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Spatial patterning

Jiannong Fang, Alexander Peringer, Mihai-Sorin Stupariu, Ileana Pǎtru-Stupariu, Alexandre Buttler, Francois Golay, Fernando Porté-Agel
Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kiyofumi Miyoshi, Hiroshi Ashida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Gaurav Ahuja, Vera Reichel, Daniel Kowatschew, Adnan S Syed, Aswani Kumar Kotagiri, Yuichiro Oka, Franco Weth, Sigrun I Korsching
BACKGROUND: The sense of smell is unrivaled in terms of molecular complexity of its input channels. Even zebrafish, a model vertebrate system in many research fields including olfaction, possesses several hundred different olfactory receptor genes, organized in four different gene families. For one of these families, the initially discovered odorant receptors proper, segregation of expression into distinct spatial subdomains within a common sensory surface has been observed both in teleost fish and in mammals...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Zhaoyu Kong, Wenbo Kou, Yantian Ma, Haotian Yu, Gang Ge, Lan Wu
The spatio-temporal shifts of bacterioplankton community can mirror their transition of functional traits in aquatic ecosystem. However, our understanding of spatio-temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition structure (BCCs) within large, shallow and highly dynamic freshwater lake is still elusive. Here we examined the seasonal and spatial variability of BCCs in the Poyang Lake by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to explore how hydrological changes affect the BCCs. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the BCCs varied significantly among four sampling seasons, but not spatially...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Li Rao, Feipeng Da
We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Somnath Ghosh
Coexistence and interplay between mesoscopic light dynamics with singular optics in spatially disordered waveguide lattices are reported. Two CW light beams of a 1.55 μm operating wavelength are launched as inputs to 1D waveguide lattices with controllable weak disorder in a complex refractive index profile. Direct observation of phase singularities in the speckle pattern along the length is numerically demonstrated. Quantitative analysis of the onset of such singular behavior and diffusive wave propagation is analyzed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Alexa Tompary, Naseem Al-Aidroos, Nicholas B Turk-Browne
Top-down attention prioritizes the processing of goal-relevant information throughout visual cortex based on where that information is found in space and what it looks like. Whereas attentional goals often have both spatial and featural components, most research on the neural basis of attention has examined these components separately. Here we investigated how these attentional components are integrated by examining the attentional modulation of functional connectivity between visual areas with different selectivity...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Pamela Graff, Martin R Aguiar, Rocio J Almeida
Background and Aims: Dioecious plants are of particular concern in view of global environmental changes because reproductive females are more sensitive to abiotic stresses, thus compromising population viability. Positive interactions with other plants may counteract the direct effects of any abiotic environmental stress, allowing them to thrive and maintain a viable population in suboptimal habitats, although this process has not been tested for dioecious species. Furthermore, almost no data are available on the outcome of such species interactions and their link with local spatial patterns and sex ratios...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hongoak Yun, Soonja Choi
This study has two goals. First, we present much-needed empirical linguistic data and systematic analyses on the spatial semantic systems in English and Korean, two languages that have been extensively compared to date in the debate on spatial language and spatial cognition. We conduct our linguistic investigation comprehensively, encompassing the domains of tight- and loose-fit as well as containment and support relations. The current analysis reveals both cross-linguistic commonalities and differences: From a common set of spatial features, each language highlights a subset of those features for its principal categorization, and those primary features are importantly different between English and Korean: English speakers categorize events predominantly by containment and support relations (and do so with prepositions), whereas Korean speakers categorize them by tight-fit and loose-fit relations (and do so with verbs), with a further distinction of containment and support within the loose-fit relation...
May 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
Hang Fan, Xiujun Wang, Haibo Zhang, Zhitong Yu
The Yellow-Bohai Sea (YBS) is a typical marginal sea in the Northwest Pacific Ocean; however, little is known about the dynamics of particulate organic carbon (POC) and underlying mechanisms. Here, we analyze the spatial and temporal variations of surface POC derived from MODIS-Aqua during 2002-2016. Overall, POC is higher in the Bohai Sea (315-588 mg m-3 ) than in the Yellow Sea (181-492 mg m-3 ), and higher in the nearshore than in the offshore. Surface POC is highest in spring in the YBS, and lowest in winter (summer) in the Bohai Sea (the Yellow Sea)...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pai-Feng Yang, M Anthony Phipps, Allen T Newton, Vandiver Chaplin, John C Gore, Charles F Caskey, Li Min Chen
Focused ultrasound (FUS) has gained recognition as a technique for non-invasive neuromodulation with high spatial precision and the ability to both excite and inhibit neural activity. Here we demonstrate that MRI-guided FUS is capable of exciting precise targets within areas 3a/3b in the monkey brain, causing downstream activations in off-target somatosensory and associated brain regions which are simultaneously detected by functional MRI. The similarity between natural tactile stimulation-and FUS- evoked fMRI activation patterns suggests that FUS likely can excite populations of neurons and produce associated spiking activities that may be subsequently transmitted to other functionally related touch regions...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ian K Bartol, Paul S Krueger, Carly A York, Joseph T Thompson
Squids, which swim using a coupled fin/jet system powered by muscular hydrostats, pose unique challenges for the study of locomotion. The high flexibility of the fins and complex flow fields generated by distinct propulsion systems require innovative techniques for locomotive assessment. For this study, we used proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to decouple components of the fin motions and defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry (DDPTV) to quantify the resultant 3D flow fields. Kinematic footage and DDPTV data were collected from brief squid Lolliguncula brevis [3...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Atle Mysterud, Vetle Malmer Stigum, Ingrid Vikingsdal Seland, Anders Herland, W Ryan Easterday, Solveig Jore, Olav Østerås, Hildegunn Viljugrein
BACKGROUND: Emergence of tick-borne diseases is impacting humans and livestock across the Northern Hemisphere. There are, however, large regional variations in number of cases of tick-borne diseases. Some areas have surprisingly few cases of disease compared to other regions. The aim here is to provide a first step towards a better understanding of such contrasting regional patterns of disease emergences at the northern distribution range of Ixodes ricinus in Europe. METHODS: We compare disease incidence, vector abundance and pathogen prevalence in eastern and western Norway differing in the number of tick-borne disease cases...
