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Radiation-induced malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230828/chromosomal-mutagenesis-in-human-somatic-cells-30-year-cytogenetic-monitoring-after-chornobyl-accident
#1
M A Pilinska, G M Shemetun, O V Shemetun, S S Dybsky, O B Dybska, O O Talan, L R Pedan, D А Kurinnyi
In the lecture we have generalized and analyzed the data of cytogenetic laboratory of National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine on 30-year selective cytogenetic monitoring among the priority contingents of different ages exposed to radiation after Chornobyl accident in Ukraine. It is highlighted that not only targeted but also untargeted radiation-induced cytogenetic effects should be explored, especially in delayed terms following radiation exposure...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225067/generation-of-gross-chromosomal-rearrangements-by-a-single-engineered-dna-double-strand-break
#2
Zhijun Qiu, Zhenhua Zhang, Anna Roschke, Tamas Varga, Peter D Aplan
Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs), including translocations, inversions amplifications, and deletions, can be causal events leading to malignant transformation. GCRs are thought to be triggered by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which in turn can be spontaneous or induced by external agents (eg. cytotoxic chemotherapy, ionizing radiation). It has been shown that induction of DNA DSBs at two defined loci can produce stable balanced chromosomal translocations, however, a single engineered DNA DSB could not...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219770/silencing-of-the-mrna-binding-protein-hur-increases-the-sensitivity-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-to-ionizing-radiation-through-upregulation-of-caspase-2
#3
Amel Badawi, Stephanie Hehlgans, Josef Pfeilschifter, Franz Rödel, Wolfgang Eberhardt
Increased abundance of the mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) is a characteristic feature of many cancers and frequently associated with a high grade malignancy and therapy resistance. HuR elicits a broad cell survival program mainly by stabilizing or increasing the translation of mRNAs coding for anti-apoptotic effector proteins. Conversally, we previously identified the pro-apoptotic caspase-2 as a novel HuR target which is mainly regulated at the level of translation. In this study, we investigated whether siRNA-mediated HuR knockdown interferes with cell survival and radiation sensitivity by monitoring apoptosis, DNA repair and three-dimensional (3D) clonogenic survival...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213501/immature-lymphocytes-inhibit-rag1-and-rag2-transcription-and-v-d-j-recombination-in-response-to-dna-double-strand-breaks
#4
Megan R Fisher, Adrian Rivera-Reyes, Noah B Bloch, David G Schatz, Craig H Bassing
Mammalian cells have evolved a common DNA damage response (DDR) that sustains cellular function, maintains genomic integrity, and suppresses malignant transformation. In pre-B cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced at Igκ loci by the Rag1/Rag2 (RAG) endonuclease engage this DDR to modulate transcription of genes that regulate lymphocyte-specific processes. We previously reported that RAG DSBs induced at one Igκ allele signal through the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase to feedback-inhibit RAG expression and RAG cleavage of the other Igκ allele...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205588/hypoxia-induced-angiotensin-ii-by-the-lactate-chymase-dependent-mechanism-mediates-radioresistance-of-hypoxic-tumor-cells
#5
Guozhu Xie, Ying Liu, Qiwei Yao, Rong Zheng, Lanfang Zhang, Jie Lin, Zhaoze Guo, Shasha Du, Chen Ren, Quan Yuan, Yawei Yuan
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a principal determinant of arterial blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance. RAS component dysregulation was recently found in some malignancies and correlated with poor patient outcomes. However, the exact mechanism of local RAS activation in tumors is still unclear. Here, we find that the local angiotensin II predominantly exists in the hypoxic regions of tumor formed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, where these tumor cells autocrinely produce angiotensin II by a chymase-dependent rather than an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203671/heat-shock-antagonizes-uva-induced-responses-in-murine-melanocytes-and-melanoma-cells-an-unexpected-interaction
#6
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathália Moraes, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
The skin is under the influence of oscillatory factors such as light and temperature. This organ possesses a local system that controls several aspects in a time-dependent manner; moreover, the skin has a well-known set of opsins whose function is still unknown. We demonstrate that heat shock reduces Opn2 expression in normal Melan-a melanocytes, while the opposite effect is found in malignant B16-F10 cells. In both cell lines, UVA radiation increases the expression of Opn4 and melanin content. Clock genes and Xpa, a DNA repair gene, of malignant melanocytes are more responsive to UVA radiation when compared to normal cells...
