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Radiation-induced malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778412/assessing-cancer-risk-factors-faced-by-an-ancestral-puebloan-population-in-the-north-american-southwest
#1
Catrina Banks Whitley, Jeffrey L Boyer
Ancestral Puebloan people in the North American Southwest suffered high rates of disease, poor health, and early age-at-death. Four individuals with skeletal expressions of cancer were found in a pre-Columbian population in the Taos Valley - Reports of malignant neoplasms in the archaeological record are uncommon and their presence in four of 82 individuals is a high occurrence. This study continues Whitley and Boyer's (2012) research testing whether concentrations of ionizing radiation were sufficiently high to induce cancer and related health issues...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777390/synergistic-effect-of-trail-and-irradiation-in-elimination-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells
#2
Junfeng Liu, Qinglei Gao, Tao Xie, Yu Liu, Longjun Luo, Cheng Xu, Lu Shen, Feng Wan, Ting Lei, Fei Ye
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignancy in central nervous system. A small subpopulation of GBM cells known as GBM stem-like cells (GSLCs) were supposed to be the most malignant cells among GBM cells as they are resistant to multiple therapies including radiotherapy. In this study, we set up two GSLCs cell lines from the two parental U87 and U251 glioma cell lines, and studied the expression of apoptosis-related genes alteration in GSLCs before and after irradiation. We found that one of the receptors of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), DR5, was dramatically up-regulated in GSLCs after irradiation (IR)...
May 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775210/the-effect-of-simulated-space-radiation-on-the-n-glycosylation-of-human-immunoglobulin-g1
#3
Mate Szarka, Szabolcs Szilasi, Boglarka Donczo, Daniel Sarkozy, Istvan Rajta, Andras Guttman
On a roundtrip to Mars, astronauts are expectedly exposed to an approximate amount of radiation that exceeds the lifetime limits on Earth. This elevated radiation dose is mainly due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE). Specific patterns of the N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulins have already been associated with various ailments such as autoimmune diseases, malignant transformation, chronic inflammation and ageing. The focus of our work was to investigate the effect of low-energy proton irradiation on the IgG N-glycosylation profile with the goal if disease associated changes could be detected during space travel and not altered by space radiation...
May 18, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772993/shoulder-lesion-in-a-69-year-old-woman
#4
Andrew J Hayden, Srinivas Kolla, Adele L Boskey, Steven Burekhovich, Chuanyong Lu, Michael Stracher, Aditya V Maheshwari
Milwaukee Shoulder Syndrome (MSS) is a painful progressive arthropathy in which hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in synovial tissue induces lysosomal release of collagenase and neutral proteases. These enzymes are destructive to periarticular tissue, including the synovium, articular cartilage, rotator cuff muscles, and the intrasynovial cortical bone. MSS predominantly occurring in women (90%) over the age of 70 years of age with a clinical history marked by recurrent joint effusions and pain, which classically worsens at night...
2018: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765529/-myc-gene-amplification-is-a-rare-event-in-atypical-fibroxanthoma-and-pleomorphic-dermal-sarcoma
#5
Timo Gaiser, Daniela Hirsch, Azadeh Orouji, Marisa Bach, Peter Kind, Doris Helbig, Alexander Quaas, Jochen Utikal, Alexander Marx, Maria Rita Gaiser
Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) are rare malignancies typically occurring in elderly patients and predominantly located in skin regions exposed to UV-light. Thus, a role of UV-radiation-induced damage for AFX and PDS tumorigenesis has been postulated. MYC gene amplification has been demonstrated as a distinctive feature of radiation-induced angiosarcoma. In order to investigate whether chronic exposure to UV-light might also lead to MYC copy number changes, 51 AFX and 24 PDS samples were retrospectively analyzed for MYC amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a MYC and a CEP8 gene probe...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764968/how-to-prevent-and-manage-radiation-induced-coronary-artery-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jason R Cuomo, Sean P Javaheri, Gyanendra K Sharma, Deepak Kapoor, Adam E Berman, Neal L Weintraub
Radiation-induced coronary heart disease (RICHD) is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and other prevalent mediastinal malignancies. The risk of RICHD increases with radiation dose. Exposed patients may present decades after treatment with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic myocardial perfusion defects to ostial, triple-vessel disease and sudden cardiac death. RICHD is insidious, with a long latency and a tendency to remain silent late into the disease course...
