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Clinical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668046/black-cohosh-extracts-and-powders-induce-micronuclei-a-biomarker-of-genetic-damage-in-human-cells
#1
Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Carol D Swartz, Kim G Shepard, Steven M Bryce, Stephen D Dertinger, Suramya Waidyanatha, Grace E Kissling, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt
Black cohosh extract (BCE) is a widely used dietary supplement marketed to women to alleviate symptoms of gynecological ailments, yet its toxicity has not been well characterized. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) previously reported significant increases in micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of female Wistar Han rats and B6C3F1/N mice administered 15-1,000 mg BCE/kg/day by gavage for 90 days. These animals also developed a dose-dependent nonregenerative macrocytic anemia characterized by clinical changes consistent with megaloblastic anemia...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667370/systems-toxicology-approach-to-identifying-paracetamol-overdose
#2
Chantelle L Mason, Joseph Leedale, Sotiris Tasoulis, Ian Jarman, Daniel J Antoine, Steven D Webb
Paracetamol (acetaminophen (APAP)) is one of the most commonly used analgesics in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, exceeding the maximum recommended dose can cause serious liver injury and even death. Promising APAP toxicity biomarkers are thought to add value to those used currently and clarification of the functional relationships between these biomarkers and liver injury would aid clinical implementation of an improved APAP toxicity identification framework. The framework currently used to define an APAP overdose is highly dependent upon time since ingestion and initial dose; information that is often highly unpredictable...
April 18, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659381/methodological-aspects-for-preclinical-evaluation-of-gadolinium-presence-in-brain-tissue-critical-appraisal-and-suggestions-for-harmonization-a-joint-initiative
#3
Philippe Robert, Thomas Frenzel, Cécile Factor, Gregor Jost, Marlène Rasschaert, Gunnar Schuetz, Nathalie Fretellier, Janina Boyken, Jean-Marc Idée, Hubertus Pietsch
Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are pharmaceuticals that have been approved for 30 years and used daily in millions of patients worldwide. Their clinical benefits are indisputable. Recently, unexpected long-term presence of Gd in the brain has been reported by numerous retrospective clinical studies and confirmed in preclinical models particularly after linear GBCA (L-GBCA) compared with macrocyclic GBCA (M-GBCA). Even if no clinical consequences of Gd presence in brain tissue has been demonstrated so far, in-depth investigations on potential toxicological consequences and the fate of Gd in the body remain crucial to potentially adapt the clinical use of GBCAs, as done during the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis crisis...
April 13, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657389/hepato-nephropathology-associated-with-inclusion-body-hepatitis-complicated-with-citrinin-mycotoxicosis-in-a-broiler-farm
#4
Asok Kumar Mariappan, Palanivelu Munusamy, Shyma K Latheef, Shambu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama
Aim: Mortality in a broiler chicken farm was investigated for identifying the cause of mortality. Materials and Methods: A broiler farm with a population of 16000 succumbed to a disease outbreak. Clinical signs, vaccination history and mortality, were recorded. Necropsy examination and microscopic examination were carried out along with toxicological and molecular studies. Results: The clinical signs in the affected broiler birds were of non-specific nature with a total mortality of 26...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650353/reprint-of-environmental-toxicology-and-omics-a-question-of-sex
#5
Xuefang Liang, April Feswick, Denina Simmons, Christopher J Martyniuk
Molecular initiating events and downstream transcriptional/proteomic responses provide valuable information for adverse outcome pathways, which can be used predict the effects of chemicals on physiological systems. There has been a paucity of research that addresses sex-specific expression profiling in toxicology and due to cost, time, and logistic considerations, sex as a variable has not been widely considered. In response to this deficiency, federal agencies in the United States, Canada, and Europe have highlighted the importance of including sex as a variable in scientific investigations...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649771/systematic-forensic-toxicological-analysis-by-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-in-serum-and-comparison-to-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#6
Marcel Grapp, Christoph Kaufmann, Frank Streit, Lutz Binder
Comprehensive screening procedures for psychoactive agents in body fluids are an essential task in clinical and forensic toxicology. With the continuous emergence and adaption of new psychoactive substances (NPS) keeping a screening method up to date is challenging. To meet these demands, hyphenated high-resolution mass spectrometry has gained interest as extensive and expandable screening approach. Here we present a comprehensive method for systematic toxicological analysis of serum by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) with data independent acquisition...
