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Claude Desplan

Anthony M Rossi, Claude Desplan
Stem cells self-renew and produce progenitors with limited proliferative potential. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Liu et al. (2017) demonstrate that in some neural stem cells, Notch activity is asymmetrically amplified by a positive feedback loop with the super elongation complex (SEC) to quickly differentiate between stem cells and progenitors.
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
Ted Erclik, Xin Li, Maximilien Courgeon, Claire Bertet, Zhenqing Chen, Ryan Baumert, June Ng, Clara Koo, Urfa Arain, Rudy Behnia, Alberto del Valle Rodriguez, Lionel Senderowicz, Nicolas Negre, Kevin P White, Claude Desplan
In the Drosophila optic lobes, 800 retinotopically organized columns in the medulla act as functional units for processing visual information. The medulla contains over 80 types of neuron, which belong to two classes: uni-columnar neurons have a stoichiometry of one per column, while multi-columnar neurons contact multiple columns. Here we show that combinatorial inputs from temporal and spatial axes generate this neuronal diversity: all neuroblasts switch fates over time to produce different neurons; the neuroepithelium that generates neuroblasts is also subdivided into six compartments by the expression of specific factors...
January 19, 2017: Nature
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Claude Desplan
During development a limited number of progenitors generate diverse cell types that comprise the nervous system. Neuronal diversity, which arises largely at the level of neural stem cells, is critical for brain function. Often these cells exhibit temporal patterning: they sequentially produce neurons of distinct cell fates as a consequence of intrinsic and/or extrinsic cues. Here, we review recent advances in temporal patterning during neuronal specification, focusing on conserved players and mechanisms in invertebrate and vertebrate models...
December 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The temporal transcription factor Krüppel has a dual role in the development of neurons.
October 14, 2016: ELife
Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Nikolaos Konstantinides, Claude Desplan
Nervous system development is a process that integrates cell proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is an evolutionary conserved mechanism and a fundamental developmental process by which the final cell number in a nervous system is established. In vertebrates and invertebrates, PCD can be determined intrinsically by cell lineage and age, as well as extrinsically by nutritional, metabolic, and hormonal states. Drosophila has been an instrumental model for understanding how this mechanism is regulated...
August 2016: FEBS Letters
Michael Perry, Michiyo Kinoshita, Giuseppe Saldi, Lucy Huo, Kentaro Arikawa, Claude Desplan
Butterflies rely extensively on colour vision to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of colour-sensitive Rhodopsin proteins in three types of ommatidia (unit eyes), which are distributed stochastically across the retina. The retinas of Drosophila melanogaster use just two main types, in which fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless in R7 photoreceptors. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional colour comparisons and an expanded range of colour vision...
July 14, 2016: Nature
Michael W Perry, Claude Desplan
A Quick guide to Love Spots: striking male-specific regions of the eye found in some insects that are used for detecting and chasing females.
June 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Zhenqing Chen, Alberto Del Valle Rodriguez, Xin Li, Ted Erclik, Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Claude Desplan
How neuronal and glial fates are specified from neural precursor cells is an important question for developmental neurobiologists. We address this question in the Drosophila optic lobe, composed of the lamina, medulla, and lobula complex. We show that two gliogenic regions posterior to the prospective lamina also produce lamina wide-field (Lawf) neurons, which share common progenitors with lamina glia. These progenitors express neither canonical neuroblast nor lamina precursor cell markers. They bifurcate into two sub-lineages in response to Notch signaling, generating lamina glia or Lawf neurons, respectively...
April 14, 2016: Cell Reports
Nathalie Nériec, Claude Desplan
How stem cells produce the huge diversity of neurons that form the visual system, and how these cells are assembled in neural circuits are a critical question in developmental neurobiology. Investigations in Drosophila have led to the discovery of several basic principles of neural patterning. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the field by describing the development of the Drosophila visual system, from the embryo to the adult and from the gross anatomy to the cellular level. We then explore the general molecular mechanisms identified that might apply to other neural structures in flies or in vertebrates...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
François Payre, Claude Desplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2016: Science
Jens Rister, Ansa Razzaq, Pamela Boodram, Nisha Desai, Cleopatra Tsanis, Hongtao Chen, David Jukam, Claude Desplan
The final identity and functional properties of a neuron are specified by terminal differentiation genes, which are controlled by specific motifs in compact regulatory regions. To determine how these sequences integrate inputs from transcription factors that specify cell types, we compared the regulatory mechanism of Drosophila Rhodopsin genes that are expressed in subsets of photoreceptors to that of phototransduction genes that are expressed broadly, in all photoreceptors. Both sets of genes share an 11-base pair (bp) activator motif...