May 15, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763377/influence-of-polg-on-radiosensitivity-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#7
Ruiqing Chen, Zeng Wang, Ruilong Lan, Fei Huang, Jinrong Chen, Yuanteng Xu, Hengshan Zhang, Lurong Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a high incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), malignant head and neck tumors, in southern China. Radioresistance is the main cause affecting the efficacy of NPC treatments. The POLG gene particularly plays an important role in radiation-induced damage repair. In this study, the authors established RNAi CNE-1 and CNE-2 knockdown in two NPC cell lines to observe whether this gene affects the radiosensitivity of NPC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids targeting POLG gene were constructed and transfected into the NPC cell lines CNE-1 and CNE-2...
May 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762158/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-pathogenesis-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1-associated-peripheral-nervous-system-neoplasms
#8
Jody F Longo, Shannon M Weber, Brittany P Turner-Ivey, Steven L Carroll
The diagnosis of a neurofibroma or a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) often raises the question of whether the patient has the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) as well as how this will impact the patient's outcome, what their risk is for developing additional neoplasms and whether treatment options differ for NF1-associated and sporadic peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Establishing a diagnosis of NF1 is challenging as this disorder has numerous neoplastic and non-neoplastic manifestations which are variably present in individual patients...
May 4, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760710/ionizing-radiation-induces-morphological-changes-and-immunological-modulation-of-jurkat-cells
#9
Patrick Voos, Sebastian Fuck, Fabian Weipert, Laura Babel, Dominique Tandl, Tobias Meckel, Stephanie Hehlgans, Claudia Fournier, Anna Moroni, Franz Rödel, Gerhard Thiel
Impairment or stimulation of the immune system by ionizing radiation (IR) impacts on immune surveillance of tumor cells and non-malignant cells and can either foster therapy response or side effects/toxicities of radiation therapy. For a better understanding of the mechanisms by which IR modulates T-cell activation and alters functional properties of these immune cells, we exposed human immortalized Jurkat cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to X-ray doses between 0.1 and 5 Gy. This resulted in cellular responses, which are typically observed also in naïve T-lymphocytes in response of T-cell receptor immune stimulation or mitogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758120/concomitant-administration-of-radiation-with-eribulin-improves-the-survival-of-mice-harboring-intracerebral-glioblastoma
#10
Shunichiro Miki, Shoji Imamichi, Hiroaki Fujimori, Arata Tomiyama, Kenji Fujimoto, Kaishi Satomi, Yuko Matsushita, Sanae Matsuzaki, Masamichi Takahashi, Eiichi Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura, Akitake Mukasa, Ryo Nishikawa, Kenkichi Masutomi, Yoshitaka Narita, Mitsuko Masutani, Koichi Ichimura
Glioblastoma is the most common and devastating type of malignant brain tumor. We recently found that eribulin suppresses glioma growth in vitro and in vivo and that eribulin is efficiently transferred into mouse brain tumors at a high concentration. Eribulin is a non-taxane microtubule inhibitor approved for breast cancer and liposarcoma. Cells arrested in M-phase by chemotherapeutic agents such as microtubule inhibitors are highly sensitive to radiation-induced DNA damage. Several recent case reports demonstrated the clinical benefits of eribulin combined with radiation therapy for metastatic brain tumors...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740320/amifostine-analog-drde-30-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#11
Aastha Arora, Vikas Bhuria, Puja P Hazari, Uma Pathak, Sweta Mathur, Bal G Roy, Rajat Sandhir, Ravi Soni, Bilikere S Dwarakanath, Anant N Bhatt
Bleomycin (BLM) is an effective curative option in the management of several malignancies including pleural effusions; but pulmonary toxicity, comprising of pneumonitis and fibrosis, poses challenge in its use as a front-line chemotherapeutic. Although Amifostine has been found to protect lungs from the toxic effects of radiation and BLM, its application is limited due to associated toxicity and unfavorable route of administration. Therefore, there is a need for selective, potent, and safe anti-fibrotic drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735187/does-proton-therapy-offer-demonstrable-clinical-advantages-for-treating-thoracic-tumors
#12
REVIEW
Zhongxing Liao, Saumil J Gandhi, Steven H Lin, Jeffrey Bradley
The finite range of proton beams in tissues offers unique dosimetric advantages that theoretically allow dose to the target to be escalated while minimizing exposure of surrounding tissues and thus minimizing radiation-induced toxicity. This theoretical advantage has led to widespread adoption of proton therapy around the world for a wide variety of tumors at different anatomical sites. Many treatment-planning comparisons have shown that proton therapy has substantial dosimetric advantages over conventional radiotherapy...
