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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153395/ultrasound-mediated-kallidinogenase-loaded-microbubble-targeted-therapy-for-acute-cerebral-infarction
#1
Yanling Liang, Jia Chen, Xuan Zheng, Zhiyi Chen, Yuming Liu, Siying Li, Xiaobo Fang
BACKGROUND: The neuroprotective effects of kallidinogenase against acute cerebral infarction have been demonstrated, and the use of microbubbles has been suggested as a therapeutic mechanism for drug delivery. This study was designed to investigate the optimal parameters for preparing kallidinogenase-loaded microbubbles (KLMs) and to evaluate the effects of KLM-targeted therapy on neurogenesis and angiogenesis following experimental acute cerebral infarction in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KLMs were prepared by mechanical shaking...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136113/the-laminar-organization-of-piriform-cortex-follows-a-selective-developmental-and-migratory-program-established-by-cell-lineage
#3
Eduardo Martin-Lopez, Kimiko Ishiguro, Charles A Greer
Piriform cortex (PC) is a 3-layer paleocortex receiving primary afferent input from the olfactory bulb. The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding the synaptic, cellular and functional organization of PC, but PC embryogenesis continues to be enigmatic. Here, using birthdating strategies and clonal analyses, we probed the early development and laminar specificity of neurogenesis/gliogenesis as it relates to the organization of the PC. Our data demonstrate a temporal sequence of laminar-specific neurogenesis following the canonical "inside-out" pattern, with the notable exception of PC Layer II which exhibited an inverse "outside-in" temporal neurogenic pattern...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129683/non-monotonic-changes-in-progenitor-cell-behavior-and-gene-expression-during-aging-of-the-adult-v-svz-neural-stem-cell-niche
#4
Maria Apostolopoulou, Thomas R Kiehl, Mark Winter, Edgar Cardenas De La Hoz, Nathan C Boles, Christopher S Bjornsson, Kristen L Zuloaga, Susan K Goderie, Yue Wang, Andrew R Cohen, Sally Temple
Neural stem cell activity in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) decreases with aging, thought to occur by a unidirectional decline. However, by analyzing the V-SVZ transcriptome of male mice at 2, 6, 18, and 22 months, we found that most of the genes that change significantly over time show a reversal of trend, with a maximum or minimum expression at 18 months. In vivo, MASH1(+) progenitor cells decreased in number and proliferation between 2 and 18 months but increased between 18 and 22 months...
November 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124353/oligomer-prone-e57k-mutant-alpha-synuclein-exacerbates-integration-deficit-of-adult-hippocampal-newborn-neurons-in-transgenic-mice
#6
Martin Regensburger, Sebastian R Schreglmann, Svenja Stoll, Edward Rockenstein, Sandra Loskarn, Wei Xiang, Eliezer Masliah, Beate Winner
In the adult mammalian hippocampus, new neurons are constantly added to the dentate gyrus. Adult neurogenesis is impaired in several neurodegenerative mouse models including α-synuclein (a-syn) transgenic mice. Among different a-syn species, a-syn oligomers were reported to be the most toxic species for neurons. Here, we studied the impact of wild-type vs. oligomer-prone a-syn on neurogenesis. We compared the wild-type a-syn transgenic mouse model (Thy1-WTS) to its equivalent transgenic for oligomer-prone E57K-mutant a-syn (Thy1-E57K)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123099/spatio-temporally-separated-cortical-flows-and-spindle-geometry-establish-physical-asymmetry-in-fly-neural-stem-cells
#7
Chantal Roubinet, Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, Arnaud Monnard, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter, Clemens Cabernard
Asymmetric cell division, creating sibling cells with distinct developmental potentials, can be manifested in sibling cell size asymmetry. This form of physical asymmetry occurs in several metazoan cells, but the underlying mechanisms and function are incompletely understood. Here we use Drosophila neural stem cells to elucidate the mechanisms involved in physical asymmetry establishment. We show that Myosin relocalizes to the cleavage furrow via two distinct cortical Myosin flows: at anaphase onset, a polarity induced, basally directed Myosin flow clears Myosin from the apical cortex...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112852/neural-lineage-progression-controlled-by-a-temporal-proliferation-program
#8
Shahrzad Bahrampour, Erika Gunnar, Carolin Jonsson, Helen Ekman, Stefan Thor
Great progress has been made in identifying transcriptional programs that establish stem cell identity. In contrast, we have limited insight into how these programs are down-graded in a timely manner to halt proliferation and allow for cellular differentiation. Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts undergo such a temporal progression, initially dividing to bud off daughters that divide once (type I), then switching to generating non-dividing daughters (type 0), and finally exiting the cell cycle. We identify six early transcription factors that drive neuroblast and type I daughter proliferation...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111577/applications-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-modulating-plasticity-of-central-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Ye Yang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Tian-Ran Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely applied for treatment of various neurological disorders. This manuscript will review the preclinical evidence of acupuncture in mediating neural plasticity, the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched acupuncture, plasticity, and other potential related words at the following sites: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP information data base. The following keywords were used: acupuncture, electroacupuncture, plasticity, neural plasticity, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, neuroblast, stem cell, progenitor cell, BrdU, synapse, synapse structure, synaptogenesis, axon, axon regeneration, synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, neurotrophin, neurotrophic factor, BDNF, GDNF, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, NT-3, NT-4, NT-5, p75NTR, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, dopamine, monamine...
