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Spatial patterning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817569/long-term-assessment-of-whale-shark-population-demography-and-connectivity-using-photo-identification-in-the-western-atlantic-ocean
#1
Jennifer A McKinney, Eric R Hoffmayer, Jason Holmberg, Rachel T Graham, William B Driggers, Rafael de la Parra-Venegas, Beatriz E Galván-Pastoriza, Steve Fox, Simon J Pierce, Alistair D M Dove
The predictable occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, has been well documented in several areas. However, information relating to their migratory patterns, residency times and connectivity across broad spatial scales is limited. In the present study photo-identification data is used to describe whale shark population structure and connectivity among known aggregation sites within the Western Central Atlantic Ocean (WCA). From 1999 to 2015, 1,361 individuals were identified from four distinct areas: the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (n = 1,115); Honduras (n = 146); northern Gulf of Mexico, United States (n = 112), and Belize (n = 49)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817567/accounting-for-biotic-spatial-variability-in-fields-case-of-resistance-screening-against-sunflower-verticillium-wilt
#2
Hélène Missonnier, Alban Jacques, JiSu Bang, Jean Daydé, Virginie Mirleau-Thebaud
In breeding for disease resistance, the magnitude of the genetic response is difficult to appreciate because of environmental stresses that interact with the plant genotype. We discuss herein the fundamental problems in breeding for disease resistance with the aim being to better understand the interactions between plant, pathogen, and spatial patterns. The goal of this study is to fine tune breeding decisions by incorporating spatial patterns of such biotic factors into the definition of disease-occurrence probability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817215/unexpected-collective-larval-dispersal-but-little-support-for-sweepstakes-reproductive-success-in-the-highly-dispersive-brooding-mollusk-crepidula-fornicata
#3
Florentine Riquet, Thierry Comtet, Thomas Broquet, Frédérique Viard
In many marine invertebrates, long-distance dispersal is achieved during an extended pelagic larval phase. Although such dispersal should result in high gene flow over broad spatial scales, fine-scale genetic structure has often been reported, a pattern attributed to interfamilial variance in reproductive success and limited homogenization during dispersal. To examine this hypothesis, the genetic diversity of dispersing larvae must be compared with the post-dispersal stages, i.e. benthic recruits and adults...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816865/liquid-crystal-spatial-light-modulators-for-simulating-zonal-multifocal-lenses
#4
Yiyu Li, Arthur Bradley, Renfeng Xu, Pete S Kollbaum
SIGNIFICANCE: To maximize efficiency of the normally lengthy and costly multizone lens design and testing process, it is advantageous to evaluate the potential efficacy of a design as thoroughly as possible prior to lens fabrication and on-eye testing. The current work describes an ex vivo approach of optical design testing. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a system capable of examining the optical characteristics of multizone bifocal and multifocal optics by subaperture stitching using liquid crystal technologies...
August 14, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816482/same-location-costs-in-peripheral-cueing-the-role-of-cue-awareness-and-feature-changes
#5
Tobias Schoeberl, Thomas Ditye, Ulrich Ansorge
Prior studies using the peripheral cueing paradigm have shown that singleton cues that do not match to the top-down search settings of the observer can impair performance in visual search when the cue appears at the target location (in valid conditions) compared with when the cue appears at a location away from the target (in invalid conditions). This pattern, the same-location cost (SLC), has recently been suggested to originate from an awareness-dependent updating of object files in working memory. It has also been argued that the processes underlying the SLC could have obscured results of prior studies by masking attentional capture effects by peripheral cues under certain conditions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815647/wildlife-disease-ecology-from-the-individual-to-the-population-insights-from-a-long-term-study-of-a-naturally-infected-european-badger-population
#6
Jenni L McDonald, Andrew Robertson, Matthew J Silk
1. Long-term individual-based datasets on host-pathogen systems are a rare and valuable resource for understanding the infectious disease dynamics in wildlife. A study of European badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire (UK) has produced a unique dataset, facilitating investigation of a diverse range of epidemiological and ecological questions with implications for disease management. 2. Since the 1970s this badger population has been monitored with a systematic mark-recapture regime yielding a dataset of >15,000 captures of >3000 individuals, providing detailed individual life-history, morphometric, genetic, reproductive and disease data...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815472/comparison-of-pet-ct-and-whole-mount-histopathology-sections-of-the-human-prostate-a-new-strategy-for-voxel-wise-evaluation
#7
F Schiller, T Fechter, C Zamboglou, A Chirindel, N Salman, C A Jilg, V Drendel, M Werner, P T Meyer, A-L Grosu, M Mix
BACKGROUND: Implementation of PET/CT in diagnosis of primary prostate cancer (PCa) requires a profound knowledge about the tracer, preferably from a quantitative evaluation. Direct visual comparison of PET/CT slices to whole prostate sections is hampered by considerable uncertainties from imperfect coregistration and fundamentally different image modalities. In the current study, we present a novel method for advanced voxel-wise comparison of histopathology from excised prostates to pre-surgical PET...