April 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732098/a-mitochondria-targeted-nanoradiosensitizer-activating-reactive-oxygen-species-burst-for-enhanced-radiation-therapy
#13
Na Li, Longhai Yu, Jianbo Wang, Xiaonan Gao, Yuanyuan Chen, Wei Pan, Bo Tang
Radiation therapy (RT) has been widely used for malignant tumor treatment. However, the large dosage of ionizing radiation and high frequency of radiotherapy in clinical cancer therapy cause severe damage to normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Therefore, how to increase the local treatment efficacy and reduce the damage to normal tissues has been a challenge for RT. Herein, we developed a novel strategy for enhanced RT based on a mitochondria targeted titanium dioxide-gold nanoradiosensitizer. When irradiated with X-rays, the nanosensitizer could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria, which induced the domino effect on the ROS burst...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731428/three-piece-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-placement-following-pelvic-radiation-technical-considerations-and-contemporary-outcomes
#14
Jeffrey Loh-Doyle, Mukul B Patil, Zein Nakhoda, Nima Nassiri, Wesley Yip, Kevin Wayne, Leo Doumanian, Stuart D Boyd
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiation is a known risk factor for the development and progression of erectile dysfunction. When medical therapy fails, the 3-piece inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) can offer patients a definitive treatment option. Because of radiation-induced vascular changes and tissue fibrosis, a careful surgical approach is necessary to avoid intraoperative complications and attain successful outcomes. Despite its widespread use in prostate cancer treatment, there are no contemporary studies examining the effects that pelvic radiation can have on 3-piece IPP placement and device survival...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729210/enhanced-car-t-cell-therapy-a-novel-approach-for-head-and-neck-cancers
#15
Songlin Wang, Zhao Zhu
Head and neck cancer that presents in locally advanced stages often results in a bad prognosis with an increased recurrence rate even after curative resections. Radiation therapy is then applied, with multiple side effects, as adjuvant regional therapy. Because of the high rate of recurrence and mortality, new therapies are needed for patients suffering from head and neck malignant tumors.CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T cell therapy, which was first devised about 25 years ago, causes the killing or apoptosis of target tumor cells through inducing the secretion of cytokines and granzymes by T cells (Cheadle et al...
