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Claude Desplan

Olga Minkina, Claude Desplan
As the mammalian outer retina develops, rod and cone photoreceptors synapse with their respective bipolar cells. Sarin et al. (2018) develop a somatic CRISPR technique to determine how genes differentially expressed among the four cell types mediate outer retina development.
April 4, 2018: Neuron
Jennifer A Malin, Claude Desplan
A long non-coding RNA molecule called cherub is a driver of tumor development.
March 27, 2018: ELife
Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Clara Koo, Anthony Michael Rossi, Nathalie Neriec, Claire Bertet, Xin Li, Alberto Del-Valle-Rodriguez, Claude Desplan
Understanding how complex brain wiring is produced during development is a daunting challenge. In Drosophila, information from 800 retinal ommatidia is processed in distinct brain neuropiles, each subdivided into 800 matching retinotopic columns. The lobula plate comprises four T4 and four T5 neuronal subtypes. T4 neurons respond to bright edge motion, whereas T5 neurons respond to dark edge motion. Each is tuned to motion in one of the four cardinal directions, effectively establishing eight concurrent retinotopic maps to support wide-field motion...
April 5, 2018: Cell
Fleur Lebhardt, Claude Desplan
Color vision relies on the ability to discriminate different wavelengths and is often improved in insects that inhabit well-lit, spectrally rich environments. Although the Opsin proteins themselves are sensitive to specific wavelength ranges, other factors can alter and further restrict the sensitivity of photoreceptors to allow for finer color discrimination and thereby more informed decisions while interacting with the environment. The ability to discriminate colors differs between insects that exhibit different life styles, between female and male eyes of the same species, and between regions of the same eye, depending on the requirements of intraspecific communication and ecological demands...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Michael Perry, Nikos Konstantinides, Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The Drosophila visual system has become a premier model for probing how neural diversity is generated during development. Recent work has provided deeper insight into the elaborate mechanisms that control the range of types and numbers of neurons produced, which neurons survive, and how they interact. These processes drive visual function and influence behavioral preferences. Other studies are beginning to provide insight into how neuronal diversity evolved in insects by adding new cell types and modifying neural circuits...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Zhenqing Chen, Anthony M Rossi, Jaqueline Zipfel, Claude Desplan
Neuronal birth and specification must be coordinated across the developing brain to generate the neurons that constitute neural circuits. We used the Drosophila visual system to investigate how development is coordinated to establish retinotopy, a feature of all visual systems. Photoreceptors achieve retinotopy by inducing their target field in the optic lobe, the lamina neurons, with a secreted differentiation cue, epidermal growth factor (EGF). We find that communication between photoreceptors and lamina cells requires a signaling relay through glia...
September 1, 2017: Science
Brent S Wells, Daniela Pistillo, Erin Barnhart, Claude Desplan
Drosophila color vision is achieved by comparing outputs from two types of color-sensitive photoreceptors, R7 and R8. Ommatidia (unit eyes) are classified into two subtypes, known as 'pale' or 'yellow', depending on Rhodopsin expression in R7 and R8. Subtype specification is controlled by a stochastic decision in R7 and instructed to the underlying R8. We find that the Activin receptor Baboon is required in R8 to receive non-redundant signaling from the three Activin ligands, activating the transcription factor dSmad2...
August 30, 2017: ELife
Gregory M Pask, Jesse D Slone, Jocelyn G Millar, Prithwiraj Das, Jardel A Moreira, Xiaofan Zhou, Jan Bello, Shelley L Berger, Roberto Bonasio, Claude Desplan, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray
Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Hua Yan, Comzit Opachaloemphan, Giacomo Mancini, Huan Yang, Matthew Gallitto, Jakub Mlejnek, Alexandra Leibholz, Kevin Haight, Majid Ghaninia, Lucy Huo, Michael Perry, Jesse Slone, Xiaofan Zhou, Maria Traficante, Clint A Penick, Kelly Dolezal, Kaustubh Gokhale, Kelsey Stevens, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Roberto Bonasio, Laurence J Zwiebel, Shelley L Berger, Jürgen Liebig, Danny Reinberg, Claude Desplan
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs...
August 10, 2017: Cell
Anthony M Rossi, Claude Desplan
Stem cells self-renew and produce progenitors with limited proliferative potential. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Liu et al. (2017) demonstrate that in some neural stem cells, Notch activity is asymmetrically amplified by a positive feedback loop with the super elongation complex (SEC) to quickly differentiate between stem cells and progenitors.