April 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642729/safety-evaluation-of-soy-leghemoglobin-protein-preparation-derived-from-pichia-pastoris-intended-for-use-as-a-flavor-catalyst-in-plant-based-meat
#7
Rachel Z Fraser, Mithila Shitut, Puja Agrawal, Odete Mendes, Sue Klapholz
The leghemoglobin protein (LegH) from soy ( Glycine max) expressed in Pichia pastoris (LegH preparation, LegH Prep) imparts a meat-like flavor profile onto plant-based food products. The safety of LegH Prep was evaluated through a series of in vitro and in vivo tests. The genotoxic potential of LegH Prep was assessed using the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro chromosome aberration test. LegH Prep was nonmutagenic and nonclastogenic in each test, respectively. Systemic toxicity was assessed in a 28-day dietary study in male and female Sprague Dawley rats...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628291/citri-reticulatae-pericarpium-chenpi-botany-ethnopharmacology-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-a-frequently-used-traditional-chinese-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Xin Yu, Shuang Sun, Yuyan Guo, Yan Liu, Dayu Yang, Guoyu Li, Shaowa Lü
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627712/accurate-identification-of-opioid-overdose-deaths-using-coronial-data
#9
Amanda Roxburgh, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Wayne D Hall, Lucinda Burns, Louisa Degenhardt
INTRODUCTION: Defining drug-related mortality is complex as these deaths can include a wide range of diseases and circumstances. This paper outlines a method to identify deaths that are directly due to fatal opioid toxicity (i.e. overdose), utilising coronial data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS), an online coronial database containing information on all deaths that are reported to a coroner in Australia, is used to develop methods to more accurately identify opioid overdose deaths...
March 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625947/interaction-of-palladium-inorganic-salt-and-organic-complex-with-glutathione-content-of-liver-homogenate
#10
Muhammad Mukhtiar, Syed Umer Jan, - IhsanUllah, Rahman Gul, Abid Hussain, Essa Ali, - IzharUllah, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Akram, Sibghat Mansoor, Muhammad Farid Khan
Glutathione is an essential antioxidant of living organism that provides a primary protection against metals toxicity. A significant amount of glutathione is present in blood erythrocytes, plasma and liver hepatocytes to protect them from oxidative damage from both external and internal oxidants. Metalo-element palladium has numerous pharmacological, clinical and toxicological compensations, like palladium is used as anti-viral, anti-bacterial, neuro-protective and anti-tumor agent. However studies have also indicated some mild to serious toxic effects of palladium metallo-elements...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621723/persistent-organic-pollutants-as-predictors-of-increased-fsh-lh-ratio-in-naturally-cycling-reproductive-age-women
#11
Mia V Gallo, Julia Ravenscroft, David O Carpenter, Lawrence M Schell, Akwesasne Task Force On The Environment
Although several recent studies suggest endocrine disrupting compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p', DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), target different organs and systems in the body, their impact on female reproductive function in humans is not well characterized. We seek to determine the relationship between several known endocrine disrupting compounds and a marker of ovarian responsivity, the FSH:LH ratio (higher ratio indicates less ovarian responsivity)...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617360/toxicological-and-pharmacological-assessment-of-agen1884-a-novel-human-igg1-anti-ctla-4-antibody
#12
Randi B Gombos, Ana Gonzalez, Mariana Manrique, Dhan Chand, David Savitsky, Benjamin Morin, Ekaterina Breous-Nystrom, Christopher Dupont, Rebecca A Ward, Cornelia Mundt, Benjamin Duckless, Hao Tang, Mark A Findeis, Andrea Schuster, Jeremy D Waight, Dennis Underwood, Christopher Clarke, Gerd Ritter, Taha Merghoub, David Schaer, Jedd D Wolchok, Marc van Dijk, Jennifer S Buell, Jean-Marie Cuillerot, Robert Stein, Elise E Drouin, Nicholas S Wilson
CTLA-4 and CD28 exemplify a co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory signaling axis that dynamically sculpts the interaction of antigen-specific T cells with antigen-presenting cells. Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies enhance tumor-specific immunity through a variety of mechanisms including: blockade of CD80 or CD86 binding to CTLA-4, repressing regulatory T cell function and selective elimination of intratumoral regulatory T cells via an Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism. AGEN1884 is a novel IgG1 antibody targeting CTLA-4. It potently enhanced antigen-specific T cell responsiveness that could be potentiated in combination with other immunomodulatory antibodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615962/acute-hemichorea-can-be-the-only-clinical-manifestation-of-post-varicella-vasculopathy-two-pediatric-clinical-cases
#13
Chiara Davico, Carlotta Canavese, Aba Tocchet, Chiara Brusa, Benedetto Vitiello
Acute hemichorea can occur in the context of infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and vascular neuropathologies. Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) can result in vasculopathy with neurological manifestations, such as hemiparesis, at times accompanied by hemichorea. Isolated hemichorea, however, had not been reported. We here describe two cases of VZV-induced vasculopathy whose sole clinical manifestation was acute hemichorea. Both cases involved young boys of 3 years of age, who presented with acute hemichorea 4-6 months after initial VZV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615170/disease-characteristics-and-treatment-outcome-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-treated-with-platinum-based-regimens
#14
Amir Sattar, Misbah Masood, Hasan Nisar, Ismat Fatima, Abu Baker Shahid
OBJECTIVE: To determine the disease characteristics of testicular germ cell tumor, biochemical/radiological response to chemotherapy and common toxicity profile. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2013. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-one patients with histologically proven testicular germ cell tumor, who fulfilled the pre-defined eligibility criteria, were selected...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608412/physicians-report-adopting-safer-opioid-prescribing-behaviors-after-academic-detailing-intervention
#15
Mary Jo Larson, Cheryl Browne, Ruslan V Nikitin, Nikki R Wooten, Sarah Ball, Rachel Sayko Adams, Kelly Barth
Background This study evaluated an educational intervention intended to increase physicians' use of patient prescription history information from the state prescription monitoring program (PMP) and their adoption of clinical behaviors consistent with opioid prescription guidelines to reduce patient risk. Methods Physician volunteers (n = 87) in community practices and Veterans Administration medical settings in South Carolina received an office-based, individualized, educational intervention (Academic Detailing) from a trained pharmacist who promoted three key messages about safer opioid prescribing...
