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Radiation-induced malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534509/a-novel-interaction-of-pak4-with-ppar%C3%AE-to-regulate-nox1-and-radiation-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioma
#1
D Kesanakurti, D Maddirela, Y K Banasavadi-Siddegowda, T-H Lai, Z Qamri, N K Jacob, D Sampath, S Mohanam, B Kaur, V K Puduvalli
Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma (GBM) is, in part, attributed to increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced tumor cell dissemination in adjacent brain parenchyma after ionizing radiation (IR). EMT is associated with aggressive behavior, increased stem-like characteristics and treatment resistance in malignancies; however, the underlying signaling mechanisms that regulate EMT are poorly understood. We identified grade-dependent p21-activated kinases 4 (PAK4) upregulation in gliomas and further determined its role in mesenchymal transition and radioresistance...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532242/antioxidant-supplementation-a-linchpin-in-radiation-induced-enteritis
#2
Mumtaz Anwar, Shabeer Ahmad, Reyhan Akhtar, Akhtar Mahmood, Safrun Mahmood
Radiation enteritis is one of the most feared complications of abdominal and pelvic regions. Thus, radiation to abdominal or pelvic malignancies unavoidably injures the intestine. Because of rapid cell turnover, the intestine is highly sensitive to radiation injury, which is the limiting factor in the permissible dosage of irradiation. Bowel injuries such as fistulas, strictures, and chronic malabsorption are potentially life-threatening complications and have an impact on patient quality of life. The incidence of radiation enteritis is increasing because of the current trend of combined chemotherapy and radiation...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530162/radiation-induced-glandular-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor
#3
Ivy John, David L Bartlett, Uma N M Rao
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft-tissue tumors. They can occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1) or as sporadic tumors. Only 10% of MPNSTs are radiation induced. Divergent differentiation in MPNSTs can occur in 15% of cases and may include cartilage, bone, skeletal muscle, blood vessels, and very rarely well-formed glands, the latter typically described in NF-1-associated MPNSTs. We report an exceedingly rare case of radiation induced glandular MPNST arising in a neurofibroma of the femoral nerve in a patient previously irradiated for endometrial carcinoma...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529924/regulation-of-cancer-cell-responsiveness-to-ionizing-radiation-treatment-by-cyclic-amp-response-element-binding-nuclear-transcription-factor
#4
REVIEW
Francesca D'Auria, Lucia Centurione, Maria Antonietta Centurione, Antonio Angelini, Roberta Di Pietro
Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) protein is a member of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family of transcription factors that play an important role in the cell response to different environmental stimuli leading to proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. A number of studies highlight the involvement of CREB in the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) therapy, demonstrating a relationship between IR-induced CREB family members' activation and cell survival. Consistent with these observations, we have recently demonstrated that CREB and ATF-1 are expressed in leukemia cell lines and that low-dose radiation treatment can trigger CREB activation, leading to survival of erythro-leukemia cells (K562)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514220/case-242-radiation-induced-angiosarcoma
#5
Meredith Disharoon, Kamilia F Kozlowski, Jessica M Kaniowski
History In 2004, this woman received a diagnosis of invasive mammillary carcinoma, tubular variant, strongly positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Her lesion was found at screening mammography performed at an outside institution when she was 59 years old. She underwent partial mastectomy, with partial axillary node dissection and sentinel node mapping. A 0.6 × 0.5 cm Nottingham grade 1 infiltrating ductal carcinoma was removed from the right upper outer quadrant, margins were free of tumor, and there was no angiolymphatic invasion...
June 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510090/the-melatonin-immunomodulatory-actions-in-radiotherapy
#6
REVIEW
M Najafi, A Shirazi, E Motevaseli, Gh Geraily, F Norouzi, M Heidari, S Rezapoor
Radiotherapy has a key role in cancer treatment in more than half of patients with cancer. The management of severe side effects of this treatment modality is a limiting factor to appropriate treatment. Immune system responses play a pivotal role in many of the early and late side effects of radiation. Moreover, immune cells have a significant role in tumor response to radiotherapy, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. Melatonin as a potent antioxidant has shown appropriate immune regulatory properties that may ameliorate toxicity induced by radiation in various organs...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506309/social-isolation-and-cancer-management-advanced-rectal-cancer-with-patient-delay-following-the-2011-triple-disaster-in-fukushima-japan-a-case-report
#7
Akihiko Ozaki, Claire Leppold, Toyoaki Sawano, Masaharu Tsubokura, Manabu Tsukada, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Masahiro Kami, Hiromichi Ohira
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of social isolation in the elderly on their process of gaining health information and seeking health care. CASE PRESENTATION: In March 2011, Fukushima, Japan experienced an earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster, also known as Japan's triple disaster. In June 2016, an 80-year-old Japanese man, who lived alone after divorce at the age of 42, presented to our hospital with bloody stools and dizziness. Although his bloody stools initially occurred in May 2015, a year earlier, he did not pursue the possibility of malignancy...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496478/study-of-crocin-radiotherapy-induced-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-in-the-head-and-neck-cancer-hn-5-cell-line
#8
Vahid Vazifedan, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Javad Sargolzaei, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Azar Fani Pakdel
Malignant tumors of head and neck carcinomas are the sixth most common type of cancer. Current systemic therapies for cancer show side effects in normal tissues and short-term efficacy due to drug resistance. Consequently, there is much interest in identifying new drugs for cancer treatment. Crocin (an active ingredient of saffron) has been shown to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines. Chemo radiotherapy is the standard treatment for head and neck cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects, inducing apoptosis and the radiation sensitivity of crocin were evaluated in the head and neck cancer cell line (HN-5)...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493609/second-cancer-risk-assessments-after-involved-site-radiotherapy-for-mediastinal-hodgkin-lymphoma
#9
Michalis Mazonakis, Efrossyni Lyraraki, John Damilakis
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to provide second cancer risk assessments attributable to involved-site radiotherapy (ISRT) of mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and to compare these risks with those from the conventional involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). METHODS: Both ISRT and IFRT plans were made for 11 patients (6 females, 5 males) with HL in the region of mediastinum. All three-dimensional plans involved 6 MV photon beams and delivered 30 Gy to the target site...
