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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928652/indomethacin-increases-neurogenesis-across-age-groups-and-improves-delayed-probe-trial-difference-scores-in-middle-aged-rats
#1
James A McGuiness, Rachel B Scheinert, Aditya Asokan, Vivien-Charlott Stadler, Christian S Lee, Asha Rani, Ashok Kumar, Thomas C Foster, Brandi K Ormerod
We tested whether indomethacin or rosiglitazone treatment could rejuvenate spatial ability and hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats. Young (4 mo; n = 30), middle-aged (12 mo; n = 31), and aged (18 mo; n = 31) male Fischer 344 rats were trained and then tested in a rapid acquisition water maze task and then fed vehicle (500 μl strawberry milk), indomethacin (2.0 mg/ml), or rosiglitazone (8.0 mg/ml) twice daily for the remainder of the experiment. A week after drug treatment commenced, the rats were given 3 daily BrdU (50 mg/kg) injections to test whether age-related declines in neurogenesis were reversed...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916767/the-cancer-chemotherapeutic-agent-paclitaxel-taxol-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-down-regulation-of-vesicular-zinc
#2
Bo Eun Lee, Bo Young Choi, Dae Kee Hong, Jin Hee Kim, Song Hee Lee, A Ra Kho, Haesung Kim, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is increasingly recognized as a major unwanted side effect of an otherwise highly valuable life-saving technology. In part, this awareness is a result of increased cancer survival rates following chemotherapy. Altered hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in mediating CICI. In particular, zinc could act as a key regulator of this process. To test this hypothesis, we administered paclitaxel (Px) to male C57BL/6 mice for set time periods and then evaluated the effects of Px treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis and vesicular zinc...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#3
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899667/bhlh-o-proteins-balance-the-self-renewal-and-differentiation-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells-by-regulating-earmuff-expression
#4
Xiaosu Li, Rui Chen, Sijun Zhu
Balancing self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells requires differential expression of self-renewing factors in two daughter cells generated from the asymmetric division of the stem cells. In Drosophila type II neural stem cell (or neuroblast, NB) lineages, the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix-Orange (bHLH-O) family proteins, including Deadpan (Dpn) and E(spl) proteins, is required for maintaining the self-renewal and identity of type II NBs, whereas the absence of these self-renewing factors is essential for the differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) generated from type II NBs...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899597/playing-well-with-others-extrinsic-cues-regulate-neural-progenitor-temporal-identity-to-generate-neuronal-diversity
#5
REVIEW
Mubarak Hussain Syed, Brandon Mark, Chris Q Doe
During neurogenesis, vertebrate and Drosophila progenitors change over time as they generate a diverse population of neurons and glia. Vertebrate neural progenitors have long been known to use both progenitor-intrinsic and progenitor-extrinsic cues to regulate temporal patterning. In contrast, virtually all temporal patterning mechanisms discovered in Drosophila neural progenitors (neuroblasts) involve progenitor-intrinsic temporal transcription factor cascades. Recent results, however, have revealed several extrinsic pathways that regulate Drosophila neuroblast temporal patterning: nutritional cues regulate the timing of neuroblast proliferation/quiescence and a steroid hormone cue that is required for temporal transcription factor expression...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878619/mirna-enriched-in-human-neuroblast-nuclei-bind-the-maz-transcription-factor-and-their-precursors-contain-the-maz-consensus-motif
#6
Belinda J Goldie, Chantel Fitzsimmons, Judith Weidenhofer, Joshua R Atkins, Dan O Wang, Murray J Cairns
While the cytoplasmic function of microRNA (miRNA) as post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA has been the subject of significant research effort, their activity in the nucleus is less well characterized. Here we use a human neuronal cell model to show that some mature miRNA are preferentially enriched in the nucleus. These molecules were predominantly primate-specific and contained a sequence motif with homology to the consensus MAZ transcription factor binding element. Precursor miRNA containing this motif were shown to have affinity for MAZ protein in nuclear extract...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875931/transient-hypothyroidism-favors-oligodendrocyte-generation-providing-functional-remyelination-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#7
Sylvie Remaud, Fernando C Ortiz, Marine Perret-Jeanneret, Marie-Stéphane Aigrot, Jean-David Gothié, Csaba Fekete, Zsuzsanna Kvárta-Papp, Balázs Gereben, Dominique Langui, Catherine Lubetzki, Maria Cecilia Angulo, Bernard Zalc, Barbara Demeneix
In the adult brain, both neurons and oligodendrocytes can be generated from neural stem cells located within the Sub-Ventricular Zone (SVZ). Physiological signals regulating neuronal versus glial fate are largely unknown. Here we report that a thyroid hormone (T3)-free window, with or without a demyelinating insult, provides a favorable environment for SVZ-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor generation. After demyelination, oligodendrocytes derived from these newly-formed progenitors provide functional remyelination, restoring normal conduction...
