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Radiation-induced malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746198/radiation-reduction-during-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-new-protocol-with-a-low-frame-rate-and-selective-fluoroscopic-image-storage
#1
Min Ku Chon, Kook Jin Chun, Dae Sung Lee, Soo Yong Lee, Jongmin Hwang, Sang Hyun Lee, Ki Won Hwang, Jeong Su Kim, Young Huyn Park, June Hong Kim
The percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure is associated with potentially high levels of radiation exposure and therefore increased risk of adverse radiation-induced outcomes, ranging from cataract to malignancy. Frame rate reduction and selective fluoroscopy storage may help reduce radiation exposure. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a radiation reduction protocol that uses a lower frame rate and selective storage of fluoroscopic images in terms of its effect on reducing the radiation dose during PCI...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732326/therapeutic-applications-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-in-sarcoma
#2
REVIEW
Fan Tang, Edwin Choy, Chongqi Tu, Francis Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Sarcomas are a rare group of malignant tumors originating from mesenchymal stem cells. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are currently the only standard treatments for sarcoma. However, their response rates to chemotherapy are quite low. Toxic side effects and multi-drug chemoresistance make treatment even more challenging. Therefore, better drugs to treat sarcomas are needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDACi, HDIs) are epigenetic modifying agents that can inhibit sarcoma growth in vitro and in vivo through a variety of pathways, including inducing tumor cell apoptosis, causing cell cycle arrest, impairing tumor invasion and preventing metastasis...
July 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721902/permeability-of-brain-tumor-vessels-induced-by-uniform-or-spatially-microfractionated-synchrotron-radiation-therapies
#3
Audrey Bouchet, Marine Potez, Nicolas Coquery, Claire Rome, Benjamin Lemasson, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Chantal Rémy, Jean Laissue, Emmanuel L Barbier, Valentin Djonov, Raphael Serduc
PURPOSE: To compare the blood-brain barrier permeability changes induced by synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT, which relies on spatial fractionation of the incident x-ray beam into parallel micron-wide beams) with changes induced by a spatially uniform synchrotron x-ray radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Male rats bearing malignant intracranial F98 gliomas were randomized into 3 groups: untreated, exposed to MRT (peak and valley dose: 241 and 10...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718816/complex-dna-damage-a-route-to-radiation-induced-genomic-instability-and-carcinogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Ifigeneia V Mavragani, Zacharenia Nikitaki, Maria P Souli, Asef Aziz, Somaira Nowsheen, Khaled Aziz, Emmy Rogakou, Alexandros G Georgakilas
Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715145/the-autophagy-receptor-adaptor-p62-is-up-regulated-by-uva-radiation-in-melanocytes-and-in-melanoma-cells
#5
Ashley Sample, Baozhong Zhao, Chunli Wu, Steven Qian, Xianglin Shi, Andrew Aplin, Yu-Ying He
UVA (315-400 nm) is the most abundant in sunlight and is used in indoor tanning beds. However, much remains to be understood about the regulation of the UVA damage response in melanocytes and melanoma. Here we show that UVA, but not the shorter waveband UVB (280-315 nm), up-regulates adaptor protein p62 in an Nrf2- and ROS-dependent manner, suggesting a UVA-specific effect on p62 regulation. UVA-induced p62 up-regulation was inhibited by a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant or Nrf2 knockdown. In addition, p62 knockdown inhibited UVA-induced ROS production and Nrf2 up-regulation...
July 17, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713677/radio-immunotherapy-and-chemo-immunotherapy-as-a-novel-treatment-paradigm-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#6
REVIEW
Licun Wu, Marc de Perrot
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm with poor outcome. Novel radical radiation techniques using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have become an important component of therapy in mesothelioma. Immunotherapy also provides new therapeutic options. However, how best to integrate immunotherapy with standard therapy such as radiation, chemotherapy and surgery remains unknown. A change of paradigm from adjuvant normofractionation to induction accelerated hypofractionated hemithoracic radiation could provide a platform to combine immunotherapy due to the potential benefit of short course high dose radiation on the immune system...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712852/osteonecrosis-of-the-jaws-a-review-and-update-in-etiology-and-treatment
#7
Guilherme H Ribeiro, Emanuely S Chrun, Kamile L Dutra, Filipe I Daniel, Liliane J Grando
INTRODUCTION: Osteonecrosis of the jaws can result either from radiation, used in radiotherapy for treatment of malignant tumors, or medications used for bone remodeling and anti-angiogenesis such as bisphosphonates. These conditions can be associated with triggering factors such as infection, trauma and decreased vascularity. The management of patients with osteonecrosis of the jaws requires caution since there is no specific treatment that acts isolated and decidedly. However, different treatment modalities can be employed in an associated manner to control and stabilize lesions...