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
Ted Erclik, Xin Li, Maximilien Courgeon, Claire Bertet, Zhenqing Chen, Ryan Baumert, June Ng, Clara Koo, Urfa Arain, Rudy Behnia, Alberto del Valle Rodriguez, Lionel Senderowicz, Nicolas Negre, Kevin P White, Claude Desplan
In the Drosophila optic lobes, 800 retinotopically organized columns in the medulla act as functional units for processing visual information. The medulla contains over 80 types of neuron, which belong to two classes: uni-columnar neurons have a stoichiometry of one per column, while multi-columnar neurons contact multiple columns. Here we show that combinatorial inputs from temporal and spatial axes generate this neuronal diversity: all neuroblasts switch fates over time to produce different neurons; the neuroepithelium that generates neuroblasts is also subdivided into six compartments by the expression of specific factors...
January 19, 2017: Nature
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Claude Desplan
During development a limited number of progenitors generate diverse cell types that comprise the nervous system. Neuronal diversity, which arises largely at the level of neural stem cells, is critical for brain function. Often these cells exhibit temporal patterning: they sequentially produce neurons of distinct cell fates as a consequence of intrinsic and/or extrinsic cues. Here, we review recent advances in temporal patterning during neuronal specification, focusing on conserved players and mechanisms in invertebrate and vertebrate models...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The temporal transcription factor Krüppel has a dual role in the development of neurons.
October 14, 2016: ELife
Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Nikolaos Konstantinides, Claude Desplan
Nervous system development is a process that integrates cell proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is an evolutionary conserved mechanism and a fundamental developmental process by which the final cell number in a nervous system is established. In vertebrates and invertebrates, PCD can be determined intrinsically by cell lineage and age, as well as extrinsically by nutritional, metabolic, and hormonal states. Drosophila has been an instrumental model for understanding how this mechanism is regulated...
August 2016: FEBS Letters
Michael Perry, Michiyo Kinoshita, Giuseppe Saldi, Lucy Huo, Kentaro Arikawa, Claude Desplan
Butterflies rely extensively on colour vision to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of colour-sensitive Rhodopsin proteins in three types of ommatidia (unit eyes), which are distributed stochastically across the retina. The retinas of Drosophila melanogaster use just two main types, in which fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless in R7 photoreceptors. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional colour comparisons and an expanded range of colour vision...
July 14, 2016: Nature
Michael W Perry, Claude Desplan
A Quick guide to Love Spots: striking male-specific regions of the eye found in some insects that are used for detecting and chasing females.
June 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Zhenqing Chen, Alberto Del Valle Rodriguez, Xin Li, Ted Erclik, Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Claude Desplan
How neuronal and glial fates are specified from neural precursor cells is an important question for developmental neurobiologists. We address this question in the Drosophila optic lobe, composed of the lamina, medulla, and lobula complex. We show that two gliogenic regions posterior to the prospective lamina also produce lamina wide-field (Lawf) neurons, which share common progenitors with lamina glia. These progenitors express neither canonical neuroblast nor lamina precursor cell markers. They bifurcate into two sub-lineages in response to Notch signaling, generating lamina glia or Lawf neurons, respectively...
April 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Nathalie Nériec, Claude Desplan
How stem cells produce the huge diversity of neurons that form the visual system, and how these cells are assembled in neural circuits are a critical question in developmental neurobiology. Investigations in Drosophila have led to the discovery of several basic principles of neural patterning. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the field by describing the development of the Drosophila visual system, from the embryo to the adult and from the gross anatomy to the cellular level. We then explore the general molecular mechanisms identified that might apply to other neural structures in flies or in vertebrates...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
François Payre, Claude Desplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2016: Science
Jens Rister, Ansa Razzaq, Pamela Boodram, Nisha Desai, Cleopatra Tsanis, Hongtao Chen, David Jukam, Claude Desplan
The final identity and functional properties of a neuron are specified by terminal differentiation genes, which are controlled by specific motifs in compact regulatory regions. To determine how these sequences integrate inputs from transcription factors that specify cell types, we compared the regulatory mechanism of Drosophila Rhodopsin genes that are expressed in subsets of photoreceptors to that of phototransduction genes that are expressed broadly, in all photoreceptors. Both sets of genes share an 11-base pair (bp) activator motif...
December 4, 2015: Science
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