered, and injury to the lens capsule causing release of lens material into the eye would always result in ocular inflammation. Currently, it is believed that lens antigens are recognized as self, subject to normal T-cell tolerance. Three different single-dose intravitreal injection/implantation studies of 4 different test materials, ranging from 4 to 6 weeks in length, were performed in New Zealand White rabbits. The test materials included polymer microspheres, polymer rods, a solvent, and a hydrogel...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477289/predictors-of-relapse-or-maintenance-of-response-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-following-discontinuation-of-long-term-treatment-with-atomoxetine
#12
Johannes Thome, Ralf W Dittmann, Laurence L Greenhill, Sarah Lipsius, Yoko Tanaka, Chris Bushe, Rodrigo Escobar, Alexandra N Heinloth, Himanshu Upadhyaya
We identified relapse/maintenance-of-response (MOR) predictors following discontinuation of long-term atomoxetine treatment in pediatric and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and assessed correlations between ADHD symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Post hoc analyses of data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 withdrawal studies in patients with ADHD meeting predefined response criteria before randomization. Study 1: patients (N = 163; 6-15 years) received atomoxetine (1...
May 5, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469750/the-effect-of-previous-wingate-performance-using-one-body-region-on-subsequent-wingate-performance-using-a-different-body-region
#13
Leonie Harvey, Matthew Bousson, Chris McLellan, Dale Lovell
The 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is the gold standard measure of anaerobic performance. The present investigation aimed to determine if a previous WAnT using one body region significantly affected a subsequent WAnT using a different body region. Twelve male university students (n = 12, 23 ± 2 years, 84 ± 16.1 kg, 178.5 ± 7.4 cm) volunteered to complete two repeated WAnT protocols (either lower body WAnT followed by an upper body WAnT or vice versa) on two separate testing occasions. The upper body WAnT was conducted on a modified electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer using a flywheel braking force corresponding to 5% bodyweight...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468909/safeguarding-our-genetic-resources-with-libraries-of-doubled-haploid-lines
#14
Albrecht E Melchinger, Pascal Schopp, Dominik Müller, Tobias A Schrag, Eva Bauer, Sandra Unterseer, Linda Homann, Wolfgang Schipprack, Chris-Carolin Schön
Thousands of landraces are stored in seed banks as "gold reserve" for future use in plant breeding. In many crops, their utilization is hampered because they represent heterogeneous populations of heterozygous genotypes, which harbor a high genetic load. We show with high-density genotyping in five landraces of maize that libraries of doubled-haploid (DH) lines capture the allelic diversity of genetic resources in an unbiased way. By comparing allelic differentiation between heterozygous plants from the original landraces and 266 derived DH lines, we find conclusive evidence that in the DH production process sampling of alleles is random across the entire allele frequency spectrum and purging of landraces from their genetic load does not act on specific genomic regions...
May 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468868/diagnosing-childhood-onset-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-by-next-generation-sequencing
#15
Arunabha Ghosh, Helene Schlecht, Lesley E Heptinstall, John K Bassett, Eleanor Cartwright, Sanjeev S Bhaskar, Jill Urquhart, Alexander Broomfield, Andrew Am Morris, Elisabeth Jameson, Bernd C Schwahn, John H Walter, Sofia Douzgou, Helen Murphy, Chris Hendriksz, Reena Sharma, Gisela Wilcox, Ellen Crushell, Ardeshir A Monavari, Richard Martin, Anne Doolan, Senthil Senniappan, Simon C Ramsden, Simon A Jones, Siddharth Banka
BACKGROUND: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) underlie a substantial proportion of paediatric disease burden but their genetic diagnosis can be challenging using the traditional approaches. METHODS: We designed and validated a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of 226 IEM genes, created six overlapping phenotype-based subpanels and tested 102 individuals, who presented clinically with suspected childhood-onset IEMs. RESULTS: In 51/102 individuals, NGS fully or partially established the molecular cause or identified other actionable diagnoses...