May 5, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721192/pd-l1-expression-in-medulloblastoma-an-evaluation-by-subgroup
#16
Allison M Martin, Christopher J Nirschl, Magda J Polanczyk, W Robert Bell, Thomas R Nirschl, Sarah Harris-Bookman, Jillian Phallen, Jessica Hicks, Daniel Martinez, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Haiying Xu, Lisa M Sullivan, Alan K Meeker, Eric H Raabe, Kenneth J Cohen, Charles G Eberhart, Peter C Burger, Mariarita Santi, Janis M Taube, Drew M Pardoll, Charles G Drake, Michael Lim
Background: This study evaluated the expression of PD-L1 and markers of immune mediated resistance in human medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Results: Overall levels of PD-L1 in human MB were low; however, some cases demonstrated robust focal expression associated with increased immune infiltrates. The case with highest PD-L1 expression was a sonic hedgehog (SHH) MB. In cell lines, SHH MB, which are low-MYC expressing, demonstrated both constitutive and inducible expression of PD-L1 while those in Group 3/4 that expressed high levels of MYC had only inducible expression...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718150/photothermal-treatment-with-egfrmab-aunps-induces-apoptosis-in-hypopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-via-pi3k-akt-mtor-and-dna-damage-response-pathways
#17
Yingying Zhang, Linhai Cong, Jiayan He, Yu Wang, Yingying Zou, Zhihong Yang, Yuexin Hu, Shiwen Zhang, Xiaoguang He
Hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HC) is one of the most malignant tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Currently, there are no effective treatments for HC. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a promising tool that can be used for plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT), which refers to the use of electromagnetic radiation, most often in near infrared (NIR) region, for the treatment of various medical conditions including cancer. AuNPs have been proved to be a promising tool for NIR spectroscopy-mediated photothermal therapies...
April 27, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701400/endovascular-treatment-of-carotid-blowout-syndrome
#18
Roger Rodrigues, João Costa, Gabriel Anacleto, Diogo Roriz, Óscar Gonçalves
INTRODUCTION: Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a life threatening complication associated with head and neck cancers (HNC) and its treatment. The mortality rate was reported to range from 3% to over 50% in the literature. Direct surgical repair of the ruptured internal carotid artery is often not technically possible due to the difficult anatomy and underlying poor co-morbid status. Endovascular techniques such as coil embolization and stent grafting offer an alternative to surgical ligation with better patient outcomes...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698934/a-review-of-clinical-radioprotection-and-chemoprotection-for-oral-mucositis
#19
REVIEW
Bryan Oronsky, Sharad Goyal, Michelle M Kim, Pedro Cabrales, Michelle Lybeck, Scott Caroen, Neil Oronsky, Erica Burbano, Corey Carter, Arnold Oronsky
The first tenet of medicine, "primum non nocere" or "first, do no harm", is not always compatible with oncological interventions e.g., chemotherapy, targeted therapy and radiation, since they commonly result in significant toxicities. One of the more frequent and serious treatment-induced toxicities is mucositis and particularly oral mucositis (OM) described as inflammation, atrophy and breakdown of the mucosa or lining of the oral cavity. The sequelae of oral mucositis (OM), which include pain, odynodysphagia, dysgeusia, decreased oral intake and systemic infection, frequently require treatment delays, interruptions and discontinuations that not only negatively impact quality of life but also tumor control and survivorship...
April 23, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692895/metabolic-characterization-of-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-idh-mutant-and-idh-wildtype-gliomaspheres-uncovers-cell-type-specific-vulnerabilities
#20
Matthew Garrett, Jantzen Sperry, Daniel Braas, Weihong Yan, Thuc M Le, Jack Mottahedeh, Kirsten Ludwig, Ascia Eskin, Yue Qin, Rachelle Levy, Joshua J Breunig, Frank Pajonk, Thomas G Graeber, Caius G Radu, Heather Christofk, Robert M Prins, Albert Lai, Linda M Liau, Giovanni Coppola, Harley I Kornblum
Background: There is considerable interest in defining the metabolic abnormalities of IDH mutant tumors to exploit for therapy. While most studies have attempted to discern function by using cell lines transduced with exogenous IDH mutant enzyme, in this study, we perform unbiased metabolomics to discover metabolic differences between a cohort of patient-derived IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype gliomaspheres. Methods: Using both our own microarray and the TCGA datasets, we performed KEGG analysis to define pathways differentially enriched in IDH1 mutant and IDH wildtype cells and tumors...
2018: Cancer & Metabolism
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