June 24, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712070/flow-diverter-in-radiation-induced-skull-base-carotid-blowout-syndrome-do-not-write-it-off
#8
Gopinathan Anil, Junwei Zhang, Yew Kwang Ong, Francis Hui
Post-radiotherapy carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) of the skull base is a rare but often catastrophic complication of head and neck malignancies. The existing literature on the treatment of this condition with flow-diverting devices (FDD) is extremely limited and disappointing. We present a case of impending CBS in a patient previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal cancer that was successfully treated with use of multiple FDDs, adjunctive endonasal packing and delayed reinforcement with pedicled naso-septal flap, yielding an excellent outcome at 14-months follow-up...
July 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711224/the-radioprotector-ortho-phospho-l-tyrosine-ptyr-attenuates-the-side-effects-of-fractionated-irradiation-in-retinoblastoma-mouse-models-but-also-decreases-the-local-tumour-control
#9
Alexander V Tschulakow, Klaus Dittmann, Stephan M Huber, Dominik Klumpp, Benjamin Stegen, Ulrich Schraermeyer, H Peter Rodemann, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is used to treat retinoblastoma (Rb), the most frequent ocular tumour in children. Besides eradicating the tumour, RT can cause severe side effects including secondary malignancies. This study aimed to define whether the radioprotector ortho-phospho-L-tyrosine (pTyr) prevents RT-induced side effects and affects local tumour control in a xenograft and a genetic orthotopic Rb mouse model. METHODS: B6;129-Rb1tm3Tyj/J (Rb(+/-)) and Y79-Rb cell-xenografted nude mice were fractionated external beam irradiated (15 fractions of 5Gy 6MV photons during 3weeks) with or without pTyr pre-treatment (100mg/kg BW, 16h prior to each irradiation)...
July 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708593/microrna-33a-5p-increases-radiosensitivity-by-inhibiting-glycolysis-in-melanoma
#10
Ke Cao, Jingjing Li, Jia Chen, Li Qian, Aijun Wang, Xiang Chen, Wei Xiong, Jintian Tang, Shijie Tang, Yong Chen, Yao Chen, Yan Cheng, Jianda Zhou
Glycolysis was reported to have a positive correlation with radioresistance. Our previous study found that the miR-33a functioned as a tumor suppressor in malignant melanoma by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor1-alpha (HIF-1α), a gene known to promote glycolysis. However, the role of miR-33a-5p in radiosensitivity remains to be elucidated. We found that miR-33a-5p was downregulated in melanoma tissues and cells. Cell proliferation was downregulated after overexpression of miR-33a-5p in WM451 cells, accompanied by a decreased level of glycolysis...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707199/radiation-induced-inflammatory-cascade-and-its-reverberating-crosstalks-as-potential-cause-of-post-radiotherapy-second-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Sonia Gandhi, Sudhir Chandna
The disease-free survival following radiotherapy is often limited by the development of second/secondary cancers. This significant impediment to effective cancer treatment implicated even in the modern-day radiotherapy needs to be countered effectively. Critical analysis reveals that besides achieving effective tumor control, radiotherapy elicits certain cellular and systemic inflammatory events in tumor infiltrate, which remain relatively stable and tend to facilitate "in-field" or "out of field" oncogenesis in due course of time...
July 13, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706761/rapidly-fatal-radiation-induced-glioblastoma
#12
Ivy Ng, Char Loo Tan, Tseng Tsai Yeo, Balamurugan Vellayappan
Glioblastoma (GBM) typically occurs as a primary tumour (i.e., primary GBM) and predominantly affects elderly patients. The remaining ~10% occur as a result of malignant progression from lower grade astrocytic tumours (i.e., secondary GBM). Although there are no certain causative environmental agents, prior radiation exposure may play a role. We report on a patient who had been treated six years prior for a vestibular schwannoma with high-dose conventional radiotherapy and subsequently developed a rapidly fatal glioblastoma at the same location...