May 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490739/honokiol-inhibits-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-immunosuppression-through-inhibition-of-ultraviolet-induced-inflammation-and-dna-hypermethylation-in-mouse-skin
#10
Ram Prasad, Tripti Singh, Santosh K Katiyar
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure induces immunosuppression, which contributes to the development of cutaneous malignancies. We investigated the effects of honokiol, a phytochemical found in plants of the genus Magnolia, on UVB-induced immunosuppression using contact hypersensitivity (CHS) as a model in C3H/HeN mice. Topical application of honokiol (0.5 and 1.0 mg/cm(2) skin area) had a significant preventive effect on UVB-induced suppression of the CHS response. The inflammatory mediators, COX-2 and PGE2, played a key role in this effect, as indicated by honokiol inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and PGE2 production in the UVB-exposed skin...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488593/towards-a-new-dose-and-dose-rate-effectiveness-factor-ddref-some-comments
#11
K H Chadwick
The aim of this article is to offer a broader, mechanism-based, analytical tool than that used by (Rühm et al 2016 Ann. ICRP 45 262-79) for the interpretation of cancer induction relationships. The article explains the limitations of this broader analytical tool and the implications of its use in view of the publications by Leuraud et al 2015 (Lancet Haematol. 2 e276-81) and Richardson et al 2015 (Br. Med. J. 351 h5359). The publication by Rühm et al 2016 (Ann. ICRP 45 262-79), which is clearly work in progress, reviews the current status of the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) as recommended by the ICRP...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477133/dna-damage-response-in-human-stem-cells-and-neural-descendants
#12
Jason M Beckta, Bret R Adams, Kristoffer Valerie
Glial cells are crucial for the normal function of neurons and are intricately involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases as well as neurologic malignancies. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which glial cells influence the development of such pathologies will undoubtedly lead to new and improved therapeutic approaches. Commercially available human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), both of which can be differentiated into neural progenitors (NPs) and various neural cell lineages, have become widely used as sources for producing normal human central nervous system (CNS) cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477107/assaying-radiosensitivity-of-ataxia-telangiectasia
#13
Hailiang Hu, Shareef Nahas, Richard A Gatti
Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is a prototypical genomic instability disorder with multi-organ deficiency and it is caused by the defective function of a single gene, ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated). Radiosensitivity, among the pleiotropic symptoms of A-T, reflects the basic physiological functions of ATM protein in the double strand break (DSB)-induced DNA damage response (DDR) and also restrains A-T patients from the conventional radiation therapy for their lymphoid malignancy. In this chapter, we describe two methods that have been developed in our lab to assess the radiosensitivity of A-T patients: (1) Colony Survival Assay (CSA) and (2) Flow Cytometry of phospho-SMC1 (FC-pSMC1)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476874/long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-mediastinal-radiation-associated-severe-aortic-stenosis-and-subsequent-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-a-matched-cohort-study
#14
Eoin Donnellan, Ahmad Masri, Douglas R Johnston, Gosta B Pettersson, L Leonardo Rodriguez, Zoran B Popovic, Eric E Roselli, Nicholas G Smedira, Lars G Svensson, Brian P Griffin, Milind Y Desai
BACKGROUND: Cardiac disease after mediastinal radiotherapy for thoracic malignancy (chest radiotherapy [XRT]) often manifests as progressive aortic stenosis. In patients with XRT-induced severe aortic stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), we sought to: (1) study long-term survival and compare these patients with a matched cohort undergoing SAVR during the same time frame; and (2) identify potential predictors of long-term mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis undergoing SAVR at our institution, of which there were 172 mediastinal XRT patients (63±13 years, 62% women) matched in a 1:1 fashion (based on age, sex, time of surgery, and aortic valve area) with 172 non-XRT patients (comparison group)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469334/clinical-profile-of-pediatric-oncology-patients-treated-by-external-beam-radiotherapy-an-institutional-experience
#15
Virender Suhag, B S Sunita, Pankaj Vats, Arti Sarin, A K Singh, Mayuri Jain