September 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874134/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-modifies-progenitor-neural-proliferation-in-adult-classic-neurogenic-brain-niches
#8
Lucía Galán, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Antonio Guerrero, Jose Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Adult neurogenesis persists through life at least in classic neurogenic niches. Neurogenesis has been previously described as reduced in neurodegenerative diseases. There is not much knowledge about is adult neurogenesis is or not modified in amyotrophy lateral sclerosis (ALS). All previous publications has studied the ALS SOD1 (superoxide dismutase) transgenic mouse model. The purpose of this study is to examine the process of adult neurogenesis in classic niches (subventricular zone [SVZ] and subgranular zone [SGZ] of the dentate gyrus) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), both with (ALS-FTD) and without associated frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
September 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851709/imp-and-syp-rna-binding-proteins-govern-decommissioning-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#9
Ching-Po Yang, Tamsin J Samuels, Yaling Huang, Lu Yang, David Ish-Horowicz, Ilan Davis, Tzumin Lee
The termination of the proliferation of Drosophila neural stem cells, also known as neuroblasts (NBs), requires a "decommissioning" phase that is controlled in a lineage-specific manner. Most NBs, with the exception of those of the Mushroom body (MB), are decommissioned by the ecdysone receptor and mediator complex causing them to shrink during metamorphosis, followed by nuclear accumulation of Prospero and cell cycle exit. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of Imp and Syp RNA-binding proteins regulate NB decommissioning...
August 29, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838968/tbx1-and-jag1-act-in-concert-to-modulate-the-fate-of-neurosensory-cells-of-the-mouse-otic-vesicle
#10
Stephania Macchiarulo, Bernice E Morrow
The domain within the otic vesicle (OV) known as the neurosensory domain (NSD), contains cells that will give rise to the hair and support cells of the otic sensory organs, as well as the neurons that form the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG). The molecular dynamics that occur at the NSD boundary relative to adjacent OV cells is not well defined. The Tbx1 transcription factor gene expression pattern is complementary to the NSD, and inactivation results in an expansion of the NSD and expression of the Notch ligand, Jag1 mapping, in part to the NSD...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833685/drebrin-e-regulates-neuroblast-proliferation-and-chain-migration-in-the-adult-brain
#11
Yuki Kajita, Nobuhiko Kojima, Noriko Koganezawa, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Tomoaki Shirao
F-actin-binding protein drebrin has two major isoforms: drebrin A and drebrin E. Drebrin A is the major isoform in the adult brain and is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, regulating spine morphology and synaptic plasticity. Conversely, drebrin E is the major isoform in the embryonic brain and regulates neuronal morphological differentiation, but it is also expressed in neurogenic regions of the adult brain. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the brain regions where adult neurogenesis occurs. Neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) and integrate into existing neuronal networks, after which drebrin expression changes from E to A, suggesting that drebrin E plays a specific role in neuroblasts in the adult brain...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829415/simultaneous-measurement-of-hdac1-and-hdac6-activity-in-hela-cells-using-uhplc-ms
#12
Claudia A Simões-Pires, Vincent Zwick, Sylvian Cretton, Muriel Cuendet
The search for new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is of increasing interest in drug discovery. Isoform selectivity has been in the spotlight since the approval of romidepsin, a class I HDAC inhibitor for cancer therapy, and the clinical investigation of HDAC6-specific inhibitors for multiple myeloma. The present method is used to determine the inhibitory activity of test compounds on HDAC1 and HDAC6 in cells. The isoform activity is measured using the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) analysis of specific substrates incubated with treated and untreated HeLa cells...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826476/eyeless-uncouples-mushroom-body-neuroblast-proliferation-from-dietary-amino-acids-in-drosophila
#13
Conor W Sipe, Sarah E Siegrist
Cell proliferation is coupled with nutrient availability. If nutrients become limited, proliferation ceases, because growth factor and/or PI3-kinase activity levels become attenuated. Here, we report an exception to this generality within a subpopulation of Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts). We find that most neuroblasts enter and exit cell cycle in a nutrient-dependent manner that is reversible and regulated by PI3-kinase. However, a small subset, the mushroom body neuroblasts, which generate neurons important for memory and learning, divide independent of dietary nutrient conditions and PI3-kinase activity...
