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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899748/cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-drives-neurogenesis-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-stroke
#1
Isabel Bravo-Ferrer, María I Cuartero, Juan G Zarruk, Jesús M Pradillo, Olivia Hurtado, Víctor G Romera, Javier Díaz-Alonso, Juan M García-Segura, Manuel Guzmán, Ignacio Lizasoain, Ismael Galve-Roperh, María A Moro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability characterized by physical, cognitive, and emotional disturbances. Unfortunately, pharmacological options are scarce. The cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) is neuroprotective in acute experimental stroke by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. However, its role in chronic stroke is still unknown. METHODS: Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice; CB2R modulation was assessed by administering the CB2R agonist JWH133 ((6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran) or the CB2R antagonist SR144528 (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo-[2...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884724/optogenetic-stimulation-of-glutamatergic-neuronal-activity-in-the-striatum-enhances-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-of-normal-and-stroke-mice
#2
Mingke Song, Shan Ping Yu, Osama Mohamad, Wenyuan Cao, Zheng Zachory Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Michael Qize Jiang, Ling Wei
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain may contribute to tissue repair after brain injuries. Whether SVZ neurogenesis can be upregulated by specific neuronal activity in vivo and promote functional recovery after stroke is largely unknown. Using the spatial and cell type specific optogenetic technique combined with multiple approaches of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examinations, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic activation in the striatum could upregulate SVZ neurogenesis in the normal and ischemic brain...
November 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873762/ganglioneuroma-of-the-pancreas-in-a-4-year-old-girl
#3
Naruhiko Ikoma, Juan A Santamaria-Barria, Curtis Wray, KuoJen Tsao
Ganglioneuroma (GN) is the uncommon, benign representative of the peripheral neuroblastic tumours (PNTs), which arise from primitive sympathetic ganglion cells. PNTs comprise one of the most common groups of neoplastic diseases in infants and children, but its occurrence in the pancreas is rare. We report a 4-year-old girl with GN of the pancreas requiring pancreaticoduodenectomy as a definitive therapy and with a great outcome, and we review the published literature.
November 14, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872203/molecular-mechanisms-of-asymmetric-divisions-in-mammary-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Angela Santoro, Thalia Vlachou, Manuel Carminati, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Marina Mapelli
Stem cells have the remarkable ability to undergo proliferative symmetric divisions and self-renewing asymmetric divisions. Balancing of the two modes of division sustains tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Asymmetric divisions of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) and sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells served as prototypes to learn what we consider now principles of asymmetric mitoses. They also provide initial evidence supporting the notion that aberrant symmetric divisions of stem cells could correlate with malignancy...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867005/temporal-expression-of-cd184-cxcr4-and-cd171-l1cam-identifies-distinct-early-developmental-stages-of-human-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retina
#5
J G Aparicio, H Hopp, A Choi, J Mandayam Comar, V C Liao, N Harutyunyan, T C Lee
Human retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have anticipated value for human disease study, drug screening, and therapeutic applications; however, their full potential remains underdeveloped. To characterize RGCs in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived retinal organoids we examined RGC markers and surface antigen expression and made comparisons to human fetal retina. RGCs in both tissues exhibited CD184 and CD171 expression and distinct expression patterns of the RGC markers BRN3 and RBPMS...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865355/white-sesame-seed-water-soluble-fraction-enhances-human-neuroblast-cell-viability-via-an-anti-apoptotic-mechanism
#6
Sana Ben Othman, Nakako Katsuno, Akemi Kitayama, Makoto Fujimura, Kohji Kitaguchi, Tomio Yabe
Defatted sesame seed flour is recovered as a byproduct after oil extraction and is usually considered a waste product. Previously, we showed that water-soluble fractions purified from defatted white and gold sesame seed flour exhibited good antioxidant activity in vitro. We also identified ferulic acid and vanillic acid as the bioactive antioxidants in both white and gold sesame seed water-soluble fractions (WS-wsf and GS-wsf, respectively). In this study, we hypothesized that WS-wsf and GS-wsf may have neuroprotective effects due to their antioxidant potential...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862333/genetic-variants-in-the-promoter-region-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-are-associated-with-its-down-regulation-in-neuroblastic-tumors
#7
Laia Masvidal, Raquel Iniesta, Marta García, Carla Casalà, Cinzia Lavarino, Jaume Mora, Carmen de Torres
