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Radiation-induced malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101485/minimizing-the-health-effects-of-the-nuclear-accident-in-fukushima-on-thyroids
#1
REVIEW
Shigenobu Nagataki
RESULTS OF THE SCREENING OF THYROIDS: Because of the March 2011 nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, the Fukushima Prefecture initiated a thyroid ultrasound examination program. The first cycle of examinations on all children (more than 300,000) of the Fukushima Prefecture identified 116 patients as having malignant or suspected malignant thyroid nodules, and in the second cycle 59 new cases were identified. According to the available data, the thyroid cancers found by the screening are unlikely to be due to radiation, but the possibility cannot be excluded...
December 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#2
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089806/analysis-of-radiation-doses-and-dose-reduction-strategies-during-cerebral-digital-subtraction-angiography
#3
Ho Jun Yi, Jae Hoon Sung, Dong Hoon Lee, Sang Wook Kim, Sang Won Lee
OBJECTIVE: Adverse effects of increased use of cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) include radiation-induced skin reactions and increased risk of malignancy. This study aimed to identify a method for reducing radiation exposure during routine cerebral DSA. METHODS: A retrospective review of 138 consecutive adult patients who underwent DSA with a biplane angiography system (Artis Zee, Siemens, Germany) from September 2015 to February 2016 was performed...
January 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081176/radiation-induced-apoptosis-of-murine-bone-marrow-cells-is-independent-of-early-growth-response-1-egr1
#4
Karine Z Oben, Beth W Gachuki, Sara S Alhakeem, Mary K McKenna, Ying Liang, Daret K St Clair, Vivek M Rangnekar, Subbarao Bondada
An understanding of how each individual 5q chromosome critical deleted region (CDR) gene contributes to malignant transformation would foster the development of much needed targeted therapies for the treatment of therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) is a key transcriptional regulator of myeloid differentiation located within the 5q chromosome CDR that has been shown to regulate HSC (hematopoietic stem cell) quiescence as well as the master regulator of apoptosis-p53. Since resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant transformation, we investigated the role of EGR1 in apoptosis of bone marrow cells; a cell population from which myeloid malignancies arise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081128/radiation-exposure-from-diagnostic-imaging-in-a-cohort-of-pediatric-transplant-recipients
#5
Alexandra Seal, Michael Hawkes, Ravi Bhargava, Michelle Noga, Jutta Preiksaitis, Curtis Mabilangan, Joan Robinson
Recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT) have extensive diagnostic imaging (DI). The purpose of this study was to quantify this exposure. Children from northern Alberta with SOTs at Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta January 1, 2006, to July 31, 2012, were included. Effective doses of radiation were estimated using published norms for DI performed post-transplant up to October 16, 2014. The 54 eligible children had 6215 DI studies (5628 plain films, 293 computerized tomography (CT) scans, 149 positron emission topography (PET) -CT scans, 47 nuclear medicine scans and 98 cardiac catheterizations)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074770/-18f-fdg-pet-ct-contributes-to-diagnostics-and-therapy-monitoring-of-radiation-induced-angiosarcoma
#6
Francesca Cucchi, Jens Bülow, Lene Simonsen, Lotte Nedergaard, Christian Haarmark, Ali Asmar
Angiosarcomas are rare, aggressive malignant mesenchymal tumours with a poor prognosis. Radiation therapy is an independent risk factor for the development of secondary angiosarcoma. The onset of angiosarcoma may resemble benign lesions, leading to delayed diagnosis. It has been suggested that 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT scan may be useful in the early diagnosis in differentiating angiosarcoma from benign lesions and in therapy monitoring. We report the utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in the diagnosis and follow-up of radiation-induced angiosarcoma in a patient previously treated for uterine cancer...
January 2, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069018/intraoperative-radiation-therapy-iort-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Robert Krempien, Falk Roeder
Despite the important improvements made in the fields of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies. Improved outcomes with novel chemotherapy regimes led again to increased attention on the role of localized radiotherapy, since local tumor progression causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. Even after resection local failure rates are as high as 50-80%. The immediate proximity to critical structures (bone marrow, spinal cord, kidneys, liver, and intestine) limits the dose of radiation that can be administered to the tumor bed with conventional external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052027/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligation-inhibits-hodgkin-lymphoma-growth-by-inducing-autophagy
#8
Marina Pierdominici, Angela Maselli, Silvia L Locatelli, Laura Ciarlo, Giuseppa Careddu, Mario Patrizio, Barbara Ascione, Antonella Tinari, Carmelo Carlo-Stella, Walter Malorni, Paola Matarrese, Elena Ortona
Although Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is curable with current therapy, at least 20% of patients relapse or fail to make complete remission. In addition, patients who achieve long-term disease-free survival frequently undergo infertility, secondary malignancies, and cardiac failure, which are related to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapies. Hence, new therapeutic strategies able to counteract the HL disease in this important patient population are still a matter of study. Estrogens, in particular 17β-estradiol (E2), have been suggested to play a role in lymphoma cell homeostasis by estrogen receptors (ER) β activation...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050136/a-user-s-guide-to-cannabinoid-therapies-in-oncology
#9
REVIEW
V Maida, P J Daeninck
"Cannabinoid" is the collective term for a group of chemical compounds that either are derived from the Cannabis plant, are synthetic analogues, or occur endogenously. Although cannabinoids interact mostly at the level of the currently recognized cannabinoid receptors, they might have cross reactivity, such as at opioid receptors. Patients with malignant disease represent a cohort within health care that have some of the greatest unmet needs despite the availability of a plethora of guideline-driven disease-modulating treatments and pain and symptom management options...
