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Radiation-induced malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943933/zoledronic-acid-augments-the-radiosensitivity-of-cancer-cells-through-perturbing-s-and-m-phase-cyclins-and-p21-cip1-expression
#1
Chi Du, Yuyi Wang, Haijun Li, Yi Huang, Ou Jiang, Yanjie You, Feng Luo
Radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy have become the standard treatments for multiple types of cancer. Although cancer cells are usually sensitive to radiotherapy, metastasis and local failure still occur mainly due to developed resistance to radiotherapy. Thus, it is critical to improve therapeutics for cancer treatment. The present study demonstrated that third-generation bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZOL), even at a low concentration, augments the radiosensitivity of cancer cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) by inducing S-phase arrest and subsequently promoting apoptosis...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932944/-cognitive-deficits-following-brain-tumor-radiation-therapy
#2
REVIEW
M Buthut, R Haussmann, A Seidlitz, M Krause, M Donix
Brain radiation is an important treatment option for malignant and benign brain diseases. The possible acute or chronic impact of radiation therapy on cognitive performance is important for daily functioning and quality of life. A detailed evaluation of cognitive impairment is important in the context of how to control disease progression. The susceptibility of the hippocampus to radiation-induced neuronal damage and its important role in memory highlight that therapeutic strategies require precision medicine...
September 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931214/baicalin-alleviates-radiation-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-primary-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-via-tgf-%C3%AE-and-erk-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathways
#3
Jinhua Lu, Yazhen Zhong, Zechen Lin, Xianlei Lin, Zhaohui Chen, Xuping Wu, Nan Wang, Haiqiao Zhang, Siyu Huang, Yuan Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Shengyou Lin
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat thoracic malignancies. However, it may lead to severe lung pneumonitis and ultimately fibrosis. Irradiation has been reported to increase epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), which play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and ERK/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathways are critically involved in radiation-induced EMT. In the present study, we investigated whether baicalin was a novel therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced EMT in type II AEC...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929083/emerging-therapies-for-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Sameera S Kumar, Kristin A Higgins, Ronald C McGarry
The current standard of care for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery in certain individualized cases. In unresectable NSCLC, chemoradiation has been the standard of care for the past three decades. Local and distant failure remains high in this group of patients, so dose escalation has been studied in both single institution and national clinical trials. Though initial studies showed a benefit to dose escalation, phase III studies examining dose escalation using standard fractionation or hyperfractionation have failed to show a benefit...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917247/the-optimism-surrounding-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunomodulation
#5
Hannah Tharmalingam, Peter J Hoskin
In recent years, rapidly evolving radiation techniques have enabled the precise delivery of very high doses of radiation to local targets with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). In addition to its direct cytotoxicity, radiation and in particular SABR has powerful immunomodulatory effects resulting in immunogenic cell death and potentiation of the anti-tumour immune response. However, due to the immunosuppressive nature of non-irradiated sites of metastases, radiotherapy alone is seldom sufficient to induce the systemic response required for distant tumour rejection...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910456/identification-of-alk-rearrangements-in-malignant-peritoneal-mesothelioma
#6
Yin P Hung, Fei Dong, Jaclyn C Watkins, Valentina Nardi, Raphael Bueno, Paola Dal Cin, John J Godleski, Christopher P Crum, Lucian R Chirieac
Importance: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive tumor arising from the peritoneal lining, induced by asbestos, therapeutic radiation, or germline mutations. Nevertheless, the molecular features remain largely unknown. Objective: To investigate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in a large series of peritoneal mesothelioma and characterize the mutational landscape of these tumors. Design, Setting, and Participants: We studied 88 consecutive patients (39 men, 49 women; median age 61, range 17-84 years) with peritoneal mesotheliomas diagnosed at a single institution between 2005 and 2015...
