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Spatial patterning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214120/linking-potential-heat-source-and-sink-to-urban-heat-island-heterogeneous-effects-of-landscape-pattern-on-land-surface-temperature
#1
Weifeng Li, Qiwen Cao, Kun Lang, Jiansheng Wu
Rapid urbanization has significantly contributed to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Regulating landscape composition and configuration would help mitigate the UHI in megacities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as a case study area, we defined heat source and heat sink and identified strong and weak sources as well as strong and weak sinks according to the natural and socioeconomic factors influencing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, the potential thermal contributions of heat source and heat sink patches were differentiated...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213899/human-influence-and-biotic-homogenization-drive-the-distribution-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-in-natural-habitats
#2
Adriana Cabal, Joaquin Vicente, Julio Alvarez, Jose Angel Barasona, Mariana Boadella, Lucas Dominguez, Christian Gortazar
Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the only known zoonotic intestinal E. coli pathotype. However, there are other intestinal pathotypes that can cause disease in humans, whose presence has been seldom investigated. Thus, our aim was to identify the effects of anthropic pressure and of wild and domestic ungulate abundance on the distribution and diversity of the main human E. coli pathotypes and nine of their representative virulence genes (VGs). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the direct detection and quantification of the genus-specific gene uidA, nine E...
February 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213117/involuntary-orienting-of-attention-to-a-sound-desynchronizes-the-occipital-alpha-rhythm-and-improves-visual-perception
#3
Wenfeng Feng, Viola S Störmer, Antigona Martinez, John J McDonald, Steven A Hillyard
Directing attention voluntarily to the location of a visual target results in an amplitude reduction (desynchronization) of the occipital alpha rhythm (8-14 Hz), which is predictive of improved perceptual processing of the target. Here we investigated whether modulations of the occipital alpha rhythm triggered by the involuntary orienting of attention to a salient but spatially non-predictive sound would similarly influence perception of a subsequent visual target. Target discrimination was more accurate when a sound preceded the target at the same location (validly cued trials) than when the sound was on the side opposite to the target (invalidly cued trials)...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212649/regional-and-temporal-trends-in-blood-mercury-concentrations-and-fish-consumption-in-women-of-child-bearing-age-in-the-united-states-using-nhanes-data-from-1999-2010
#4
Leanne K Cusack, Ellen Smit, Molly L Kile, Anna K Harding
BACKGROUND: The primary route of exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a known developmental neurotoxicant, is from ingestion of seafood. Since 2004, women of reproductive age in the U.S. have been urged to eat fish and shellfish as part of a healthy diet while selecting species that contain lower levels MeHg. Yet few studies have examined trends in MeHg exposure and fish consumption over time in this group of women with respect to their geographical location in the U.S. METHODS: Data from six consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2010 (n = 9597) were used to determine trends in blood mercury for women aged 16-49 residing in different regions in the US, and according to age, race/ethnicity, income level, and fish consumption using geographic variables...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#5
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212080/improving-registration-robustness-for-image-guided-liver-surgery-in-a-novel-human-to-phantom-data-framework
#6
Jarrod Collins, Jared Weis, Jon Heiselman, Logan Clements, Amber Simpson, Willam Jarnagin, Michael Miga
In open image-guided liver surgery (IGLS), a sparse representation of the intraoperative organ surface can be acquired to drive image-to-physical registration. We hypothesize that uncharacterized error induced by variation in the collection patterns of organ surface data limits the accuracy and robustness of IGLS registration. Clinical validation of such registration methods is challenged due to the difficulty in obtaining data representative of the true state of organ deformation. We propose a novel human-to-phantom validation framework that transforms surface collection patterns from in vivo IGLS procedures (n=13) onto a well-characterized hepatic deformation phantom for the purpose of validating surface-driven, volumetric nonrigid registration methods...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211945/ip3-receptor-mutations-and-brain-diseases-in-human-and-rodents
#7
REVIEW
Chihiro Hisatsune, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R) is a huge Ca(2+) channel that is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The IP3 R releases Ca(2+) from the ER upon binding to IP3 , which is produced by various extracellular stimuli through phospholipase C activation. All vertebrate organisms have three subtypes of IP3 R genes, which have distinct properties of IP3 -binding and Ca(2+) sensitivity, and are differently regulated by phosphorylation and by their associated proteins. Each cell type expresses the three subtypes of IP3 R in a distinct proportion, which is important for creating and maintaining spatially and temporally appropriate intracellular Ca(2+) level patterns for the regulation of specific physiological phenomena...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211884/responses-of-spatial-temporal-dynamics-of-bacterioplankton-community-to-large-scale-reservoir-operation-a-case-study-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#8
