keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Clinical Toxicology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727604/preclinical-development-of-ebi-005-an-il-1-receptor-1-inhibitor-for-the-topical-ocular-treatment-of-ocular-surface-inflammatory-diseases
#1
Joseph Kovalchin, Bracken King, Allyson Masci, Elizabeth Hopkins, Jeremy Fry, Jay Hou, Christian Li, Kelly Tenneson, Steve Weber, Gary Wolfe, Kathy Collins, Eric S Furfine
OBJECTIVE: Topical interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (R)1 blockade is therapeutically active in reducing signs and symptoms of dry eye disease. Herein, we describe in vitro and in vivo nonclinical Investigational New Drug (IND)-enabling studies of EBI-005, a novel protein chimera of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra or anakinra) that potently binds IL-1R1 and blocks signaling. These studies provide an assessment of receptor affinity, drug bioavailability, immunogenic response, safety, and tolerability in mice and rabbits...
July 18, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723256/quantitative-testing-of-buprenorphine-and-norbuprenorphine-to-identify-urine-sample-spiking-during-office-based-opioid-treatment
#2
Joji Suzuki, Jennifer Zinser, Mohammed Issa, Claudia Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Patients may spike urine samples with buprenorphine during office-based opioid treatment to simulate adherence to prescribed buprenorphine, potentially to conceal diversion of medications. However, routine immunoassay screens do not detect instances of spiking, as these would simply result in a positive result. We report on our clinic's experience using quantitative urine testing for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine to facilitate the identification of urine spiking. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 168 consecutive patients enrolled in outpatient buprenorphine treatment at an urban academic medical setting between May 2013 and August 2014...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722503/north-american-congress-of-clinical-toxicology-nacct-abstracts-2017
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722038/promises-facts-and-challenges-for-graphene-in-biomedical-applications
#4
Giacomo Reina, José Miguel González-Domínguez, Alejandro Criado, Ester Vázquez, Alberto Bianco, Maurizio Prato
The graphene family has captured the interest and the imagination of an increasing number of scientists working in different fields, ranging from composites to flexible electronics. In the area of biomedical applications, graphene is especially involved in drug delivery, biosensing and tissue engineering, with strong contributions to the whole nanomedicine area. Besides the interesting results obtained so far and the evident success, there are still many problems to solve, on the way to the manufacturing of biomedical devices, including the lack of standardization in the production of the graphene family members...
July 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717107/human-plasma-and-urinary-metabolic-profiles-of-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-extrapolated-using-a-simple-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#5
Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Trimethylamine, a dietary- and medicinal carnitine-derived amine, is extensively metabolized by liver to non-malodorous trimethylamine N-oxide. Although trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide under daily dietary consumption or carnitine treatment are generally regarded as nontoxic, they have been, and remain, of toxicological and clinical interest because of their potential association with atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study was to model the pharmacokinetics of trimethylamine after oral administration of trimethylamine in humans and compare the results with reported measured values...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717059/pharmacological-effects-of-a-vitamin-k1-2-3-epoxide-reductase-vkor-inhibitor-3-acetyl-5-methyltetronic-acid-on-cisplatin-induced-fibrosis-in-rats
#6
Masashi Uchida, Tomoya Miyoshi, Yohei Miyamoto
Cisplatin (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in the treatment of lymphomas and solid malignancies. However, its clinical usage is limited by its severe side effects in the kidneys. Glomerular and tubular injuries in the kidneys commonly progress to interstitial fibrosis and, ultimately, the end stage of renal failure. We previously reported that 3-acetyl-5-methyltetronic acid (AMT) had inhibitory effects on rat renal vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) in vitro and also suppressed mesangial cell proliferation and, consequently, the formation of fibrosis via the vitamin K-dependent activation of the growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6)/Axl pathway in anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis (Thy-1 GN) in rats...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714411/pharmacology-and-literature-review-based-on-related-death-and-non-fatal-case-reports-of-the-benzofurans-and-benzodifurans-designer-drugs
#7
Bernardino Barceló Martín, Isabel Gomila
BACKGROUND: Benzofurans and benzodifurans are two groups of psychoactive substances that had originally been synthesized for research purpose. Benzofurans' structure is quite similar to the known recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine together with its active metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. Benzodifurans are closely related to phenethylamines, but have more hallucinogens effects and much longer duration of action. This study aims to review the accessible evidence-based literature on benzofurans and benzodifurans pharmacology and toxicology...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710970/validation-of-a-probe-for-assessing-deconjugation-of-glucuronide-and-sulfate-phase-ii-metabolites-assayed-through-lc-ms-ms-in-biological-matrices
