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Spatial patterning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332121/pattern-onset-ergs-and-veps-produced-by-patterns-arising-from-light-increment-and-decrement
#1
Dennis M Fritsch, Jane C Sowden, Dorothy A Thompson
Purpose: Our aim was to elaborate how on and off signals contribute to pattern ERGs and pattern visual evoked potentials (VEPs) by using pedestal patterns arising from incremental and decremental onset stimulation. Methods: Pattern onset/offset ERGs and VEPs were produced by black and white checks of 60' side length and 88% spatial contrast appearing in a 16° field for 200 ms from white (110 cd/m2), black (7 cd/m2), and gray (48 cd/m2) backgrounds and disappeared for 1000 ms...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331897/a-framework-for-delineating-the-regional-boundaries-of-pm2-5-pollution-a-case-study-of-china
#2
Jianzheng Liu, Weifeng Li, Jiansheng Wu
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#3
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330526/relationship-among-land-surface-temperature-and-lucc-ndvi-in-typical-karst-area
#4
Yuanhong Deng, Shijie Wang, Xiaoyong Bai, Yichao Tian, Luhua Wu, Jianyong Xiao, Fei Chen, Qinghuan Qian
Land surface temperature (LST) can reflect the land surface water-heat exchange process comprehensively, which is considerably significant to the study of environmental change. However, research about LST in karst mountain areas with complex topography is scarce. Therefore, we retrieved the LST in a karst mountain area from Landsat 8 data and explored its relationships with LUCC and NDVI. The results showed that LST of the study area was noticeably affected by altitude and underlying surface type. In summer, abnormal high-temperature zones were observed in the study area, perhaps due to karst rocky desertification...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330480/anti-correlated-cortical-networks-arise-from-spontaneous-neuronal-dynamics-at-slow-timescales
#5
Nathan X Kodama, Tianyi Feng, James J Ullett, Hillel J Chiel, Siddharth S Sivakumar, Roberto F Galán
In the highly interconnected architectures of the cerebral cortex, recurrent intracortical loops disproportionately outnumber thalamo-cortical inputs. These networks are also capable of generating neuronal activity without feedforward sensory drive. It is unknown, however, what spatiotemporal patterns may be solely attributed to intrinsic connections of the local cortical network. Using high-density microelectrode arrays, here we show that in the isolated, primary somatosensory cortex of mice, neuronal firing fluctuates on timescales from milliseconds to tens of seconds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330469/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-exploits-a-molecular-off-switch-of-the-immune-system-for-intracellular-survival
#6
Ulrich von Both, Maurice Berk, Paul-Michael Agapow, Joseph D Wright, Anna Git, Melissa Shea Hamilton, Greg Goldgof, Nazneen Siddiqui, Evangelos Bellos, Victoria J Wright, Lachlan J Coin, Sandra M Newton, Michael Levin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) survives and multiplies inside human macrophages by subversion of immune mechanisms. Although these immune evasion strategies are well characterised functionally, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that during infection of human whole blood with M. tuberculosis, host gene transcriptional suppression, rather than activation, is the predominant response. Spatial, temporal and functional characterisation of repressed genes revealed their involvement in pathogen sensing and phagocytosis, degradation within the phagolysosome and antigen processing and presentation...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330177/incidence-of-facultative-bacterial-endosymbionts-in-spider-mites-associated-with-local-environment-and-host-plant
#7
Yu-Xi Zhu, Yue-Ling Song, Yan-Kai Zhang, Ary A Hoffmann, Jin-Cheng Zhou, Jing-Tao Sun, Xiao-Yue Hong
Spider mites are frequently associated with multiple endosymbionts whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variation. However, the association between endosymbiont prevalence and environmental factors remains unclear. Here, we surveyed endosymbionts in natural populations of the spider mite, Tetranychus truncatus, in China, screening 935 spider mites from 21 localities and 12 host plant species. Three facultative endosymbiont lineages, Wolbachia, Cardinium, and Spiroplasma, were detected at different infection frequencies (52...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330056/growth-scaling-for-the-early-dynamics-of-hiv-aids-epidemics-in-brazil-and-the-influence-of-socio-demographic-factors
#8
L Dinh, G Chowell, R Rothenberg
