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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728002/development-of-an-integrated-generic-model-for-multi-scale-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-agro-ecosystems-on-major-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#1
Mahamadou Belem, Mehdi Saqalli
This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727828/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-shifting-cultivation-in-the-middle-amazonas-river-expansion-and-intensification
#2
Catarina Conte Jakovac, Loïc Paul Dutrieux, Latifah Siti, Marielos Peña-Claros, Frans Bongers
Shifting cultivation is the main land-use system transforming landscapes in riverine Amazonia. Increased concentration of the human population around villages and increasing market integration during the last decades may be causing agricultural intensification. Studies have shown that agricultural intensification, i.e. higher number of swidden-fallow cycles and shorter fallow periods, reduces crop productivity of swiddens and the regrowth capacity of fallows, undermining the resilience of the shifting cultivation system as a whole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727222/spatiotemporal-pattern-of-gross-primary-productivity-and-its-covariation-with-climate-in-china-over-the-last-thirty-years
#3
Yitong Yao, Xuhui Wang, Yue Li, Tao Wang, Miaogen Shen, Mingyuan Du, Honglin He, Yingnian Li, Weijun Luo, Mingguo Ma, Yaoming Ma, Yanhong Tang, Huimin Wang, Xianzhou Zhang, Yiping Zhang, Liang Zhao, Guangsheng Zhou, Shilong Piao
The uncertainties of China's GPP estimates by global data-oriented products and ecosystem models justify a development of high-resolution data-oriented GPP dataset over China. We applied a machine learning algorithm developing a new GPP dataset for China with 0.1° spatial resolution and monthly temporal frequency based on eddy flux measurements from 40 sites in China and surrounding countries, most of which have not been explored in previous global GPP datasets. According to our estimates, mean annual GPP over China is 6...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727185/automation-of-pattern-recognition-analysis-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-data-to-characterize-intratumoral-vascular-heterogeneity
#4
SoHyun Han, Radka Stoyanova, Hansol Lee, Sean D Carlin, Jason A Koutcher, HyungJoon Cho, Ellen Ackerstaff
PURPOSE: To automate dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data analysis by unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) to enable spatial mapping of intratumoral vascular heterogeneity. METHODS: Three steps were automated. First, the arrival time of the contrast agent at the tumor was determined, including a calculation of the precontrast signal. Second, four criteria-based algorithms for the slice-specific selection of number of patterns (NP) were validated using 109 tumor slices from subcutaneous flank tumors of five different tumor models...
July 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727143/predator-ontogeny-affects-expression-of-inducible-defense-morphology-in-rotifers
#5
Huan Zhang, Christer Brönmark, Lars-Anders Hansson
Many prey organisms show induced morphological responses to predators including changes in protective spine length, such as in rotifers, although previous studies have mainly focused on how prey become larger than the predator gape-size optimum. Here we show that a large-sized predator makes prey rotifers escape below the gape-size optimum of the predator by reducing spine length. Hence, in experiments and field studies we show that during part of their ontogeny fish larvae feed intensively on the common rotifer Keratella cochlearis, and that larval fish predation reduces rotifer spine length both through induction of shorter spines and selective predation on long-spined individuals...