February 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203422/colobronchial-fistula-the-pathogenesis-clinical-presentations-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
Jinbo Zhao, Nan Ma, Zhengwei Zhao, Jie Lei, Qiang Lu, Feng Tian, Yongan Zhou, Yong Han, Xiaofei Li
BACKGROUND: Colobronchial fistula (CBF) is rare and easy to be delayed in clinic. There is no systemic study about this disease. The pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment of CBF were analyzed in this study. METHODS: The clinical data from 37 cases of CBF, which included one case in our institute and the other 36 cases in literature from January 1960 to August 2016, were reviewed and analyzed. The etiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and outcomes were summarized...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196079/mathematical-models-of-tissue-stem-and-transit-target-cell-divisions-and-the-risk-of-radiation-or-smoking-associated-cancer
#8
Mark P Little, Jolyon H Hendry
There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells...
February 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191774/novel-peripherally-derived-neural-like-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-carriers-for-treating-glioblastomas
#9
Alexander Birbrair, Anirudh Sattiraju, Dongqin Zhu, Gilberto Zulato, Izadora Batista, Van T Nguyen, Maria Laura Messi, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Frank C Marini, Osvaldo Delbono, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor characterized by extensive invasiveness, heterogeneity, and angiogenesis. Standard treatment options such as radiation and chemotherapy have proven to be only marginally effective in treating GBM because of its invasive nature. Therefore, extensive efforts have been put forth to develop tumor-tropic stem cells as viable therapeutic vehicles with potential to treat even the most invasive tumor cells that are harbored within areas of normal brain...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174097/synthetic-2-aryl-3-piperidin-1-yl-ethyl-thiazolidin-4-ones-exhibit-selective-in%C3%A2-vitro-antitumoral-activity-and-inhibit-cancer-cell-growth-in-a-preclinical-model-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#10
Elita F da Silveira, Juliana H Azambuja, Taíse Rosa de Carvalho, Alice Kunzler, Daniel S da Silva, Fernanda C Teixeira, Rodrigo Rodrigues, Fátima T Beira, Rita de Cássia Sant Anna Alves, Roselia M Spanevello, Wilson Cunico, Francieli M Stefanello, Ana P Horn, Elizandra Braganhol
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the worst form of primary brain tumor, which has a high rate of infiltration and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy, resulting in poor prognosis for patients. Recent studies show that thiazolidinones have a wide range of pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor. Here, we investigate the effect antiglioma in vitro of a panel of sixteen synthetic 2-aryl-3-((piperidin-1-yl)ethyl)thiazolidin-4-ones where 13 of these decreased the viability of glioma cells 30-65% (100 μM) compared with controls...
February 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161072/-brain-metastases-focal-treatment-surgery-and-radiation-therapy-and-cognitive-consequences
#11
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Reygagne, Foucaud Du Boisgueheneuc, Antoine Berger
Brain metastases represent the first cause of malignant brain tumor. Without radiation therapy, prognosis was poor with fast neurological deterioration, and a median overall survival of one month. Nowadays, therapeutic options depend on brain metastases presentation, extra brain disease, performance status and estimated prognostic (DS GPA). Therefore, for oligometastatic brain patients with a better prognosis, this therapeutic modality is controversial. In fact, whole-brain radiation therapy improves neurological outcomes, but it can also induce late neuro-cognitive sequelae for long-term survivors of brain metastases...
February 1, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160777/curcumin-decreases-malignant-characteristics-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-induction-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#12
Zachary C Gersey, Gregor A Rodriguez, Eric Barbarite, Anthony Sanchez, Winston M Walters, Kelechi C Ohaeto, Ricardo J Komotar, Regina M Graham
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of primary brain tumor in adults. Following standard treatment of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, patients are expected to survive 12-14 months. Theorized cause of disease recurrence in these patients is tumor cell repopulation through the proliferation of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells. Current research has revealed curcumin, the principal ingredient in turmeric, can modulate multiple signaling pathways important for cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival...
February 4, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153092/gm-csf-and-il-4-fusion-cytokine-induces-b-cell-dependent-hematopoietic-regeneration
#13
Jiusheng Deng, Yanqiu Li, Andrea Pennati, Shala Yuan, Jian Hui Wu, Edmund K Waller, Jacques Galipeau
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into hematopoietic cells and have been utilized to replace diseased bone marrow for patients with cancers and blood disorders. Although remarkable progress has been made in developing new tools to manipulate HSCs for clinic use, there is still no effective method to expand HSCs in vivo for quick repopulation of hematopoietic cells following sublethal irradiation. We have recently described a novel synthetic cytokine that is derived from the fusion of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 (IL-4; named as GIFT4), and we have now discovered that GIFT4 fusokine promotes long-term hematopoietic regeneration in a B cell-dependent manner...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153025/restorative-resection-of-radiation-rectovaginal-fistula-can-better-relieve-anorectal-symptoms-than-colostomy-only
#14
Qinghua Zhong, Zixu Yuan, Tenghui Ma, Huaiming Wang, Qiyuan Qin, Lili Chu, Jianping Wang, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is a severe and difficult complication after pelvic malignancy radiation. This study was to retrospectively compare the outcomes of restorative resection and colostomy only in remission of anorectal symptoms. METHODS: We enrolled a cohort of 26 consecutive cases who developed RVF after pelvic radiation. Two main procedures for these patients in our institution were used: one was restorative resection and pull-through coloanal anastomosis with a prophylactic colostomy, and another was a simple colostomy without resection...