We have previously reported that the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in benign, differentiated neuroblastic tumors and epigenetically silenced in undifferentiated, malignant cases. Furthermore, cinacalcet, an allosteric activator of the CaSR, reduces neuroblastoma tumor growth in preclinical models. However, to identify patients that might benefit from this treatment, a complete understanding of mechanisms governing CaSR expression in these tumors would be required. We have now analyzed two polymorphisms in the promoter region of the CASR gene (rs7652589 and rs1501899) by allelic discrimination in neuroblastoma patients and cell lines...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856349/reparative-effects-of-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-in-young-and-aged-co-morbid-rodents-after-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Jesus M Pradillo, Katie N Murray, Graham A Coutts, Ana Moraga, Fernando Oroz-Gonjar, Herve Boutin, Maria A Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain, Nancy J Rothwell, Stuart M Allan
Neuroprotective strategies for ischemic stroke have failed to translate from bench to bedside, possibly due to the lack of consideration of key clinical co-morbidities. Stroke and co-morbidities are associated with raised levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). Inhibition of IL-1 by the administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) has shown to be neuroprotective after experimental cerebral ischemia. Stroke can also trigger a robust neuroreparative response following injury, yet many of these new born neurons fail to survive or integrate into pre-existing circuits...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833499/anesthesia-in-a-child-with-kinsbourne-syndrome-does-anesthesia-technique-matters
#9
N Nisa, P Talawar, B Vasudevan
Kinsbourne syndrome is a rare neurological paraneoplastic syndrome associated with neuroblastic tumors. There are very few literatures on its anesthetic management and interaction with anesthetic agents. The epileptogenic potential of certain anesthetic agents such as ketamine, etomidate, and meperidine might trigger opsoclonus and myoclonus and have an impact on the long-term neurological outcome. The objective of this case report is to discuss the safety of anesthetic agents and their relationship in a patient with Kinsbourne syndrome...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829466/dendropanax-morbifera-l%C3%A3-veille-extract-ameliorates-cadmium-induced-impairment-in-memory-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-rats
#10
Woosuk Kim, Hee Sun Yim, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang
BACKGROUND: Cadmium leads to learning and memory impairment. Dendropanax morbifera Léveille stem extract (DMS) reduces cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus. We investigated the effects of DMS on cadmium-induced impairments in memory in rats. METHODS: Cadmium (2 mg/kg), with or without DMS (100 mg/kg), was orally administered to 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats for 28 days. Galantamine (5 mg/kg), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered as a positive control...
November 9, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823645/neuroblastoma-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumours
#11
REVIEW
Roberto Luksch, Maria Rita Castellani, Paola Collini, Bruno De Bernardi, Massimo Conte, Claudio Gambini, Lorenza Gandola, Alberto Garaventa, Davide Biasoni, Marta Podda, Angela Rita Sementa, Gemma Gatta, Gian Paolo Tonini
Peripheral neuroblastic tumours (PNTs), a family of tumours arising in the embryonal remnants of the sympathetic nervous system, account for 7-10% of all tumours in children. In two-thirds of cases, PNTs originate in the adrenal glands or the retroperitoneal ganglia. At least one third present metastases at onset, with bone and bone marrow being the most frequent metastatic sites. Disease extension, MYCN oncogene status and age are the most relevant prognostic factors, and their influence on outcome have been considered in the design of the recent treatment protocols...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821228/-abnormality-of-top2a-expression-and-its-gene-copy-number-variations-in-neuroblastic-tumors
#12
J M Chen, C J Zhou, X L Ma, D D Guan, L Y Yang, P Yue, L P Gong
Objective: To detect TOP2A protein expression and gene copy number alterations, and to analyze related clinical and pathological implications in pediatric neuroblastic tumors (NT). Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect TOP2A protein expression. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect numerical aberrations of TOP2A. Results: TOP2A protein was expressed in 59.1%(52/88) of cases, which was associated with differentiation (P=0.006), Ki-67 index (P<0.01) and MKI (P=0.001). Twenty-eight cases (35...
November 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809818/essential-oils-from-two-allium-species-exert-effects-on-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus-by-modulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-acetylcholinesterase
#13
Hyo Young Jung, Kwon Young Lee, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Miyoung Yoo, Sanghee Lee, Ki-Yeon Yoo, Yeo Sung Yoon, Jung Hoon Choi, In Koo Hwang
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the effects of oil products from two Allium species: Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium hookeri (Chinese chives) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse dentate gyrus. METHODS: Using corn oil as a vehicle, the essential oil from garlic (10 ml/kg), or Chinese chives (10 ml/kg) was administered orally to 9-week-old mice once a day for 3 weeks. One hour following the last treatment, a novel object recognition test was conducted and the animals were killed 2 h after the test...
