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Radiation-induced malignancy

Johan Spetz, Javid Moslehi, Kristopher Sarosiek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of malignancies, yet the cardiovascular (CV) toxicity that can result from chest radiotherapy impairs the long-term health of cancer survivors and can be a limiting factor for its use. Despite over 100 years of successful clinical use, the mechanisms by which high-energy photons damage critical components within cells of the heart's myocardium, pericardium, vasculature, and valves remain unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies exploring the acute and chronic effects of radiation therapy on cardiac and vascular tissue have provided new insights into the development and progression of heart disease, including the identification and understanding of age- and complication-associated risk factors...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Hiroaki Murata, Kenzou Koyama, Yasunobu Takezawa, Yasunori Nishigaki
The present study reports a rare case of radiation recall pneumonitis attributed to ifosfamide that was used as a single antitumor agent for a recurrent malignant soft tissue tumor, arising from the chest wall. A 74-year-old man, who had a mass in his right upper chest wall, underwent surgical excision under the diagnosis of chronic expanding hematoma. He was referred to the present hospital with a recurrent tumor as the excised tumor was diagnosed as undifferentiated high-grade sarcoma. The extension of the tumor following previous surgery was aggressive and the tumor margins were unclear on magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
L Bua, E Tibaldi, L Falcioni, M Lauriola, L De Angelis, F Gnudi, M Manservigi, F Manservisi, I Manzoli, I Menghetti, R Montella, S Panzacchi, D Sgargi, V Strollo, A Vornoli, D Mandrioli, F Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Xiaowen Sun, Lei Deng, You Lu
Microvessels promote proliferation of tumor cells by delivering oxygen and nutrients, but rapid growth of tumors results in unmet demands for oxygen and nutrients, thereby creating a hypoxia microenvironment. Under hypoxic conditions, vascular endothelial cells (ECs) initiate the formation of immature and abnormal microvasculature. This results in leakage and tortuosity that facilitates tumor cell invasion, metastasis and resistance to cytotoxic treatment. Radiotherapy (RT) is a vital tumor treatment modality...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Valerio Nardone, Paolo Tini, Stefania Croci, Salvatore Francesco Carbone, Lucio Sebaste, Tommaso Carfagno, Giuseppe Battaglia, Pierpaolo Pastina, Giovanni Rubino, Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Luigi Pirtoli
Background: The aim of our work is to assess the potential role of texture analysis (TA), applied to computed tomography (CT) simulation scans, in relation to the development of insufficiency fractures (IFs) in patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for pelvic malignancies. Methods: We analyzed patients undergoing pelvic RT from Jan-2010 to Dec-2016, 31 of whom had developed IFs of the pelvis. We analyzed CT simulation scans using LifeX Software© , and in particular we selected three regions of interest (ROI): L5 body, the sacrum and both the femoral heads...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Arunee Hematulin, Sutiwan Meethang, Kitsana Utapom, Sopit Wongkham, Daniel Sagan
Radiotherapy has been accounted as the most comprehensive cancer treatment modality over the past few decades. However, failure of this treatment modality occurs in several malignancies due to the resistance of cancer cells to radiation. It was previously reported by the present authors that defective cell cycle checkpoints could be used as biomarkers for predicting the responsiveness to radiation in individual patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, identification of functional defective cell cycle checkpoints from cells from a patient's tissues is cumbersome and not applicable in the clinic...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Michael T Milano, Jimm Grimm, Scott G Soltys, Ellen Yorke, Vitali Moiseenko, Wolfgang A Tomé, Arjun Sahgal, Jinyu Xue, Lijun Ma, Timothy D Solberg, John P Kirkpatrick, Louis S Constine, John C Flickinger, Lawrence B Marks, Issam El Naqa
PURPOSE: Dosimetric and clinical predictors of radiation-induced optic nerve/chiasm neuropathy (RION) after single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or hypofractionated (2-5 fractions) radiosurgery (fSRS) were analyzed from pooled data that were extracted from published reports (PubMed indexed from 1990 to June 2015). This study was undertaken as part of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Working Group on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy, investigating normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) after hypofractionated radiation...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Peter V Deraska, Colin O'Leary, Hunter D Reavis, Shelby Labe, Tru-Khang Dinh, Jean-Bernard Lazaro, Christopher Sweeney, Alan D D'Andrea, David Kozono