The early dynamics of an infectious disease outbreak can be affected by various factors including the transmission mode of the disease and host-specific factors. While recent works have highlighted the presence of sub-exponential growth patterns during the early phase of epidemics, empirical studies examining the contribution of different factors to early epidemic growth dynamics are lacking. Here we aim to characterize and explain the early incidence growth patterns of local HIV/AIDS epidemics in Brazil as a function of socio-demographic factors...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329741/sex-differences-of-hippocampal-structure-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Jing Shi, Hua Guo, Fengmei Fan, Hongzhen Fan, Huimei An, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17)...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329686/highlighting-priority-areas-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-control-in-italy-a-phylogeographic-approach
#10
Erika Ebranati, Stefania Lauzi, Francesco Cerutti, Claudio Caruso, Loretta Masoero, Ana Moreno, Gian Mario De Mia, Simone Peletto, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Camilla Luzzago
The prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a geographic area are largely influenced by live animal trade and management practices. Despite control and eradication programs currently underway in several European countries, the risk of BVDV spread within and among countries is still present. BVDV-1 is the predominant type circulating in European cattle population. In this study, a phylogeographic analysis was applied to the BVDV-1 highest prevalent subtypes in Italy to reconstruct the origin and spatial-temporal distribution and to trace main viral flows between different locations to highlight priority areas for BVDV control...
January 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329314/influence-of-monsoonal-winds-on-chlorophyll-%C3%AE-distribution-in-the-beibu-gulf
#11
Chunyan Shen, Yunrong Yan, Hui Zhao, Jiayi Pan, Adam T Devlin
The influence of seasonal, monsoonal winds on the temporal and spatial variability of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) in the Beibu Gulf is studied based on long-term satellite data of sea surface winds, chl-a concentration and sea surface temperature (SST) and in-situ observations for the years from 2002 to 2014. The analysis results indicated that under northeasterly monsoonal winds, chl-a concentrations were substantially elevated in most area of the Beibu Gulf, with a high chl-a concentration (>2 mg m-3) patch extending southwestward from the coastal water of the northeastern Gulf, consistent with the winter wind pattern...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329101/spatial-variation-of-endotoxin-concentrations-measured-in-ambient-pm10-in-a-livestock-dense-area-implementation-of-a-land-use-regression-approach
#12
Myrna M T de Rooij, Dick J J Heederik, Erik J H M van Nunen, Isabella J van Schothorst, Catharina B M Maassen, Gerard Hoek, Inge M Wouters
BACKGROUND: Results from studies on residential health effects of livestock farming are inconsistent, potentially due to simple exposure proxies used (e.g., livestock density). Accuracy of these proxies compared with measured exposure concentrations is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess spatial variation of endotoxin in PM10 (particulate matter ≤10μm) at residential level in a livestock-dense area, compare simple livestock exposure proxies to measured endotoxin concentrations, and evaluate whether land-use regression (LUR) can be used to explain spatial variation of endotoxin...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329016/non-linear-effects-of-the-built-environment-on-automobile-involved-pedestrian-crash-frequency-a-machine-learning-approach
#13
Chuan Ding, Peng Chen, Junfeng Jiao
Although a growing body of literature focuses on the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian crashes, limited evidence is provided about the relative importance of many built environment attributes by accounting for their mutual interaction effects and their non-linear effects on automobile-involved pedestrian crashes. This study adopts the approach of Multiple Additive Poisson Regression Trees (MAPRT) to fill such gaps using pedestrian collision data collected from Seattle, Washington. Traffic analysis zones are chosen as the analytical unit...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328229/two-mode-surface-plasmon-lasing-in-hexagonal-arrays
#14
V T Tenner, M J A de Dood, M P van Exter
We demonstrate surface-plasmon lasing in hexagonal metal hole arrays with a semiconductor gain medium. The device can be tuned between two laser modes, with distinct wavelengths, spatial distributions, and polarization patterns, by changing the size of the optically pumped area. One of the modes exhibits a six-fold polarization pattern, while the mode observed for larger pump spots has a rotationally symmetric polarization pattern. We explain the mode tuning by the differences of in-plane and radiative out-of-plane losses of the modes...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328187/kilohertz-binary-phase-modulator-for-pulsed-laser-sources-using-a-digital-micromirror-device