July 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726832/three-dimensional-magnetization-structures-revealed-with-x-ray-vector-nanotomography
#6
Claire Donnelly, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Valerio Scagnoli, Sebastian Gliga, Mirko Holler, Jörg Raabe, Laura J Heyderman
In soft ferromagnetic materials, the smoothly varying magnetization leads to the formation of fundamental patterns such as domains, vortices and domain walls. These have been studied extensively in thin films of thicknesses up to around 200 nanometres, in which the magnetization is accessible with current transmission imaging methods that make use of electrons or soft X-rays. In thicker samples, however, in which the magnetization structure varies throughout the thickness and is intrinsically three dimensional, determining the complex magnetic structure directly still represents a challenge...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726785/jun-is-important-for-ocular-hypertension-induced-retinal-ganglion-cell-degeneration
#7
Stephanie B Syc-Mazurek, Kimberly A Fernandes, Richard T Libby
Ocular hypertension, a major risk factor for glaucoma, is thought to trigger glaucomatous neurodegeneration through injury to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. The molecular signaling pathway leading from ocular hypertension to RGC degeneration, however, is not well defined. JNK signaling, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, and its canonical target, the transcription factor JUN, have been shown to regulate neurodegeneration in many different systems. JUN is expressed after glaucoma-relevant injuries and Jun deficiency protects RGCs after mechanical injury to the optic nerve...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726224/spatial-scale-and-seasonal-dependence-of-land-use-impacts-on-riverine-water-quality-in-the-huai-river-basin-china
#8
Jianfeng Liu, Xiang Zhang, Bi Wu, Guoyan Pan, Jing Xu, Shaofei Wu
Land use pattern is an effective reflection of anthropic activities, which are primarily responsible for water quality deterioration. A detailed understanding of relationship between water quality and land use is critical for effective land use management to improve water quality. Linear mixed effects and multiple regression models were applied to water quality data collected from 2003 to 2010 from 36 stations in the Huai River basin together with topography and climate data, to characterize the land use impacts on water quality and their spatial scale and seasonal dependence...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725452/mapmysmoke-feasibility-of-a-new-quit-cigarette-smoking-mobile-phone-application-using-integrated-geo-positioning-technology-and-motivational-messaging-within-a-primary-care-setting
#9
Robert S Schick, Thomas W Kelsey, John Marston, Kay Samson, Gerald W Humphris
BACKGROUND: Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725380/from-the-ground-up-biotic-and-abiotic-features-that-set-the-course-from-genes-to-ecosystems
#10
Craig W Benkman, Sierra Jech, Matthew V Talluto
Spatial variation in cone serotiny in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) across Yellowstone National Park influences initial pine recruitment after stand-replacing fire with tremendous population, community, and ecosystem consequences. A previous study showed that much of the spatial variation in serotiny results from the balance of selection arising from high frequencies of fire favoring serotiny countered by opposing selection exerted by American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) as seed predators...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725373/high-resolution-photo-mosaic-time-series-imagery-for-monitoring-human-use-of-an-artificial-reef
#11
Georgina Wood, Tim P Lynch, Carlie Devine, Krystle Keller, Will Figueira
Successful marine management relies on understanding patterns of human use. However, obtaining data can be difficult and expensive given the widespread and variable nature of activities conducted. Remote camera systems are increasingly used to overcome cost limitations of conventional labour-intensive methods. Still, most systems face trade-offs between the spatial extent and resolution over which data are obtained, limiting their application. We trialed a novel methodology, CSIRO Ruggedized Autonomous Gigapixel System (CRAGS), for time series of high-resolution photo-mosaic (HRPM) imagery to estimate fine-scale metrics of human activity at an artificial reef located 1...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724779/chronic-pain-alters-spatiotemporal-activation-patterns-of-forearm-muscle-synergies-during-the-development-of-grip-force
#12
Nagarajan Manickaraj, Leanne M Bisset, Venkata S P T Devanaboyina, Justin J Kavanagh
It is largely unknown how the CNS regulates multiple muscle systems in the presence of pain. This study used muscle synergy analysis to investigate multiple forearm muscles in individuals with chronic elbow pain during the development of grip force. Eleven individuals with chronic elbow pain and 11 healthy age-matched controls developed grip force to 15% and 30% of MVC. Surface EMG was obtained from six forearm muscles during force development before non-negative matrix factorization was performed. The relationship between muscle synergies and standard clinical tests of elbow pain were examined using linear regression...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724751/tomo-seq-identifies-sox9-as-a-key-regulator-of-cardiac-fibrosis-during-ischemic-injury
#13
Grégory P A Lacraz, Jan Philipp Junker, Monika M Gladka, Bas Molenaar, Koen T Scholman, Marta Vigil-Garcia, Danielle Versteeg, Hesther de Ruiter, Marit W Vermunt, Menno P Creyghton, Manon M H Huibers, Nicolaas de Jonge, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Eva van Rooij
Background -Cardiac ischemic injury induces a pathological remodeling response, which can ultimately lead to heart failure. Detailed mechanistic insights into molecular signaling pathways relevant for different aspects of cardiac remodeling will support the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Methods -While genome-wide transcriptome analysis on diseased tissues has greatly advanced our understanding of the regulatory networks that drive pathological changes in the heart, this approach has been disadvantaged by the fact that the signals are derived from tissue homogenates...