Despite optimal chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT), and/or surgery, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the US and worldwide. Thoracic RT, a mainstay in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, is often restricted in efficacy by a therapeutic index limited by sensitivity of tissues surrounding the malignancy. Therefore, radiosensitizers that can improve the therapeutic index are a vital unmet need. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway is a proposed mechanism of radiosensitization...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Olivier van Wulfften Palthe, Kyung-Wook Jee, Jos A M Bramer, Francis J Hornicek, Yen-Lin E Chen, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND: Effects of high-dose radiation using protons and photons on bone are relatively unexplored, but high rates of insufficiency fractures are reported, and the causes of this are incompletely understood. Imaging studies with pre- and postradiation scans can help one understand the effect of radiation on bone. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-dose radiation on the trabecular density of bone in the sacrum using CT-derived Hounsfield units (HU)...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Bronagh M McDonnell, Paul J Buchanan, Kevin M Prise, Karen D McCloskey
Radiation-induced bladder toxicity is associated with radiation therapy for pelvic malignancies, arising from unavoidable irradiation of neighbouring normal bladder tissue. This study aimed to investigate the acute impact of ionizing radiation on the contractility of bladder strips and identify the radiation-sensitivity of the mucosa vs the detrusor. Guinea-pig bladder strips (intact or mucosa-free) received ex vivo sham or 20Gy irradiation and were studied with in vitro myography, electrical field stimulation and Ca2+-fluorescence imaging...
2018: PloS One
Abdelfettah Zidane, Adil Arsalane, Mohammed Lahkim, Issam Lalya, Abderrahim Ktaibi, Ismail Essadi
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy associated with chemotherapy is a well-established treatment modality for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. Radiation-induced second malignancies, particularly radiation-induced sarcomas, are rare. Some authors reported a recent increase in the incidence of this rare complication, especially because of the improved prognosis and survival of patients after radiotherapy. Pathogenic mechanisms of radiation-induced sarcomas are poorly understood. However, diagnosis criteria are well established...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Michael Rückert, Lisa Deloch, Rainer Fietkau, Benjamin Frey, Markus Hecht, Udo S Gaipl
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) has been known for decades as a local treatment modality for malign and benign disease. In order to efficiently exploit the therapeutic potential of RT, an understanding of the immune modulatory properties of ionizing radiation is mandatory. These should be used for improvement of radioimmunotherapies for cancer in particular. METHODS: We here summarize the latest research and review articles about immune modulatory properties of RT, with focus on radiation dose and on combination of RT with selected immunotherapies...
March 2, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Sylvia Gruber, Katharina Frings, Peter Kuess, Wolfgang Dörr
PURPOSE: Oral mucositis is a frequent, dose-limiting side effect of radio(chemo)therapy of head-and-neck malignancies. The epithelial radiation response is based on multiple tissue changes, which could offer targets for a biologically tailored treatment. The potential of dermatan sulfate (DS) to modulate radiation-induced oral mucositis was tested in an established preclinical mucositis model. METHODS: Irradiation was either applied alone or in combination with daily DS treatment (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) over varying time intervals...
March 1, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Lydia Meziani, Michele Mondini, Benoît Petit, Alexandre Boissonnas, Vincent Thomas de Montpreville, Olaf Mercier, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, Eric Deutsch
Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RIF) is a delayed side-effect of chest radiotherapy, frequently associated with macrophage infiltration.We aimed to characterise the role of pulmonary macrophages in RIF using human lung biopsies from patients receiving radiotherapy for thorax malignancies and a RIF model developed in C57BL/6 mice after 16-Gy thorax irradiation.High numbers of macrophages (both interstitial and alveolar) were detected in clinical and preclinical RIF. In the preclinical model, upregulation of T-helper (Th)2 cytokines was measured, whereas Th1 cytokines were downregulated in RIF tissue lysate...