April 2, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605202/can-the-ceramic-industry-be-a-new-and-hazardous-sector-for-work-related-asthma
#16
Ozlem Kar Kurt, Dilek Ergun, Nursen Basaran
BACKGROUND: Work-related asthma (WRA) constitutes a significant proportion of all asthma cases and continues to be reported from different industries. The aim of the study was to identify the occupations that can be related to WRA and diagnostic steps used in suspected WRA patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of WRA suspected patients who were referred to Ankara Occupational and Environmental Diseases Hospital, Turkey from January 2015 to January 2017...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596797/biological-and-pharmacological-effects-of-hexahydrocurcumin-a-metabolite-of-curcumin
#17
REVIEW
Yiyuan Huang, Shijie Cao, Qiang Zhang, Hongyang Zhang, Yuqi Fan, Feng Qiu, Ning Kang
Curcumin, one of the most precious pharmacologically relevant natural products, has gained considerable attention among scientists for decades because of its multi-pharmacological activities in the clinical. However, critical studies on its pharmacological and toxicological activities are needed to understand how this compound can have these biological functions considering its poor oral bioavailability and the low plasma concentration. Moreover, curcumin undergoes extensive and rapid metabolism in vivo, indicating that the pharmacological activity of consuming curcumin might be mediated partly by its metabolites...
March 27, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593545/the-cytochrome-p450-mediated-metabolism-alternation-of-four-effective-lignans-from-schisandra-chinensis-in-carbon-tetrachloride-intoxicated-rats-and-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Rongrong Wu, Zhiyong Xiao, Xiaorui Zhang, Feng Liu, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
It is highly valuable to study the pharmacokinetics of herbal components under the pathological condition of liver dysfunction for safe and rational use of herbal medicines. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of four effective lignans from Schisandra chinensis (SC) , schisandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyshisandrin and γ-schisandrin, were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-intoxicated rats. The metabolism of the four lignans was also studied using microsomes from patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588994/-saved-by-the-bell-near-sudep-during-intracranial-eeg-monitoring
#19
Duaa M Ba-Armah, Elizabeth J Donner, Ayako Ochi, Cristina Go, Bláthnaid McCoy, Carter Snead, James Drake, Kevin C Jones
SUDEP is the sudden unexpected death of a person with epilepsy, when no structural or toxicological cause of death can be found. The majority of witnessed cases are reported to be preceded by a convulsive seizure and postictal hypoventilation. Here, we report an 8-year-old girl with drug-resistant focal seizures secondary to a focal cortical dysplasia type IIb. While undergoing invasive intracranial monitoring with subdural and depth electrodes, she had a clinical apnea event recorded on video, followed by bradycardia, which required resuscitation...
March 2018: Epilepsia open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574766/in-vitro-evaluation-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-terephthalate-plasticized-polyvinyl-chloride-blood-bags-for-red-blood-cell-storage-in-as-1-and-paggsm-additive-solutions
#20
Sharon Graminske, Kathleen Puca, Anna Schmidt, Scott Brooks, Amanda Boerner, Sybil Heldke, Monika de Arruda Indig, Mark Brucks, David Kossor
BACKGROUND: Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) makes polyvinyl chloride flexible for use in blood bags and stabilizes the red blood cell (RBC) membrane preventing excessive hemolysis. DEHP migrates into the blood product and rodent studies have suggested that DEHP exposure may be associated with adverse health effects albeit at high dosages. Although structurally and functionally similar to DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT; or Eastman 168 SG [Eastman Chemical Company]) is metabolically distinct with a comprehensive and benign toxicology profile...
March 25, 2018: Transfusion
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