December 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049538/risk-of-second-cancer-following-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-analysis
#10
Nina-Sophie Hegemann, Anne Schlesinger-Raab, Ute Ganswindt, Claudia Hörl, Stephanie E Combs, Dieter Hölzel, Jürgen E Gschwend, Christian Stief, Claus Belka, Jutta Engel
BACKGROUND: To investigate the risk of second cancer and radiation induced second cancer following prostate cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: We compared men with radiotherapy only with those treated with radical prostatectomy only and those with radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. Cumulative incidences of second cancers were calculated. Cox analyses were performed to identify determinants influencing second cancer incidence. RESULTS: Nineteen thousand five hundred thirty eight patients were analyzed...
January 3, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049509/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-a-refractory-skin-ulcer-after-radical-mastectomy-and-radiation-therapy-a-case-report
#11
Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Kazuyoshi Yagishita, Kae Okuma, Takuya Oyaizu, Yasushi Kojima, Atsushi Okubo, Takuma Maeda, Satoko Miyamoto, Atsushi Okawa
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is performed as an adjuvant therapy when indicated following surgical resection of malignant tumors. However, radiation exposure induces acute or chronic dermatitis, depending on the radiation dose, interval, tissue volume, or irradiated area of the body. Radiation-induced skin ulcers and osteomyelitis of the underlying bone are intractable late-stage complications of radiation therapy, and often require reconstructive surgery to cover exposed tissue. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been suggested as a treatment for delayed radiation injury with soft tissue and bony necrosis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048528/we-h-206-01-photoacoustic-tomography-multiscale-imaging-from-organelles-to-patients-by-ultrasonically-beating-the-optical-diffusion-limit
#12
L Wang
: Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048236/su-f-r-01-preclinical-radioimmunogenomics-study-to-design-personalized-radiotherapy
#13
H Abdollahi
PURPOSE: Radiogenomics is an active area of research to find clinical correlation between genomics and radiotherapy outcomes. In this era, many different biological issues should be taken into account. In this study we aimed to introduce "Radioimmunogenomics" as a new approach to study immunogetics issue regard to radiotherapy induced clinical manifestations. METHODS: We studied different immunological pathways and signaling molecules which underling radiation response of normal and malignant tissues...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047869/we-h-206-02-recent-advances-in-multi-modality-molecular-imaging-of-small-animals
#14
B Tsui
: Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047528/su-f-r-55-early-detection-of-treatment-induced-bone-marrow-injury-during-chemoradiation-therapy-using-quantitative-ct
#15
X Chen, Y Song, B Erickson, X Li
PURPOSE: Acute hematologic toxicity associated with bone marrow injury is a common complication of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pelvic malignancies. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using quantitative CT to detect bone marrow injury during CRT. METHODS: Daily CTs were acquired during routine CT-guided radiation therapy using a CT-on-rails for 15 cervical cancer patients. All patients treated with a radiation dose of 45.0 to 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction along with chemotherapy...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047205/we-h-206-03-promises-and-challenges-of-benchtop-x-ray-fluorescence-ct-xfct-for-quantitative-in-vivo-imaging
#16
S Cho
: Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046461/we-h-206-00-advances-in-preclinical-imaging
#17
Patrick La Riviere
: Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039009/percutaneous-ct-fluoroscopic-guided-radioisotope-seed-placement-for-the-management-of-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-trachea
#18
Stephen Doggett, Shigeru Chino, Todd Lempert, Jay Federhart
PURPOSE: Tracheal and paratracheal malignancies present challenges in radiotherapeutic management due to their proximity to sensitive structures, central location, and because of the potential for catastrophic radiation induced fistula. The use of external beam radiation therapy and intraluminal brachytherapy has a limited number of reports in the literature. We have searched for a technique for treating tracheal and paratracheal malignancies allowing application of a high dose of radiation while minimizing dose to normal tissues...
December 27, 2016: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035423/a-reaction-diffusion-model-for-radiation-induced-bystander-effects
#19
Oluwole Olobatuyi, Gerda de Vries, Thomas Hillen
We develop and analyze a reaction-diffusion model to investigate the dynamics of the lifespan of a bystander signal emitted when cells are exposed to radiation. Experimental studies by Mothersill and Seymour 1997, using malignant epithelial cell lines, found that an emitted bystander signal can still cause bystander effects in cells even 60 h after its emission. Several other experiments have also shown that the signal can persist for months and even years. Also, bystander effects have been hypothesized as one of the factors responsible for the phenomenon of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity and increased radioresistance (HRS/IRR)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025714/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-improves-radiation-induced-heart-injury-through-dna-damage-repair-in-rat-model
#20
Song Gao, Zhiying Zhao, Rong Wu, Yuecan Zeng, Zhenyong Zhang, Jianing Miao, Zhengwei Yuan
Radiotherapy is an effective form of therapy for most thoracic malignant tumors. However, myocardial injury resulting from the high doses of radiation is a severe complication. Here we aimed to study the possibility of reducing radiation-induced myocardial injury with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation. We used MSCs extracted from bone marrow (BMSCs) to transplant via the tail vein into a radiation-induced heart injury (RIHI) rat model. The rats were divided into six groups: a Sham group, an IRR (irradiation) group, and four IRR + BMSCs transplantation groups obtained at different time points...
December 26, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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