August 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802192/soft-diet-feeding-impairs-neural-transmission-between-mitral-cells-and-interneurons-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#14
Tomohiro Noguchi, Chizuru Utsugi, Makoto Kashiwayanagi
(Objective) The subventricular zone in mice generates a lot of neuroblasts even during adulthood. These neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb and differentiate into inhibitory interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. Olfactory sensory neurons receive information from various odorants and transmit it to the olfactory bulb. Our previous study showed that soft-diet feeding impairs neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, in turn leading to the reduction of odor-induced behaviors and Fos-immunoreactivities, the latter of which are markers of neural activity, at the olfactory bulb after exposure to odors...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800318/mir-513c-suppresses-neuroblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-through-direct-targeting-glutaminase-gls
#15
Hong-Liang Xia, Yao Lv, Chun-Wei Xu, Ming-Cui Fu, Ting Zhang, Xiang-Ming Yan, Shu Dai, Qian-Wei Xiong, Yun Zhou, Jian Wang, Xu Cao
Neuroblastoma is a brain malignancy of childhood and accounts for 7-10% of childhood cancers, leading to approximately 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short (about 18-25 nucleotides), noncoding and single stranded endogenous RNAs, which complementarily bind to the 3' untranslated regions of their target genes. Recently, glutamine metabolism has been recognized as an important nutrition source for tumor cells, and hence targeting glutamine metabolism could benefit to development of anti-cancer agents...
July 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793250/mir-7-buffers-differentiation-in-the-developing-drosophila-visual-system
#16
Elizabeth E Caygill, Andrea H Brand
The 40,000 neurons of the medulla, the largest visual processing center of the Drosophila brain, derive from a sheet of neuroepithelial cells. During larval development, a wave of differentiation sweeps across the neuroepithelium, converting neuroepithelial cells into neuroblasts that sequentially express transcription factors specifying different neuronal cell fates. The switch from neuroepithelial cells to neuroblasts is controlled by a complex gene regulatory network and is marked by the expression of the proneural gene l'sc...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776046/jak-inhibitors-modulate-production-of-replication-competent-zika-virus-in-human-hofbauer-trophoblasts-and-neuroblastoma-cells
#17
Christina Gavegnano, Leda C Bassit, Bryan D Cox, Hui-Mien Hsiao, Erica L Johnson, Mehul Suthar, Rana Chakraborty, Raymond F Schinazi
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has been implicated in causing brain deformations, birth defects, and microcephaly in fetuses, and associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Mechanisms responsible for transmission of ZIKV across the placenta to the fetus are incompletely understood. Herein, we define key events modulating infection in clinically relevant cells, including primary placental macrophages (human Hofbauer cells; HC), trophoblasts, and neuroblastoma cells. Consistent with previous findings, HC and trophoblasts are permissive to ZIKV infection...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751427/unremitting-watery-diarrhoea-in-early-childhood-period
#18
Palittiya Sintusek, Thanita Thammarakcharoen, Shanop Shuangshoti, Boosba Vivatvakin
Chronic watery diarrhoea can be a presentation of gastrointestinal disease itself or a less-evident systemic disease. A 17-month-old boy presented with intractable diarrhoea, failure to gain weight, refractory tachycardia and severe hypertension. The ability to recognise and make a quick diagnosis of secretory type of diarrhoea dictated the outcome of patients with this ailment. Catecholamine hypersecretion was considered with the additional clues of refractory tachycardia and hypertension, a well-recognised phenomenon of neuroblastic tumours...
July 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746879/daple-coordinates-planar-polarized-microtubule-dynamics-in-ependymal-cells-and-contributes-to-hydrocephalus
#19
Maki Takagishi, Masato Sawada, Shinya Ohata, Naoya Asai, Atsushi Enomoto, Kunihiko Takahashi, Liang Weng, Kaori Ushida, Hosne Ara, Shigeyuki Matsui, Kozo Kaibuchi, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Masahide Takahashi
Motile cilia in ependymal cells, which line the cerebral ventricles, exhibit a coordinated beating motion that drives directional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and guides neuroblast migration. At the apical cortex of these multi-ciliated cells, asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins is required for the planar polarization of microtubule dynamics, which coordinates cilia orientation. Daple is a disheveled-associating protein that controls the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway and cell motility...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746827/monocyte-depletion-early-after-stroke-promotes-neurogenesis-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-in-adult-brain
#20
Cecilia Laterza, Somsak Wattananit, Naomi Uoshima, Ruimin Ge, Roy Pekny, Daniel Tornero, Emanuela Monni, Olle Lindvall, Zaal Kokaia
Ischemic stroke, caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, leads to long-lasting formation of new striatal neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult rodents. Concomitantly with this neurogenic response, SVZ exhibits activation of resident microglia and infiltrating monocytes. Here we show that depletion of circulating monocytes, using the anti-CCR2 antibody MC-21 during the first week after stroke, enhances striatal neurogenesis at one week post-insult, most likely by increasing short-term survival of the newly formed neuroblasts in the SVZ and adjacent striatum...
July 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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