June 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697174/uv-radiation-promotes-melanoma-dissemination-mediated-by-the-sequential-reaction-axis-of-cathepsins-tgf-%C3%AE-1-fap-%C3%AE
#13
Petra Wäster, Kyriakos Orfanidis, Ida Eriksson, Inger Rosdahl, Oliver Seifert, Karin Öllinger
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major risk factor for development of malignant melanoma. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-α is a serine protease expressed on the surface of activated fibroblasts, promoting tumour invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. The signalling mechanism behind the upregulation of FAP-α is not yet completely revealed. METHODS: Expression of FAP-α was analysed after UVR exposure in in vitro co-culture systems, gene expression arrays and artificial skin constructs...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693198/pulmonary-toxicity-generated-from-radiotherapeutic-treatment-of-thoracic-malignancies
#14
Guodong Deng, Ning Liang, Jian Xie, Hui Luo, Lili Qiao, Jingxin Zhang, Dawei Wang, Jiandong Zhang
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) remains a major obstacle for thoracic radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer, esophageal cancer and lymphoma. It is the principal dose-limiting complication, and can markedly impair the therapeutic ratio as well as a patient's quality of life. The current review presents the relevant concepts associated with RILI, including the pathogenic mechanisms and the potential treatment strategies, so as to achieve a general understanding of this issue. RILI comprises an acute radiation pneumonitis phase and subsequent late lung fibrosis...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692051/transcriptional-regulation-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-and-rad3-related-protein-by-activated-p21-activated-kinase-1-protects-keratinocytes-in-uv-b-induced-premalignant-skin-lesions
#15
S Beesetti, J Mavuluri, R P Surabhi, T M Oberyszyn, K Tober, R S Pitani, L D Joseph, G Venkatraman, S K Rayala
Sun-induced skin lesions, in particular actinic keratosis, are generally considered as premalignant skin lesions that can progress into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and invasive SCC if left untreated. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-exposed cells are being protected and the signaling pathways that promote the progression of certain premalignant skin lesions to malignant lesions will permit us to prevent or cure skin cancers. In the current study, we found that phospho-p21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1) and Pak1 expression was high in clinical samples of sunlight-induced premalignant skin lesions assessed by immunohistochemistry...
July 10, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689346/electromagnetic-navigation-guided-neuroendoscopic-removal-of-radiation-induced-intraforniceal-cavernoma-as-a-late-complication-of-medulloblastoma-treatment
#16
Petr Liby, J Zamecnik, M Kyncl, J Zackova, M Tichy
INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumour in children. Radiation-induced cavernous haemangiomas (RICHs) are a known late complication of radiation exposure, especially in young children. CASE REPORT: We present a patient who underwent subtotal resection of posterior fossa medulloblastoma with subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the age of 10 years. A new lesion in the region of the left foramen of Monro appeared 16 years later...
July 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678827/identifying-novel-genes-and-biological-processes-relevant-to-the-development-of-cancer-therapy-induced-mucositis-an-informative-gene-network-analysis
#17
Cielito C Reyes-Gibby, Stephanie C Melkonian, Jian Wang, Robert K Yu, Samuel A Shelburne, Charles Lu, Gary Brandon Gunn, Mark S Chambers, Ehab Y Hanna, Sai-Ching J Yeung, Sanjay Shete
Mucositis is a complex, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy or radiotherapy that leads to painful mouth ulcers, difficulty eating or swallowing, gastrointestinal distress, and reduced quality of life for patients with cancer. Mucositis is most common for those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for those being treated for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatment and management of mucositis remain challenging. It is expected that multiple genes are involved in the formation, severity, and persistence of mucositis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676457/on-the-role-of-classical-and-novel-forms-of-vitamin-d-in-melanoma-progression-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Anna A Brozyna, Cezary Skobowiat, Michal A Zmijewski, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Allen S Oak, Wojciech Jozwicki, Anton M Jetten, Rebecca S Mason, Craig Elmets, We Li, Robert M Hoffman, Robert C Tuckey
Melanoma represents a significant clinical problem affecting a large segment of the population with a relatively high incidence and mortality rate. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important etiological factor in malignant transformation of melanocytes and melanoma development. UVB, while being a full carcinogen in melanomagenesis, is also necessary for the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 (D3). Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) and novel CYP11A1-derived hydroxyderivatives of D3 show anti-melanoma activities and protective properties against damage induced by UVB...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676423/functional-interplay-between-secreted-ligands-and-receptors-in-melanoma
#19
REVIEW
Cecilia Herraiz, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes, Berta Sánchez-Laorden, José C García-Borrón
Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, results from the malignant transformation of melanocytes located in the basement membrane separating the epidermal and dermal skin compartments. Cutaneous melanoma is often initiated by solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced mutations. Melanocytes intimately interact with keratinocytes, which provide growth factors and melanocortin peptides acting as paracrine regulators of proliferation and differentiation. Keratinocyte-derived melanocortins activate melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) to protect melanocytes from the carcinogenic effect of UVR...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674216/microrna-200c-increases-radiosensitivity-of-human-cancer-cells-with-activated-egfr-associated-signaling
#20
Taeryool Koo, Bong Jun Cho, Dan Hyo Kim, Ji Min Park, Eun Jung Choi, Hans H Kim, David J Lee, In Ah Kim
MicroRNA-200c (miR-200c) recently was found to have tumor-suppressive properties by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in several cancers. miR-200c also interacts with various cellular signaling molecules and regulates many important signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of miR-200c and its mechanism in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Malignant glioma (U251, T98G), breast cancer (MDA-MB-468), and lung carcinoma (A549) cells were transfected with control pre-microRNA, pre-miR-200c, or anti-miR-200c...
July 3, 2017: Oncotarget
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