July 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724219/forecasting-pm2-5-induced-male-lung-cancer-morbidity-in-china-using-satellite-retrieved-pm2-5-and-spatial-analysis
#14
Xiao Han, Yuqin Liu, Hong Gao, Jianmin Ma, Xiaoxuan Mao, Yuting Wang, Xudong Ma
The present study predicts a spatial distribution of lung cancer morbidity in Chinese males due to exposure to PM2.5 concentration from 2010 to 2015. A spatial autocorrelation method was used to evaluate the spatial relationship between the lung cancer morbidities from 2006 to 2009 and satellite-derived PM2.5 atmospheric levels. A comprehensive grey correlation degree analysis was carried out to assess the simultaneous and lag associations between the lung cancer morbidity and PM2.5 concentration. These relationships were subsequently applied to predict male lung cancer morbidity in a specific year...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723936/social-sensing-of-urban-land-use-based-on-analysis-of-twitter-users-mobility-patterns
#15
Aiman Soliman, Kiumars Soltani, Junjun Yin, Anand Padmanabhan, Shaowen Wang
A number of recent studies showed that digital footprints around built environments, such as geo-located tweets, are promising data sources for characterizing urban land use. However, challenges for achieving this purpose exist due to the volume and unstructured nature of geo-located social media. Previous studies focused on analyzing Twitter data collectively resulting in coarse resolution maps of urban land use. We argue that the complex spatial structure of a large collection of tweets, when viewed through the lens of individual-level human mobility patterns, can be simplified to a series of key locations for each user, which could be used to characterize urban land use at a higher spatial resolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723932/the-nucleoid-occlusion-factor-noc-controls-dna-replication-initiation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Ting Pang, Xindan Wang, Hoong Chuin Lim, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner
Successive division events in the spherically shaped bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are oriented in three alternating perpendicular planes. The mechanisms that underlie this relatively unique pattern of division and coordinate it with chromosome segregation remain largely unknown. Thus far, the only known spatial regulator of division in this organism is the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc that inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic ring over the chromosome. However, Noc is not essential in S. aureus, indicating that additional regulators are likely to exist...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723819/exploring-game-dynamics-in-padel-implications-for-assessment-and-training
#17
Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Bernardino J Sánchez-Alcaraz Martinez, Diego Muñoz Marín
A better understanding of in-game competition demands potentially improves coaching strategy and quality. However, there is very limited information about game patterns in padel, a very modern racket sport born in the 70'. The purpose of this study was therefore to quantify and classify game dynamics during the match in professional padel players through a multivariate decision tree approach including technical, spatial and effectiveness indicators. The results determined three main game styles strongly defined by the court zone (net, middle and baseline)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723713/somatotopic-fascicular-lesions-of-the-brachial-plexus-demonstrated-by-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-neurography
#18
Tim Hilgenfeld, Johann Jende, Daniel Schwarz, Philipp Bäumer, Jennifer Kollmer, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Mirko Pham
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high-resolution brachial plexus (BP) magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is capable of (1) distinguishing patients with compressive neuropathy or noncompressive plexopathy from age- and sex-matched controls, (2) discriminating between patients with compressive neuropathy and noncompressive plexopathy, and (3) detecting spatial lesion patterns suggesting somatotopic organization of the BP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (50...
July 18, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723169/nanoantenna-enhanced-infrared-spectroscopic-chemical-imaging
#19
Lucca Kühner, Mario Hentschel, Ute Zschieschang, Hagen Klauk, Jochen Vogt, Christian Huck, Harald Giessen, Frank Neubrech
Spectroscopic infrared chemical imaging is ideally suited for label-free and spatially resolved characterization of molecular species, but often suffers from low infrared absorption cross sections. Here, we overcome this limitation by utilizing confined electromagnetic near-fields of resonantly excited plasmonic nanoantennas, which enhance the molecular absorption by orders of magnitude. In the experiments, we evaporate microstructured chemical patterns of C60 and pentacene with nanometer thickness on top of homogeneous arrays of tailored nanoantennas...
May 26, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722344/a-large-scale-assessment-of-european-rabbit-damage-to-agriculture-in-spain
#20
Miguel Delibes-Mateos, Miguel Ángel Farfán, Carlos Rouco, Jesús Olivero, Ana Luz Márquez, John E Fa, Juan Mario Vargas, Rafael Villafuerte
BACKGROUND: Numerous small and medium-sized mammal pests cause widespread and economically significant damage to crops all over the globe. However, most research on pest species has focused on accounts of the level of damage. There are fewer studies concentrating on the description of crop damage caused by pests at large geographical scales, or on analysing the ecological and anthropogenic factors correlated with these observed patterns. We investigated the relationship between agricultural damage by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and environmental and anthropogenic variables throughout Spain...
July 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
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