November 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109240/deficiency-of-the-thyroid-hormone-transporter-mct8-in-neural-progenitors-impairs-cellular-processes-crucial-for-early-corticogenesis
#10
Pieter Vancamp, Marie-Anne Deprez, Michiel Remmerie, Veerle M Darras
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for establishing layered brain structures, a process called corticogenesis, by acting on transcriptional activity of numerous genes. In humans, deficiency of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), involved in cellular uptake of THs prior to their action, results in severe neurological abnormalities, known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome. While the brain lesions predominantly originate prenatally, it remains unclear how and when exactly MCT8 dysfunction affects cellular processes crucial for corticogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107300/adult-neural-stem-cell-fate-is-determined-by-thyroid-hormone-activation-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#11
J D Gothié, A Sébillot, C Luongo, M Legendre, C Nguyen Van, K Le Blay, M Perret-Jeanneret, S Remaud, B A Demeneix
OBJECTIVE: In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) produce both neuronal and glial cells. Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate adult NSC differentiation towards a neuronal phenotype, but also have major roles in mitochondrial metabolism. As NSC metabolism relies mainly on glycolysis, whereas mature cells preferentially use oxidative phosphorylation, we studied how THs and mitochondrial metabolism interact on NSC fate determination. METHODS: We used a mitochondrial membrane potential marker in vivo to analyze mitochondrial activity in the different cell types in the SVZ of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103425/cancer-and-autoimmunity-paraneoplastic-neurological-disorders-associated-with-neuroblastic-tumors
#12
Wendy G Mitchell, Franz Blaes
Cancer and autoimmunity come together in paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which reflect the remote, not direct, effects of cancer. In the pediatric population, a variety of PNS have been described, but the most common of these rare disorders are instigated by neuroblastic tumors, such as neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma. The main pediatric-onset neurological PNS are ROHHAD syndrome, anti-ANNA1 (anti-Hu), and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. They manifest distinctive neurological features, which aid the diagnosis, though under-recognition still poses serious challenges and risks...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089377/dual-role-for-dock7-in-tangential-migration-of-interneuron-precursors-in-the-postnatal-forebrain
#13
Shinichi Nakamuta, Yu-Ting Yang, Chia-Lin Wang, Nicholas B Gallo, Jia-Ray Yu, Yilin Tai, Linda Van Aelst
Throughout life, stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone generate neuroblasts that migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into local interneurons. Although progress has been made toward identifying extracellular factors that guide the migration of these cells, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms that govern the dynamic reshaping of the neuroblasts' morphology required for their migration along the RMS. In this study, we identify DOCK7, a member of the DOCK180-family, as a molecule essential for tangential neuroblast migration in the postnatal mouse forebrain...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081809/astrocytes-at-the-hub-of-the-stress-response-potential-modulation-of-neurogenesis-by-mirnas-in-astrocyte-derived-exosomes
#14
REVIEW
Alejandro Luarte, Pablo Cisternas, Ariel Caviedes, Luis Federico Batiz, Carlos Lafourcade, Ursula Wyneken, Roberto Henzi
Repetitive stress negatively affects several brain functions and neuronal networks. Moreover, adult neurogenesis is consistently impaired in chronic stress models and in associated human diseases such as unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, while it is restored by effective antidepressant treatments. The adult neurogenic niche contains neural progenitor cells in addition to amplifying progenitors, neuroblasts, immature and mature neurons, pericytes, astrocytes, and microglial cells. Because of their particular and crucial position, with their end feet enwrapping endothelial cells and their close communication with the cells of the niche, astrocytes might constitute a nodal point to bridge or transduce systemic stress signals from peripheral blood, such as glucocorticoids, to the cells involved in the neurogenic process...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080790/scalloped-a-member-of-the-hippo-tumor-suppressor-pathway-controls-mushroom-body-size-in-drosophila-brain-by-non-canonical-regulation-of-neuroblast-proliferation
#15
Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah Rohith, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala
Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067879/expression-of-disialoganglioside-gd2-in-neuroblastic-tumors-a-prognostic-value-for-patients-treated-with-anti-gd2-immunotherapy
#16
Tatjana Terzic, Martine Cordeau, Sabine Herblot, Pierre Teira, Sonia Cournoyer, Mona Beaunoyer, Michel Peuchmaur, Michel Duval, Herve Sartelet
Neuroblastoma, a malignant neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system, is one of the most aggressive pediatric cancers. Patients with stage IV high-risk neuroblastoma receive an intensive multimodal therapy ending with an immunotherapy based on a chimeric monoclonal antibody ch14.18. Although the use of ch14.18 monoclonal antibody has significantly increased the survival rate of high-risk neuroblastoma patients, about 33% of these patients still relapse and die from their disease. Ch14.18 targets the disialoganglioside, GD2, expressed on neuroblastic tumor (NT) cells...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051534/surface-marker-profiling-of-sh-sy5y-cells-enables-small-molecule-screens-identifying-bmp4-as-a-modulator-of-neuroblastoma-differentiation
#17
Fraua Christina Ferlemann, Vishal Menon, Alexandra Larisa Condurat, Jochen Rößler, Jan Pruszak
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children. Its broad spectrum of clinical outcomes reflects the underlying inherent cellular heterogeneity. As current treatments often do not lead to tumor eradication, there is a need to better define therapy-resistant neuroblastoma and to identify new modulatory molecules. To this end, we performed the first comprehensive flow cytometric characterization of surface molecule expression in neuroblastoma cell lines. Exploiting an established clustering algorithm (SPADE) for unbiased visualization of cellular subsets, we conducted a multiwell screen for small molecule modulators of neuroblastoma phenotype...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050872/manf-promotes-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-progenitor-cells-with-potential-neural-regenerative-effects-in-stroke
#18
Kuan-Yin Tseng, Jenni E Anttila, Konstantin Khodosevich, Raimo K Tuominen, Maria Lindahl, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Cerebral ischemia activates endogenous reparative processes, such as increased proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward the ischemic area. However, this reparative process is limited because most of the NPCs die shortly after injury or are unable to arrive at the infarct boundary. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endogenous mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects NSCs against oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced injury and has a crucial role in regulating NPC migration...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027613/both-decreased-akt-expression-and-mtor-phosphorylation-are-related-to-decreased-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-hippocampal-alveus-of-aged-mice
#19
Bing Chun Yan, Dan Jiang, Jie Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Pei Xu, Xing Yu, Moo-Ho Won, Pei Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Aging is an inevitable process which results in many changes. These changes are closely related to the hippocampus which is in charge of long-term learning and episodic memory. AIM: This study was to investigate age-related changes of the cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and Akt/mTOR signaling in the hippocampal alveus of aged mice. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the differences of neurogenesis in the hippocampal alveus between adult (postnatal month 6) and aged (postnatal month 24) mice using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis...
October 13, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024726/the-antiepileptic-drug-levetiracetam-promotes-neuroblast-differentiation-and-expression-of-superoxide-dismutase-in-the-mouse-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-via-pi3k-akt-signalling
#20
Bing Chun Yan, Hui Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Jie Wang, Pei Xu, Dan Jiang, Xing Yu
Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation antiepileptic drug, is commonly prescribed to treat certain types of seizures. Few studies have investigated the effects of LEV on hippocampal neurogenesis and its related mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LEV on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We here demonstrate a dose-dependent increase in Ki-67-immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the DG in LEV-treated mice, and doublecortin-immunoreactive cells were also significantly increased in the hippocampal DG of mice treated with LEV...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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