May 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sara Bayramzadeh, Margaret Portillo, Candy Carmel-Gilfilen
BACKGROUND: The influence of the physical environment on patient falls has not been fully explored in psychiatric units, despite this patient population's vulnerability and the critical role of the physical environment in patient safety. AIMS: The research objective is to describe the spatial and temporal pattern of falls occurrences and their location in relation to the levels of safety continuum model. METHOD: This article presents an exploratory case study design...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Lucie Kuczynski, Gaël Grenouillet
Ecological theory suggests that communities are not random combinations of species but rather the results of community assembly processes filtering and sorting species that are able to coexist together. To date, such processes (i.e. assembly rules) have been inferred from observed spatial patterns of biodiversity combined with null model approaches, but relatively few attempts have been made to assess how these processes may be changing through time. Specifically in the context of the on-going biodiversity crisis and global change, understanding how processes shaping communities may be changing and identifying the potential drivers underlying these changes become increasingly critical...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
Estelle Arbellay, Ingrid Jarvis, Raphaël D Chavardès, Lori D Daniels, Markus Stoffel
Reconstructions of defoliation by larch bud moth (LBM, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) based on European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) tree rings have unraveled outbreak patterns over exceptional temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we conducted tree-ring analyses on 105 increment cores of European larch from the Valais Alps, Switzerland. The well-documented history of LBM outbreaks in Valais provided a solid baseline for evaluating the LBM defoliation signal in multiple tree-ring parameters. First, we used tree-ring width measurements along with regional records of LBM outbreaks to reconstruct the occurrence of these events at two sites within the Swiss Alps...
May 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
Ines Herlitze, Benjamin Marie, Frédéric Marin, Daniel J Jackson
Background: Conchiferan molluscs construct a biocalcified shell that likely supported much of their evolutionary success. However beyond broad proteomic and transcriptomic surveys of molluscan shells and the shell-forming mantle tissue, little is known of the spatial and ontogenetic regulation of shell fabrication. In addition, most efforts have been focused on species that deposit nacre, which is at odds with the majority of conchiferan species that fabricate shells using a crossed lamellar microstructure, sensu lato...
May 17, 2018: GigaScience
Qiwei Li, Xinlei Wang, Faming Liang, Faliu Yi, Yang Xie, Adi Gazdar, Guanghua Xiao
Digital pathology imaging of tumor tissues, which captures histological details in high resolution, is fast becoming a routine clinical procedure. Recent developments in deep-learning methods have enabled the identification, characterization, and classification of individual cells from pathology images analysis at a large scale. This creates new opportunities to study the spatial patterns of and interactions among different types of cells. Reliable statistical approaches to modeling such spatial patterns and interactions can provide insight into tumor progression and shed light on the biological mechanisms of cancer...
May 18, 2018: Biostatistics
V Kirsch, R Boegle, D Keeser, E Kierig, B Ertl-Wagner, T Brandt, M Dieterich
Current evidence points towards a vestibular cortex that involves a multisensory bilateral temporo-parietal-insular network with a handedness-dependent hemispheric lateralization. This study aimed to identify handedness-dependent organizational patterns of (lateralized and non-lateralized) functional subunits within the human vestibular cortex areas. 60 healthy volunteers (30 left-handed and 30 right-handed) were examined on a 3T MR scanner using resting state functional MRI (fMRI). The data was analyzed in four major steps using a functional connectivity based parcellation (fCBP) approach: (1) independent component analysis (ICA) on a whole brain level to identify different resting state networks (RSN); (2) creation of a vestibular informed mask from four whole brain ICs that included reference coordinates of the vestibular network extracted from meta-analyses of vestibular neuroimaging experiments; (3) Re-ICA confined to the vestibular informed mask; (4) cross-correlation of the activated voxels within the vestibular subunits (parcels) to each other (P-to-P) and to the whole-brain RSN (P-to-RSN)...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Nao Takashina, Buntarou Kusumoto, Maria Beger, Suren Rathnayake, Hugh P Possingham
Population abundance is fundamental in ecology and conservation biology, and provides essential information for predicting population dynamics and implementing conservation actions. While a range of approaches have been proposed to estimate population abundance based on existing data, data deficiency is ubiquitous. When information is deficient, a population estimation will rely on labor intensive field surveys. Typically, time is one of the critical constraints in conservation, and management decisions must often be made quickly under a data deficient situation...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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