May 3, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460174/conformational-dynamics-in-an-organic-ionic-plastic-crystal
#16
Liyu Jin, Kate M Nairn, Chris D Ling, Haijin Zhu, Luke A O'Dell, Jiaye Li, Fangfang Chen, Adriano F Pavan, Louis A Madsen, Patrick C Howlett, Douglas R MacFarlane, Maria Forsyth, Jennifer M Pringle
Understanding the short-range molecular motions of organic ionic plastic crystals is critical for the application of these materials as solid-state electrolytes in electrochemical devices such as lithium batteries. However, the theory of short-range-motions was originally developed for simple molecular plastic crystals and does not take account of strong interionic interactions that are present in organic ionic plastic crystals. Here we report a fundamental investigation of the dynamic behavior of an archetypal example triethyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([P1222][FSI]) through calorimetry, impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR and Raman spectroscopies...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453242/new-hiv-testing-technologies-in-the-context-of-a-concentrated-epidemic-and-evolving-hiv-prevention-qualitative-research-on-hiv-self-testing-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-yangon-myanmar
#17
Andrea L Wirtz, Emily Clouse, Vanessa Veronese, Kaung Htet Thu, Soe Naing, Stefan D Baral, Chris Beyrer
INTRODUCTION: Global effort to increase early diagnosis and engagement in HIV care emphasize the importance of developing novel approaches to reaching those missed by traditional methods. Such needs are particularly great for men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women (TW), and other populations who face stigma. Myanmar's HIV epidemic is concentrated among key populations and the revised National Strategy aims to reduce late diagnosis and barriers to care to curb HIV incidence among these groups...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449657/influence-of-subject-discontinuation-on-long-term-nonvertebral-fracture-rate-in-the-denosumab-freedom-extension-study
#18
Jonathan D Adachi, Henry G Bone, Nadia S Daizadeh, Paula Dakin, Socrates Papapoulos, Peyman Hadji, Chris Recknor, Michael A Bolognese, Andrea Wang, Celia J F Lin, Rachel B Wagman, Serge Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Denosumab treatment for up to 8 years in the FREEDOM study and Extension was associated with low fracture incidence. It was not clear whether subjects who discontinued during the study conduct had a higher risk of fracture than those who remained enrolled, thereby underestimating the true fracture risk for the entire trial cohort. Thus, we explored the influence of early withdrawals on nonvertebral fracture incidence during the Extension study. METHODS: To understand the potential effect of depletion of susceptible subjects on fracture incidence, we first evaluated subject characteristics in patients who were enrolled in the Extension vs those who were not...
April 27, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430560/database-centric-method-for-automated-high-throughput-deconvolution-and-analysis-of-kinetic-antibody-screening-data
#19
R Paul Nobrega, Michael Brown, Cody Williams, Chris Sumner, Patricia Estep, Isabelle Caffry, Yao Yu, Heather Lynaugh, Irina Burnina, Asparouh Lilov, Jordan Desroches, John Bukowski, Tingwan Sun, Jonathan P Belk, Kirt Johnson, Yingda Xu
The state-of-the-art industrial drug discovery approach is the empirical interrogation of a library of drug candidates against a target molecule. The advantage of high-throughput kinetic measurements over equilibrium assessments is the ability to measure each of the kinetic components of binding affinity. Although high-throughput capabilities have improved with advances in instrument hardware, three bottlenecks in data processing remain: (1) intrinsic molecular properties that lead to poor biophysical quality in vitro are not accounted for in commercially available analysis models, (2) processing data through a user interface is time-consuming and not amenable to parallelized data collection, and (3) a commercial solution that includes historical kinetic data in the analysis of kinetic competition data does not exist...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424144/expertise-and-infrastructure-capacity-impacts-acute-coronary-syndrome-outcomes
#20
Carolyn M Astley, Isuru Ranasinghe, David Brieger, Chris J Ellis, Julie Redfern, Tom Briffa, Bernadette Aliprandi-Costa, Tegwen Howell, Stephen G Bloomer, Greg Gamble, Andrea Driscoll, Karice K Hyun, Chris J Hammett, Derek P Chew
Objective Effective translation of evidence to practice may depend on systems of care characteristics within the health service. The present study evaluated associations between hospital expertise and infrastructure capacity and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) care as part of the SNAPSHOT ACS registry.Methods A survey collected hospital systems and process data and our analysis developed a score to assess hospital infrastructure and expertise capacity. Patient-level data from a registry of 4387 suspected ACS patients enrolled over a 2-week period were used and associations with guideline care and in-hospital and 6-, 12- and 18-month outcomes were measured...
April 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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