September 14, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900036/polo-like-kinase-1-plk1-overexpression-enhances-ionizing-radiation-induced-cancer-formation-in-mice
#7
Zhiguo Li, Jinghui Liu, Jie Li, Yifan Kong, George Sandusky, Xi Rao, Yunlong Liu, Jun Wan, Xiaoqi Liu
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a serine/threonine protein kinase normally expressed in mitosis, is frequently upregulated in multiple types of human tumors regardless of the cell cycle stage. However, the causal relationship between Plk1 upregulation and tumorigenesis is incompletely investigated. To this end, using a conditional expression system, here we generated Plk1 transgenic mouse lines to examine Plk1 role in tumorigenesis. Plk1 overexpression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from the transgenic mice led to aberrant mitosis followed by aneuploidy and apoptosis...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892775/challenges-and-perspectives-in-the-immunotherapy-of-hodgkin-lymphoma
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Marie Michot, Julien Lazarovici, David Ghez, Alina Danu, Christophe Fermé, Amélie Bigorgne, Vincent Ribrag, Aurélien Marabelle, Sandrine Aspeslagh
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) was one of the first few cancers to be cured first with radiotherapy alone and then with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Around 80% of the patients with HL will be cured by first-line therapy. However, the ionising radiation not only produces cytotoxicity but also induces alterations in the microenvironment, and patients often struggle with the long-term consequences of these treatments, such as cardiovascular disorders, lung diseases and secondary malignancies. Hence, it is essential to improve treatments while avoiding delayed side-effects...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890386/co-targeting-c-met-and-dna-double-strand-breaks-dsbs-therapeutic-strategies-in-brca-mutated-gastric-carcinomas
#9
REVIEW
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Michalis V Karamouzis, Dimitrios Schizas, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Gastric cancer (GC) is a threatening malignancy characterized by heterogeneity. Current therapies use DNA damaging agents, for example, chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation (IR). However, a significant portion of GC patients develops therapeutic resistance to DNA damage response (DDR) - inducing agents. An important mechanism is the stimulation of the c-MET RTK, which is a tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which facilitates cell survival by boosting DNA damage repair pathways and via escaping cell cycle arrest...
September 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889233/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-cavernous-sinus-otolaryngological-sequelae-of-therapy-case-report
#10
Edyta Dzięciołowska-Baran, Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka
A 60-year-old woman, otherwise in a good health condition, was first admitted to the hospital with a year-long tingling sensations of the right half of the face, which gradually turned into severe neuralgia corresponding to maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) branches of the right trigeminal nerve. MRI scans of the head revealed an unusual hyperplastic or inflammatory changes along the brain base, cavernous sinus extending toward the pterygopalatine fossa, and lateral pterygoid on the right side. Meningioma was suspected and neuralgia was treated conservatively...
September 10, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886981/-lung-dose-constraints-for-normo-fractionated-radiotherapy-and-for-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#11
E Blais, B Pichon, A Mampuya, M Antoine, P Lagarde, G Kantor, C Breton-Callu, C Lefebvre, M Gerard, A Aamarcha, M Ozsahin, J Bourhis, P Maingon, I Troussier, N Pourel
Radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is common after radiation therapy and represents cornerstone toxicities after treatment of thoracic malignancies. From a review of literature, the objective of this article was to summarize clinical and non-clinical parameters associated with the risk of RILD in the settings of normo-fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). For the treatment of lung cancers with a normo-fractionated treatment, the mean lung dose (MLD) should be below 15-20Gy...
September 5, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871993/predicted-rate-of-secondary-malignancies-following-adjuvant-proton-versus-photon-radiation-therapy-for-thymoma
#12
J Vogel, L Lin, L A Litzky, A T Berman, C B Simone
PURPOSE: Thymic malignancies are the most common tumors of the anterior mediastinum. The benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy for stage II disease remains controversial, and patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy are at risk of late complications, including radiation-induced secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs), that may reduce the overall benefit of treatment. We assess the risk of predicted SMNs following adjuvant proton radiation therapy compared with photon radiation therapy after resection of stage II thymic malignancies to determine whether proton therapy improves the risk-benefit ratio...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865520/thoracic-radiation-normal-tissue-injury
#13
REVIEW
Charles B Simone
Thoracic malignancies are often a difficult group of tumors to treat definitively as the radiation doses needed to achieve a high probability for tumor control are often associated with high rates of radiation-induced toxicities. The lungs are particularly radiosensitive and are susceptible to radiation pneumonitis in the acute and subacute settings and pulmonary fibrosis in the late setting. Acute esophagitis is common and affects patient quality of life. Beyond acute pericarditis, late cardiac toxicities are increasingly being recognized as clinically relevant when delivering thoracic radiotherapy and can affect overall survival...