Zhe Li, Lunhui Lu, Jinsong Guo, Jixiang Yang, Jiachao Zhang, Bin He, Linlin Xu
Large rivers are commonly regulated by damming, yet the effects of such disruption on bacterioplankton community structures have not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to explore the biogeographical patterns present under dam regulation and to uncover the major drivers structuring bacterioplankton communities. Bacterioplankton assemblages in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing by comparing seven sites located within the TGR before and after impoundment...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211530/factors-affecting-leaf-selection-by-foregut-fermenting-proboscis-monkeys-new-insight-from-in-vitro-digestibility-and-toughness-of-leaves
#9
Ikki Matsuda, Marcus Clauss, Augustine Tuuga, John Sugau, Goro Hanya, Takakazu Yumoto, Henry Bernard, Jürgen Hummel
Free-living animals must make dietary choices in terms of chemical and physical properties, depending on their digestive physiology and availability of food resources. Here we comprehensively evaluated the dietary choices of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) consuming young leaves. We analysed the data for leaf toughness and digestibility measured by an in vitro gas production method, in addition to previously reported data on nutrient composition. Leaf toughness, in general, negatively correlated with the crude protein content, one of the most important nutritional factors affecting food selection by leaf-eating primates...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211141/potential-relocation-of-climatic-environments-suggests-high-rates-of-climate-displacement-within-the-north-american-protection-network
#10
Enric Batllori, Marc-André Parisien, Sean A Parks, Max A Moritz, Carol Miller
Ongoing climate change may undermine the effectiveness of protected area networks in preserving the set of biotic components and ecological processes they harbor, thereby jeopardizing their conservation capacity into the future. Metrics of climate change, particularly rates and spatial patterns of climatic alteration, can help assess potential threats. Here, we perform a continent-wide climate change vulnerability assessment whereby we compare the baseline climate of the protected area network in North America (Canada, USA, México - NAM) to the projected end-of-century climate (2071-2100)...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210949/distributed-mixed-integer-fuzzy-hierarchical-programming-for-municipal-solid-waste-management-part-ii-scheme-analysis-and-mechanism-revelation
#11
Guanhui Cheng, Guohe Huang, Cong Dong, Ye Xu, Jiapei Chen, Xiujuan Chen, Kailong Li
As presented in the first companion paper, distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) was developed for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) under complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions. Beijing was selected as a representative case. This paper focuses on presenting the obtained schemes and the revealed mechanisms of the Beijing MSWM system. The optimal MSWM schemes for Beijing under various solid waste treatment policies and their differences are deliberated...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210264/high-antioxidant-activity-facilitates-maintenance-of-cell-division-in-leaves-of-drought-tolerant-maize-hybrids
#12
Viktoriya Avramova, Hamada AbdElgawad, Ivanina Vasileva, Alexandra S Petrova, Anna Holek, Joachim Mariën, Han Asard, Gerrit T S Beemster
We studied the impact of drought on growth regulation in leaves of 13 maize varieties with different drought sensitivity and geographic origins (Western Europe, Egypt, South Africa) and the inbred line B73. Combining kinematic analysis of the maize leaf growth zone with biochemical measurements at a high spatial resolution allowed us to examine the correlation between the regulation of the cellular processes cell division and elongation, and the molecular redox-regulation in response to drought. Moreover, we demonstrated differences in the response of the maize lines to mild and severe levels of water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210216/flavor-dependent-retention-of-remote-food-preference-memory
#13
Aditya Singh, Suraj Kumar, Vikram Pal Singh, Asish Das, J Balaji
Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208764/spatial-impairment-and-memory-in-genetic-disorders-insights-from-mouse-models
#14
Sang Ah Lee, Valter Tucci, Giorgio Vallortigara
Research across the cognitive and brain sciences has begun to elucidate some of the processes that guide navigation and spatial memory. Boundary geometry and featural landmarks are two distinct classes of environmental cues that have dissociable neural correlates in spatial representation and follow different patterns of learning. Consequently, spatial navigation depends both on the type of cue available and on the type of learning provided. We investigated this interaction between spatial representation and memory by administering two different tasks (working memory, reference memory) using two different environmental cues (rectangular geometry, striped landmark) in mouse models of human genetic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWScr(m+/p-) mice, n = 12) and Beta-catenin mutation (Thr653Lys-substituted mice, n = 12)...