#8
Claire Grignon, Antoine Dupuis, Marion Albouy-Llaty, Maxime Condylis, Laurence Barrier, Pascal Carato, Bertrand Brunet, Virginie Migeot, Nicolas Venisse
LC-MS/MS has been proposed in various areas such as Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), Human Biomonitoring (HBM), disease diagnosis, clinical toxicology and doping control to identify and quantify chemical parents and their metabolites in biological matrices. To determine the total content of a xenobiotic (unconjugated+conjugated forms), an enzymatic hydrolysis step is required. Most studies in the literature have not controlled the effectiveness of the deconjugation process because no method has been described for that purpose...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709686/toxicologic-evaluations-of-recombinant-liver-targeting-interferon-ifn-csp-genotoxicity-and-tegenicratoity
#9
Wenting Zeng, Chunxu Wu, Jie Wang, Lingjie Cao, Xiaobao Jin, Jiayong Zhu, Xuemei Lu
Interferon alpha as the one of FDA recommended drugs for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has many side effects. Targeting IFNα to the liver may be a strategy to increase its efficacy locally and may increase efficacy of IFNα-based therapy of HBV infection. We have prepared a novel liver-targeting fusion interferon (IFN-CSP) combining IFN α2b with plasmodium region I peptide and have revealed it may be an excellent candidate as a liver-targeting anti-HBV agent. In this study, we investigated the genotoxic and teratogenic effects of IFN-CSP...
July 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709449/a-novel-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-candidate-targeting-inflammation-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#10
Daniel Daugherty, Joshua Goldberg, Wolfgang Fischer, Richard Dargusch, Pamela Maher, David Schubert
BACKGROUND: CAD-31 is an Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug candidate that was selected on the basis of its ability to stimulate the replication of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells as well as in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 AD mice. To move CAD-31 toward the clinic, experiments were undertaken to determine its neuroprotective and pharmacological properties, as well as to assay its therapeutic efficacy in a rigorous mouse model of AD. RESULTS: CAD-31 has potent neuroprotective properties in six distinct nerve cell assays that mimic toxicities observed in the old brain...
July 14, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706397/assessment-of-sperm-deoxyribose-nucleic-acid-fragmentation-using-sperm-chromatin-dispersion-assay
#11
Harsha Pratap, Suma Yekappa Hottigoudar, Kubera Siddappa Nichanahalli, Parkash Chand
The integrity of sperm deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) is one of the determinants that ensure normal fertilization, implantation, pregnancy, and the generation of a healthy progeny. Assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation has gained importance as a tool to provide significant information regarding sperm quality, and it can independently predict sperm fertilizing potential. The sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay is one of the available techniques to detect sperm DNA damage with results comparable to the gold standard - Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704207/the-adult-male-rape-victim-forensic-description-of-a-series-of-57-cases
#12
Michelangelo Bruno Casali, Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Blandino, Alessio Battistini, Francesca Motta, Alessandra Kustermann, Cristina Cattaneo
A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703020/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-snakebite-in-the-elderly-a-toxic-database-study
#13
Meghan B Spyres, Anne-Michelle Ruha, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Rais Vohra, Eric Smith, Angela Padilla-Jones
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologic studies of snakebites in the United States report typical victims to be young men. Little is known regarding other demographics including children and the elderly. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of snake bite in elderly patients reported to the ToxIC (Toxicology Investigators Consortium) North American Snakebite Registry (NASBR) Methods: This was a multicenter analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of patients with snakebite reported to the ToxIC NASBR between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699773/variability-amongst-urine-toxicology-amphetamine-readings-with-concurrent-administration-of-fenofibrate
#14
Navin Dadlani, Anna Farrar, Graham Jones
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to highlight that concurrent administration of the common lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate may lead to false-positive amphetamine results in often-used immunoassay-based urine drug screens. It also aimed to show that there are significant moral and clinical challenges associated with the interpretation of such results amongst psychiatric inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: It is evident that different pathology laboratories may utilise different commercial urine drug-screen immunoassays in their toxicology analysis, with variability in the test specificities...