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignant conditions requiring multimodal treatment, and management of such cases is at time challenging. We present the clinical profile of pediatric cancer patients who received radiation, either alone or as adjuvant to surgery and chemotherapy; in prophylactic, radical or palliative clinical setting. AIM: This study was envisaged to review our experience of pediatric oncology cases, their clinical and morphological profile, dosage schedule of radiotherapy, and the therapy induced complications...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463155/correlation-of-acute-and-late-brainstem-toxicities-with-dose-volume-data-for-pediatric-patients-with-posterior-fossa-malignancies
#16
Ronica H Nanda, Rohit G Ganju, Edward Schreibmann, Zhengjia Chen, Chao Zhang, Naresh Jegadeesh, Richard Cassidy, Claudia Deng, Bree R Eaton, Natia Esiashvili
PURPOSE: Radiation-induced brainstem toxicity after treatment of pediatric posterior fossa malignancies is incompletely understood, especially in the era of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The rates of, and predictive factors for, brainstem toxicity after photon RT for posterior fossa tumors were examined. METHODS AND MATERIALS: After institutional review board approval, 60 pediatric patients treated at our institution for nonmetastatic infratentorial ependymoma and medulloblastoma with IMRT were included in the present analysis...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462217/a-radiation-induced-and-radiation-sensitive-delayed-onset-angiosarcoma-arising-in-a-precursor-lymphangioendothelioma
#17
Michael J McKay, Kirsty Rady, Timothy M McKay, Jeremy N McKay
An 83-year-old female was treated with mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer 30 years prior to developing a new small patch of thickening and scaliness on her left upper back, within the previous radiotherapy field. Serial excision biopsies revealed this to be a lymphangioendothelioma with no suggestion of malignancy. In early 2006 the lesion began to enlarge and take on a more erythematous plaque-like appearance. She was reviewed by a specialist dermatologist and an excision biopsy revealed a low-grade cutaneous angiosarcoma; this was approximately 38 years after radiotherapy to this region, the longest reported period between irradiation and in-field angiosarcoma development (the previous being 16 years)...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462013/stromal-progenitor-cells-in-mitigation-of-non-hematopoietic-radiation-injuries
#18
Shilpa Kulkarni, Timothy C Wang, Chandan Guha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic exposure to high doses of radiation can severely impair organ function due to ablation of stem cells. Normal tissue injury is a dose-limiting toxicity for radiation therapy (RT). Although advances in the delivery of high precision conformal RT has increased normal tissue sparing, mitigating and therapeutic strategies that could alleviate early and chronic radiation effects are urgently needed in order to deliver curative doses of RT, especially in abdominal, pelvic and thoracic malignancies...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460440/histamine-therapeutic-efficacy-in-metastatic-melanoma-role-of-histamine-h4-receptor-agonists-and-opportunity-for-combination-with-radiation
#19
Noelia A Massari, Melisa B Nicoud, Lorena Sambuco, Graciela P Cricco, Diego J Martinel Lamas, María V Herrero Ducloux, Horacio Blanco, Elena S Rivera, Vanina A Medina
The aims of the work were to improve our knowledge of the role of H4R in melanoma proliferation and assess in vivo the therapeutic efficacy of histamine, clozapine and JNJ28610244, an H4R agonist, in a preclinical metastatic model of melanoma. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the combinatorial effect of histamine and gamma radiation on the radiobiological response of melanoma cells.Results indicate that 1205Lu metastatic melanoma cells express H4R and that histamine inhibits proliferation, in part through the stimulation of the H4R, and induces cell senescence and melanogenesis...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460158/designing-core-shell-gold-and-selenium-nanocomposites-for-cancer-radiochemotherapy
#20
Yanzhou Chang, Lizhen He, Zhibin Li, Lilan Zeng, Zhenhuan Song, Penghui Li, Leung Chan, Yuanyuan You, Xue-Feng Yu, Paul K Chu, Tianfeng Chen
Radiotherapy is an important regime for treating malignant tumors. There is interest in the development of radiosensitizers to increase the local treatment efficacy under a relatively low and safe radiation dose. In this study, we designed Au@Se-R/A nanocomposites (Au@Se-R/A NCs) as nano-radiosensitizer to realize synergistic radiochemotherapy based on the radiotherapy sensitization property of Au nanorods (NRs) and antitumor activity of Se NPs. In vitro studies show that the combined treatment of A375 melanoma cells in culture with NCs and X-ray induces cell apoptosis through alteration in expression of p53 and DNA-damaging genes and triggers intracellular ROS overproduction, leading to greatly enhanced anticancer efficacy...
May 9, 2017: ACS Nano
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