February 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208365/expansion-of-cooperatively-growing-populations-optimal-migration-rates-and-habitat-network-structures
#15
Kai-Cheng Yang, Zhi-Xi Wu, Petter Holme, Etsuko Nonaka
Range expansion of species is driven by the interactions among individual- and population-level processes and the spatial pattern of habitats. In this work we study how cooperatively growing populations spread on networks representing the skeleton of complex landscapes. By separating the slow and fast variables of the expansion process, we are able to give analytical predictions for the critical conditions that divide the dynamic behaviors into different phases (extinction, localized survival, and global expansion)...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208316/bistable-director-alignments-of-nematic-liquid-crystals-confined-in-frustrated-substrates
#16
Takeaki Araki, Jumpei Nagura
We studied in-plane bistable alignments of nematic liquid crystals confined by two frustrated surfaces by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the Lebwohl-Lasher spin model. The surfaces are prepared with orientational checkerboard patterns, on which the director field is locally anchored to be planar yet orthogonal between the neighboring blocks. We found the director field in the bulk tends to be aligned along the diagonal axes of the checkerboard pattern, as reported experimentally [J.-H. Kim et al., Appl...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207172/drivers-of-redistribution-of-fishing-and-non-fishing-effort-after-the-implementation-of-a-marine-protected-area-network
#17
Reniel B Cabral, Steven D Gaines, Brett A Johnson, Tom W Bell, Crow White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP...
October 3, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205341/spatiotemporal-microstructural-white-matter-changes-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging-after-transient-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#18
Won-Beom Jung, Yong Hee Han, Julius Juhyun Chung, Sun Young Chae, Sung Hoon Lee, Geun Ho Im, JiHoon Cha, Jung Hee Lee
Structural reorganization in white matter (WM) after stroke is a potential contributor to substitute or to newly establish the functional field on the injured brain in nature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an imaging modality that can be used to evaluate damage and recovery within the brain. This method of imaging allows for in vivo assessment of the restricted movements of water molecules in WM and provides a detailed look at structural connectivity in the brain. For longitudinal DTI studies after a stroke, the conventional region of interest method and voxel-based analysis are highly dependent on the user-hypothesis and parameter settings for implementation...
February 16, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204868/specific-vicariance-of-two-primeval-lowland-forest-lichen-indicators
#19
Dariusz Kubiak, Piotr Osyczka
To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203484/lw-afc-effects-on-n-glycan-profile-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-strain-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Jianhui Wang, Xiaorui Cheng, Ju Zeng, Jiangbei Yuan, Zhongfu Wang, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
Glycosylation is one of the most common eukaryotic post-translational modifications, and aberrant glycosylation has been linked to many diseases. However, glycosylation and glycome analysis is a significantly challenging task. Although several lines of evidence have indicated that protein glycosylation is defective in Alzheimer's disease (AD), only a few studies have focused on AD glycomics. The etiology of AD is unclear and there are no effective disease-modifying treatments for AD. In this study, we found that the object recognition memory, passive avoidance, and spatial learning and memory of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain, an AD animal model, were deficient, and LW-AFC, which was prepared from the traditional Chinese medicine prescription Liuwei Dihuang decoction, showed beneficial effects on the deterioration of cognitive capability in SAMP8 mice...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
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