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Hasan Norouzi, Karim Khoshgard, Fatemeh Akbarzadeh
Hyperthermia is an anti-cancer treatment in which the temperature of the malignant tumor is increased more than other adjacent normal tissues. Microwave, ultrasound, laser, and radiofrequency sources have been used for hyperthermia of cancerous tissues. In the past decade, near-infrared (NIR) laser for cancer therapy, known as photo-thermal therapy (PTT), was expanded in which the photo-sensitizer agent converts the light photon energy to heat. The heat following PTT can destroy cancer cells. There are some photo-sensitizer agents which have been used for PTT; however, owing to recent advances in nanotechnology, noble metal nanoparticles like gold (Au) nanoparticles (GNPs) have been used successfully in PTT...
February 28, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Radhe Mohan, Kathryn D Held, Michael D Story, David Grosshans, Jacek Capala
In April 2016, the National Cancer Institute hosted a multidisciplinary workshop to discuss the current knowledge of the radiobiological aspects of charged particles used in cancer therapy to identify gaps in that knowledge that might hinder the effective clinical use of charged particles and to propose research that could help fill those gaps. The workshop was organized into 10 topics ranging from biophysical models to clinical trials and included treatment optimization, relative biological effectiveness of tumors and normal tissues, hypofractionation with particles, combination with immunotherapy, "omics," hypoxia, and particle-induced second malignancies...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Moyed Miften, Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy, Vitali Moiseenko, Jimm Grimm, Ellen Yorke, Andrew Jackson, Wolfgang A Tomé, Randall K Ten Haken, Nitin Ohri, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Karyn A Goodman, Lawrence B Marks, Brian Kavanagh, Laura A Dawson
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective, noninvasive treatment option for primary liver cancer and metastatic disease occurring in the liver. Although SBRT can be highly effective for establishing local control in hepatic malignancies, a tradeoff exists between tumor control and normal tissue complications. The objective of the present study was to review the normal tissue dose-volume effects for SBRT-induced liver and gastrointestinal toxicities and derive normal tissue complication probability models...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Bhanu Prasad Venkatesulu, Supriya Mallick, Steven H Lin, Sunil Krishnan
Lymphopenia is a common accompaniment of multimodal cancer therapy. As the most radiosensitive cells of the hematopoietic system, lymphocytes residing within or circulating through a radiation portal are frequently depleted by radiation therapy. The recognition that radiation-induced reduction of circulating lymphocyte counts and eventual lymphocyte infiltration of tumors have a tangible impact on overall survival outcomes has revived the interest in understanding the causes of treatment-associated lymphopenia and developing strategies to predict, prevent and ameliorate this well-documented phenomenon...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Adrien Paix, Delphine Antoni, Waisse Waissi, Marie-Pierre Ledoux, Karin Bilger, Luc Fornecker, Georges Noel
Hematologic malignancies may require, at one point during their treatment, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Total body irradiation combined with chemotherapy or radiomimetic used in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is known to be very toxic. Total body irradiation (TBI) induces immunosuppression to prevent the rejection of donor marrow. TBI is also used to eradicate malignant cells and is in sanctuary organs that are not reached by chemotherapy drugs. TBI has evolved since its introduction in the late fifties, but acute and late toxicities remain...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Richard L Attanoos, Andrew Churg, Francoise Galateau-Salle, Allen R Gibbs, Victor L Roggli
CONTEXT: - Although many mesotheliomas are related to asbestos exposure, not all are, and there is increasing information on other causes of mesothelioma. OBJECTIVE: - To provide a review of non-asbestos causes for malignant mesothelioma. DATA SOURCES: - Review of relevant literature published via PubMed and other search engines. CONCLUSIONS: - Currently, most pleural mesotheliomas (70% to 90%) in men in Europe and North America are attributable to asbestos exposure; for peritoneal mesothelioma the proportion is lower...
February 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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