November 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802264/conjugate-selex-a-high-throughput-screening-of-thioaptamer-liposomal-nanoparticle-conjugates-for-targeted-intracellular-delivery-of-anticancer-drugs
#14
Qingshan Mu, Akshaya Annapragada, Mayank Srivastava, Xin Li, Jean Wu, Varatharasa Thiviyanathan, Hongyu Wang, Alexander Williams, David Gorenstein, Ananth Annapragada, Nadarajah Vigneswaran
Patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma receiving chemotherapy have a poor prognosis partly due to normal tissue toxicity; therefore, development of a tumor-targeted drug delivery platform to minimize collateral toxicity is a goal of cancer nanomedicine. Aptamers can achieve this purpose. While conventional Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) screens aptamer-only libraries and conjugates them to delivery vehicles after selection, we hypothesized that specific delivery requires screening libraries with aptamer-nanoparticle conjugates...
November 1, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797972/inhibition-of-stat3-with-the-generation-2-5-antisense-oligonucleotide-azd9150-decreases-neuroblastoma-tumorigenicity-and-increases-chemosensitivity
#15
Seiichi Odate, Veronica Veschi, Shuang Yan, Norris Lam, Richard Woessner, Carol J Thiele
PURPOSE: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric tumor of peripheral sympathoadrenal neuroblasts. The long-term event-free survival of children with high-risk NB is still poor despite the improvements with current multimodality treatment protocols. Activated JAK/STAT3 pathway plays an important role in many human cancers, suggesting that targeting STAT3 is a promising strategy for treating high-risk NB. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To evaluate the biologic consequences of specific targeting of STAT3 in NB, we assessed the effect of tetracycline (Tet)-inducible STAT3 shRNA and the generation 2...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797321/analysis-of-cellular-behavior-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-reveal-a-constriction-mechanism-driving-optic-cup-morphogenesis
#16
María Nicolás-Pérez, Franz Kuchling, Joaquín Letelier, Rocío Polvillo, Jochen Wittbrodt, Juan R Martínez-Morales
Contractile actomyosin networks have been shown to power tissue morphogenesis. Although the basic cellular machinery generating mechanical tension appears largely conserved, tensions propagate in unique ways within each tissue. Here we use the vertebrate eye as a paradigm to investigate how tensions are generated and transmitted during the folding of a neuroepithelial layer. We record membrane pulsatile behavior and actomyosin dynamics during zebrafish optic cup morphogenesis by live imaging. We show that retinal neuroblasts undergo fast oscillations and that myosin condensation correlates with episodic contractions that progressively reduce basal feet area...
October 31, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791112/spemann-organizer-gene-goosecoid-promotes-delamination-of-neuroblasts-from-the-otic-vesicle
#17
Husniye Kantarci, Andrea Gerberding, Bruce B Riley
Neurons of the Statoacoustic Ganglion (SAG), which innervate the inner ear, originate as neuroblasts in the floor of the otic vesicle and subsequently delaminate and migrate toward the hindbrain before completing differentiation. In all vertebrates, locally expressed Fgf initiates SAG development by inducing expression of Neurogenin1 (Ngn1) in the floor of the otic vesicle. However, not all Ngn1-positive cells undergo delamination, nor has the mechanism controlling SAG delamination been elucidated. Here we report that Goosecoid (Gsc), best known for regulating cellular dynamics in the Spemann organizer, regulates delamination of neuroblasts in the otic vesicle...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780040/functional-coordination-of-wave-and-wasp-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-neuroblast-migration
#18
Zhiwen Zhu, Yongping Chai, Yuxiang Jiang, Wenjing Li, Huifang Hu, Wei Li, Jia-Wei Wu, Zhi-Xin Wang, Shanjin Huang, Guangshuo Ou
Directional cell migration is critical for metazoan development. We define two molecular pathways that activate the Arp2/3 complex during neuroblast migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. The transmembrane protein MIG-13/Lrp12 is linked to the Arp2/3 nucleation-promoting factors WAVE or WASP through direct interactions with ABL-1 or SEM-5/Grb2, respectively. WAVE mutations partially impaired F-actin organization and decelerated cell migration, and WASP mutations did not inhibit cell migration but enhanced migration defects in WAVE-deficient cells...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780037/wasp-and-wave-team-up-at-the-leading-edge
#19
Nicolas Molinie, Alexis Gautreau
Arp2/3-dependent branched actin networks drive membrane protrusions, with WAVE being recognized as the critical Arp2/3 activator in this process. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Zhu et al. (2016) demonstrate that WASP, an Arp2/3 activator mostly involved in endocytosis, collaborates with WAVE to promote migration of neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans.
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771498/ephrinb3-restricts-endogenous-neural-stem-cell-migration-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Kirsty J Dixon, Jose Mier, Shyam Gajavelli, Alisa Turbic, Ross Bullock, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
September 28, 2016: Stem Cell Research
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