October 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865519/pelvic-radiation-and-normal-tissue-toxicity
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Nicholas, Linda Chen, Amanda Choflet, Amanda Fader, Zachary Guss, Sarah Hazell, Daniel Y Song, Phuoc T Tran, Akila N Viswanathan
Radiation is a component of treatment for many pelvic malignancies, most often originating in the gynecologic, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Therefore, the management of acute and long-term side effects is an important part of practice as a radiation oncologist, and limiting morbidity is a primary goal. Toxicities vary and are dependent on treatment techniques. Advances in radiation delivery, imaging, and knowledge of underlying biologic determinants of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity can guide treatment of acute and long-term side effects from pelvic radiation...
October 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845954/phototherapy-of-mycosis-fungoides
#15
Franz Trautinger
Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common variant of among cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL), is characterised in its early stages by clonal proliferation of malignant T-cells in the skin manifesting as erythematous patches and plaques with a chronic course and progression to cutaneous tumors and extracutaneous organs in some patients. Skin directed therapies (SDT) are primarily used for effective palliation in early stage disease. Phototherapy with ultraviolet A radiation combined with 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) and with ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) has a longstanding history in the treatment of MF and are highly effective in inducing remissions...
July 28, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822765/real-time-monitoring-of-circulating-tumor-cell-ctc-release-after-nanodrug-or-tumor-radiotherapy-using-in-in%C3%A2-vivo-flow-cytometry
#16
Nathan A Koonce, Mazen A Juratli, Chengzhong Cai, Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Yulian A Menyaev, Judith Dent, Charles M Quick, Ruud P M Dings, Dmitry Nedosekin, Vladimir Zharov, Robert J Griffin
Noninvasive biological readouts of tumor metastatic risk and therapeutic efficacy are needed as healthcare costs rise. CTCs are the source of metastasis in distant organs that are responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Here we demonstrate the acute and long-term effect of vascular disrupting therapies (high-dose radiotherapy and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)) on CTCs released from the primary tumor with a non-invasive real-time in vivo flow cytometry system. Using our innovative flow cytometry platform, we show here that radiation and nanodrug treatment can lead to short term release of CTC from the primary tumor...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817446/bevacizumab-as-an-effective-treatment-for-radiation-necrosis-after-radiotherapy-for-melanoma-brain-metastases
#17
Isabella C Glitza, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Neil M D'Souza, Rodabe N Amaria, Susan L McGovern, Ganesh Rao, Jing Li
Radiation necrosis (RN) is a potential late complication of radiotherapy for intracranial malignancy, which is often associated with significant neurological morbidity. Prolonged treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or surgical resection has been the standard care for RN, but protracted steroid use can lead to significant side effects and surgical resection is not always feasible. The antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab induces clinical and radiographic improvements in RN, with overall good tolerance...
August 16, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814448/carcinogen-susceptibility-is-regulated-by-genome-architecture-and-predicts-cancer-mutagenesis
#18
Pablo E García-Nieto, Erin K Schwartz, Devin A King, Jonas Paulsen, Philippe Collas, Rafael E Herrera, Ashby J Morrison
The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer...
August 16, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800787/mir-449a-suppresses-ldha-mediated-glycolysis-to-enhance-the-sensitivity-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-to-ionizing-radiation
#19
Liang Li, Huijuan Liu, Lianjiang Du, Pan Xi, Qian Wang, Yanqin Li, Di Liu
MicroRNA dysregulation contributes to malignant progression, dissemination and profound treatment resistance in multiple cancers. MiR-449a is recognized as a tumor suppresser. However, roles of miR-449a in lung cancers initiation and progression are largely unrevealed. Our study aims to investigate roles and the underlying mechanism of miR-449a in modulating sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Lung cancer cells were transfected with miR-449a mimics or negative control and exposed to IR, levels of target protein, glycolysis, cell viability, apoptosis and DNA damage were examined...
August 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799829/radiotherapy-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-cell-apoptosis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-via-the-atm-and-smad-pathways
#20
Ming-Yi Li, Jin-Quan Liu, Dong-Ping Chen, Zhou-Yu Li, Bin Qi, Lu He, Yi Yu, Wen-Jin Yin, Meng-Yao Wang, Ling Lin
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck which is harmful to human's health. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of NPC and it induces immediate cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism remains unknown. Evidences suggested the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and Smad pathway are two of the important crucial mediators in the function of radiotherapy. In this study, we carried out in vitro assays with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells and in vivo assays with nude mice to investigate the role of the ATM and Smad pathways in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy...
August 11, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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