#15
Maximilian Hoffmann, Ioannis N Papadopoulos, Benjamin Judkewitz
The controlled modulation of an optical wavefront is required for aberration correction, digital phase conjugation, or patterned photostimulation. For most of these applications, it is desirable to control the wavefront modulation at the highest rates possible. The digital micromirror device (DMD) presents a cost-effective solution to achieve high-speed modulation and often exceeds the speed of the more conventional liquid crystal spatial light modulator but is inherently an amplitude modulator. Furthermore, spatial dispersion caused by DMD diffraction complicates its use with pulsed laser sources, such as those used in nonlinear microscopy...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328136/beam-shaping-diffractive-wave-plates-invited
#16
Luciano De Sio, David E Roberts, Zhi Liao, Jeoungyeon Hwang, Nelson Tabiryan, Diane M Steeves, Brian R Kimball
We present and discuss opportunities opened up by a new generation of beam shaping optical elements that combine capabilities of digital spatial light polarization converters and diffractive properties of thin liquid crystalline films with patterned orientation of anisotropy axis (diffractive wave plates). Several functions of the new generation beam shapers are demonstrated, among them converting a laser beam of a Gaussian profile into a ring profile in the far field, a flattop profile, and into complex images...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328133/computer-generated-hologram-generation-method-to-increase-the-field-of-view-of-the-reconstructed-image
#17
Su-Juan Liu, Dan Xiao, Xiao-Wei Li, Qiong-Hua Wang
In this paper, a computer-generated hologram (CGH) generation method is proposed to increase the field of view (FOV) in the holographic display. The CGH is generated through accumulating interference patterns of all object points. The size of each interference pattern is equal to the sum of the size of the recorded object and the spatial light modulator (SLM), so the size of the interference pattern is increased. The position of the interference pattern is related to that of the corresponding recorded object point...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328107/modulation-transfer-function-of-liquid-crystal-microlenses-and-microprisms-using-double-dielectric-layer
#18
Oleksandr Sova, Victor Reshetnyak, Tigran Galstian
We investigate electrically tunable liquid crystal (LC) microlenses and microprisms based on double dielectric optically hidden (DDOH) layers. Comparative theoretical study of the spatial resolution limits in the creation of a spatially modulated electric field by the DDOH layer is conducted. Both the depth of the resulting optical phase modulation and its deviation from the desired wavefront are obtained for sine and sawtooth geometries of the DDOH layer's structure. A comparison is provided with the standard LC reorientation approach using patterned electrodes...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328092/talbot-carpet-at-the-transverse-plane-produced-in-the-diffraction-of-plane-wave-from-amplitude-radial-gratings
#19
Saifollah Rasouli, Ali Mohammad Khazaei, Davud Hebri
We experimentally demonstrate and theoretically predict a new and unprecedented optical carpet that includes all the geometric shadow and far-field and near-field diffraction patterns at the transverse plane in the diffraction from a radial grating illuminated by a plane wavefront. The main feature of using radial grating is the continuous change of the spatial period along the radial direction. Therefore, the geometric shadow, and the near-field and far-field diffraction regimes are mixed at various propagation distances, and the traditional definitions for the different diffraction regimes would not apply here...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326311/spatial-effects%C3%A2-%C3%A2-site-specific-regulation-of-actin-and-microtubule-organization-by-septin-gtpases
#20
REVIEW
Elias T Spiliotis
The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons comprise a variety of networks with distinct architectures, dynamics and protein composition. A fundamental question in eukaryotic cell biology is how these networks are spatially and temporally controlled, so they are positioned in the right intracellular places at the right time. While significant progress has been made in understanding the self-assembly of actin and microtubule networks, less is known about how they are patterned and regulated in a site-specific manner...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
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