February 2, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147244/the-pi3k-inhibitor-gdc-0941-enhances-radiosensitization-and-reduces-chemoresistance-to-temozolomide-in-gbm-cell-lines
#15
Fei Shi, Hongchuan Guo, Rong Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Liangliang Wu, Qiyan Wu, Jialin Liu, Tianyi Liu, Qiuhang Zhang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most lethal of all human tumors. It is the most frequently occurring malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The current standard of care (SOC) for GBM is initial surgical resection followed by treatment with a combination of temozolomide (TMZ) and ionizing radiation (IR). However, GBM has a dismal prognosis, and survivors have compromised quality of life owing to the adverse effects of radiation. GBM is characterized by overt activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137309/induction-of-metastasis-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-and-oncogenic-metabolism-in-cancer-cells-by-ionizing-radiation
#16
REVIEW
Su Yeon Lee, Eui Kyong Jeong, Min Kyung Ju, Hyun Min Jeon, Min Young Kim, Cho Hee Kim, Hye Gyeong Park, Song Iy Han, Ho Sung Kang
Radiation therapy is one of the major tools of cancer treatment, and is widely used for a variety of malignant tumours. Radiotherapy causes DNA damage directly by ionization or indirectly via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby destroying cancer cells. However, ionizing radiation (IR) paradoxically promotes metastasis and invasion of cancer cells by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Metastasis is a major obstacle to successful cancer therapy, and is closely linked to the rates of morbidity and mortality of many cancers...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133985/apoptosis-and-injuries-of-heavy-ion-beam-and-x-ray-radiation-on-malignant-melanoma-cell
#17
Jin Qin, Sha Li, Chao Zhang, Dong-Wei Gao, Qiang Li, Hong Zhang, Xiao-Dong Jin, Yang Liu
This study aims to investigate the influence of high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and low LET X-ray radiation on apoptosis and related proteins of malignant melanoma on tumor-bearing mice under the same physical dosage. C57BL/6 J mice were burdened by tumors and randomized into three groups. These mice received heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and X-ray radiation under the same physical dosage, respectively; their weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days post-radiation. After 30 days, these mice were sacrificed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120514/ultraviolet-radiation-induced-down-regulation-of-serca2-mediates-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-basal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Israr Ahmad, Kashiff M Muneer, Michelle E Chang, Hana M Nasr, Jacqueline M Clay, Conway C Huang, Nabiha Yusuf
Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) account for majority of skin malignancies in the United States. The incidence of BCCs is strongly associated with exposure of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in innate immune responses. Different stimuli such as toxins, microorganisms, and particles released from injured cells activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Activated NLRP3 results in activation of caspase-1, which cleaves pro-IL-1β to active IL-1β...
January 25, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109369/successful-treatment-of-an-aggressive-tracheal-malignancy-with-immunotherapy
#19
Asishana A Osho, Christopher J Azzoli, Sara Pai, Mari Mino-Kenudson, William C Faquin, Tiffany G Huynh, Michael Lanuti, Douglas J Mathisen, Ashok Muniappan
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are emerging as therapeutic options for oncology patients in whom conventional treatment regimens have failed. These immunotherapies counteract tumor-induced tolerance and have been shown to be effective in thoracic malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This report highlights the successful use of nivolumab-an immunotherapeutic agent that binds to proteins involved in T-cell proliferation-for the management of recurrent tracheal squamous cell cancer after exhaustion of conventional surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiation therapy options...
February 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104274/the-role-of-radiation-therapy-in-the-management-of-sinonasal-and-ventral-skull-base-malignancies
#20
REVIEW
Kyle Wang, Adam M Zanation, Bhishamjit S Chera
Sinonasal and ventral skull base malignancies are rare tumors that arise in a complex anatomic location juxtaposed with critically important normal tissues. The standard treatment paradigm for most histologies has been surgery followed by postoperative radiation therapy. Because of their propensity to present at an advanced stage and the presence of nearby critical structures, patients are at risk for severe radiation-induced long-term toxicity. Recent advances in radiotherapy technique have improved the therapeutic ratio between tumor control and normal tissue toxicity...
January 16, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
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