December 4, 2015: Science
Daniel F Simola, Riley J Graham, Cristina M Brady, Brittany L Enzmann, Claude Desplan, Anandasankar Ray, Laurence J Zwiebel, Roberto Bonasio, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Shelley L Berger
Eusocial insects organize themselves into behavioral castes whose regulation has been proposed to involve epigenetic processes, including histone modification. In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, morphologically distinct worker castes called minors and majors exhibit pronounced differences in foraging and scouting behaviors. We found that these behaviors are regulated by histone acetylation likely catalyzed by the conserved acetyltransferase CBP. Transcriptome and chromatin analysis in brains of scouting minors fed pharmacological inhibitors of CBP and histone deacetylases (HDACs) revealed hundreds of genes linked to hyperacetylated regions targeted by CBP...
January 1, 2016: Science
Mathias F Wernet, Claude Desplan
In this issue of Cell, Langen et al. use time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to show how Drosophila photoreceptor growth cones find their targets. Based on the observed dynamics, they develop a simple developmental algorithm recapitulating the highly complex connectivity pattern of these neurons, suggesting a basic framework for establishing wiring specificity.
July 2, 2015: Cell
Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Claude Desplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2015: Nature
Mathias F Wernet, Michael W Perry, Claude Desplan
Independent evolution has resulted in a vast diversity of eyes. Despite the lack of a common Bauplan or ancestral structure, similar developmental strategies are used. For instance, different classes of photoreceptor cells (PRs) are distributed stochastically and/or localized in different regions of the retina. Here, we focus on recent progress made towards understanding the molecular principles behind patterning retinal mosaics of insects, one of the most diverse groups of animals adapted to life on land, in the air, under water, or on the water surface...
June 2015: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Maximilien Courgeon, Nikolaos Konstantinides, Claude Desplan
Viable but slower growing cells are eliminated during embryonic development through the process of cell competition. Two new studies highlight a role for cell competition during adulthood as a surveillance mechanism that ensures tissue integrity during homeostasis, regeneration, and aging.
April 20, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Rudy Behnia, Claude Desplan
Sensory signals are processed in the brain by dedicated neuronal circuits to form perceptions used to guide behavior. Drosophila, with its compact brain, amenability to genetic manipulations and sophisticated behaviors has emerged as a powerful model for investigating the neuronal circuits responsible for sensory perception. Vision in particular has been examined in detail. Light is detected in the eye by photoreceptors, specialized neurons containing light sensing Rhodopsin proteins. These photoreceptor signals are relayed to the optic lobes where they are processed to gain perceptions about different properties of the visual scene...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Franck Pichaud, Claude Desplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2002: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Nikolaos Konstantinides, Anthony M Rossi, Claude Desplan
Temporal sequences of transcription factors (tTFs) in Drosophila neural progenitors generate neuronal diversity. Mattar et al. (2015) identify Casz1/Castor as a late temporal identity factor in mouse retinal progenitors that is regulated by the early factor Ikzf1/Hunchback, thus generalizing the notion of tTFs.
February 4, 2015: Neuron
Mathias F Wernet, Andrew D Huberman, Claude Desplan
The visual system is a powerful model for probing the development, connectivity, and function of neural circuits. Two genetically tractable species, mice and flies, are together providing a great deal of understanding of these processes. Current efforts focus on integrating knowledge gained from three cross-fostering fields of research: (1) understanding how the fates of different cell types are specified during development, (2) revealing the synaptic connections between identified cell types ("connectomics") by high-resolution three-dimensional circuit anatomy, and (3) causal testing of how identified circuit elements contribute to visual perception and behavior...
December 1, 2014: Genes & Development
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