July 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699487/mixed-matrix-method-provides-a-reliable-metabolite-exposure-comparison-for-assessment-of-metabolite-in-safety-testing-mist
#15
Ryan Takahashi, Cyrus Khojasteh, Matthew Wright, Cornelis Hop, Shuguang Ma
The regulatory guidances on metabolites in safety testing (MIST) by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) describe the necessity to assess exposures of circulating metabolites in humans at steady state relative to exposures achieved in nonclinical safety studies prior to the initiation of large scale clinical trials. This comparison can be accomplished by measuring metabolite concentrations in animals and humans with validated bioanalytical methods. However, bioanalysis of metabolites in multiple species and multiple studies is resource intensive and may impact the timelines of clinical studies...
July 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698154/panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius-from-pharmacology-to-toxicology
#16
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
The use of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius in traditional Chinese medicine dates back to about 5000 years ago thanks to its several beneficial and healing properties. Over the past few years, extensive preclinical and clinical evidence in the scientific literature worldwide has supported the beneficial effects of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in significant central nervous system, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic diseases. There has been growing research on ginseng because of its favorable pharmacokinetics, including the intestinal biotransformation which is responsible for the processing of ginsenosides - contained in the roots or extracts of ginseng - into metabolites with high pharmacological activity and how such principles act on numerous cell targets...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696835/urinary-cadmium-levels-in-active-and-retired-coal-miners
#17
Julia Isermann, Hans-Martin Prager, Rainer Ebbinghaus, Beata Janasik, Wojciech Wasowicz, Bertinus Dufaux, Hans-Friedrich Meyer, Agata Widera, Silvia Selinski, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
A meta-analysis, based upon 24 publications, showed a significantly elevated risk for urinary bladder cancer amongst miners. In European underground hard coal mining areas, an increased risk for urinary bladder cancer development was noted among hard coal miners, in particular in three investigations in the greater Dortmund area. However, the cause remains unclear. As cadmium (Cd), which was reported to be a bladder carcinogen in humans and is a constituent of coal, the aim of this study was to determine urinary Cd levels in active and retired hard coal miners and assess whether hard coal miners demonstrated elevated metal levels...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694026/nano-technology-based-carriers-for-nitrogen-containing-bisphosphonates-delivery-as-sensitisers-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#18
Naomi O Hodgins, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) including zoledronate (ZOL) and alendronate (ALD) inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and have been shown to have a cytotoxic affect against cancer cells as a monotherapy and to also sensitise tumour cells to destruction by γδ T cells. γδ T cells are a subset of human T lymphocytes and have a diverse range of roles in the immune system including the recognition and destruction of cancer cells. This property of γδ T cells can be harnessed for use in cancer immunotherapy through in vivo expansion or the adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated γδ T cells...
July 7, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693885/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reverses-early-and-advanced-symptoms-in-macaques-exposed-to-sarin-vapor
#19
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides trigger a common mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from critical targeting and inhibition of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Therapeutic countermeasures have thus focused on either administering an oxime post-exposure, that can rapidly reactivate OP-inhibited AChE, or by preventing OP poisoning through administering pre-exposure treatments that scavenge OPs before they inhibit their physiological AChE targets...
July 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692439/lipid-emulsion-in-local-anesthetic-toxicity
#20
Martyn Harvey, Grant Cave
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enthusiasm for regional anesthesia has been driven by multimodal benefits to patient outcomes. Despite widespread awareness and improved techniques (including the increasing use of ultrasound guidance for block placement), intravascular sequestration and the attendant risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) remains. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) for the treatment of LAST has been endorsed by anesthetic regulatory societies on the basis of animal study and human case report data...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
keyword
keyword
7259
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"