August 17, 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815148/spatio-temporal-analysis-for-new-york-state-sparcs-data
#8
Xin Chen, Yu Wang, Elinor Schoenfeld, Mary Saltz, Joel Saltz, Fusheng Wang
Increased accessibility of health data provides unique opportunities to discover spatio-temporal patterns of diseases. For example, New York State SPARCS (Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System) data collects patient level detail on patient demographics, diagnoses, services, and charges for each hospital inpatient stay and outpatient visit. Such data also provides home addresses for each patient. This paper presents our preliminary work on spatial, temporal, and spatial-temporal analysis of disease patterns for New York State using SPARCS data...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814731/spatial-regression-and-prediction-of-water-quality-in-a-watershed-with-complex-pollution-sources
#9
Xiaoying Yang, Qun Liu, Xingzhang Luo, Zheng Zheng
Fast economic development, burgeoning population growth, and rapid urbanization have led to complex pollution sources contributing to water quality deterioration simultaneously in many developing countries including China. This paper explored the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on ambient total nitrogen (TN) concentration in a heavily polluted watershed and make predictions across the region. Regression results have confirmed the substantial impact on TN concentration by a variety of point and non-point pollution sources...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814718/adaptive-and-non-adaptive-divergence-in-a-common-landscape
#10
Joost A M Raeymaekers, Anurag Chaturvedi, Pascal I Hablützel, Io Verdonck, Bart Hellemans, Gregory E Maes, Luc De Meester, Filip A M Volckaert
Species in a common landscape often face similar selective environments. The capacity of organisms to adapt to these environments may be largely species specific. Quantifying shared and unique adaptive responses across species within landscapes may thus improve our understanding of landscape-moderated biodiversity patterns. Here we test to what extent populations of two coexisting and phylogenetically related fishes-three-spined and nine-spined stickleback-differ in the strength and nature of neutral and adaptive divergence along a salinity gradient...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814638/field-repetition-and-local-mapping-in-the-hippocampus-and-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#11
Roddy M Grieves, Éléonore Duvelle, Emma R Wood, Paul Anthony Dudchenko
Hippocampal place cells support spatial cognition and are thought to form the neural substrate of a global 'cognitive map'. A widely held view is that parts of the hippocampus also underlie the ability to separate patterns, or to provide different neural codes for distinct environments. However, a number of studies have shown that in environments composed of multiple, repeating compartments, place cells and other spatially modulated neurons show the same activity in each local area. This repetition of firing fields may reflect pattern completion, and may make it difficult for animals to distinguish similar local environments...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814406/comparative-epigenetic-and-genetic-spatial-structure-of-the-perennial-herb-helleborus-foetidus-isolation-by-environment-isolation-by-distance-and-functional-trait-divergence
#12
Carlos M Herrera, Mónica Medrano, Pilar Bazaga
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Epigenetic variation can play a role in local adaptation; thus, there should be associations among epigenetic variation, environmental variation, and functional trait variation across populations. This study examines these relationships in the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). METHODS: Plants from 10 subpopulations were characterized genetically (AFLP, SSR markers), epigenetically (MSAP markers), and phenotypically (20 functional traits)...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813944/robotic-set-up-to-quantify-hand-eye-behavior-in-motor-execution-and-learning-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Claudia Casellato, Marta Gandolla, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Pedrocchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813577/spatial-correspondence-between-intraretinal-fluid-subretinal-fluid-and-pigment-epithelial-detachment-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Sophie Klimscha, Sebastian M Waldstein, Thomas Schlegl, Hrvoje Bogunovic, Amir Sadeghipour, Ana-Maria Philip, Dominika Podkowinski, Eleonore Pablik, Li Zhang, Michael D Abramoff, Milan Sonka, Bianca S Gerendas, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
Purpose: To identify the spatial distribution of exudative features of choroidal neovascularization in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) based on the localization of intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRC), subretinal fluid (SRF), and pigment-epithelial detachment (PED). Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volume scans (6 × 6 mm) of 1341 patients with treatment-naïve nAMD. IRC, SRF, and PED were detected on a per-voxel basis using fully automated segmentation algorithms...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813460/mechanisms-for-pattern-specificity-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Osvaldo Matías Velarde, Germán Mato, Damián Dellavale
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key mechanism underlying the clinical relevant DBS configurations has remained elusive due to the inherent complexity related to the interaction between the electrical stimulation and the neural tissue, and the intricate circuital structure of the BG-thalamocortical network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813156/the-spatial-resolution-limit-for-individual-domain-wall-in-magnetic-nanowires
#16
Sumit Dutta, Saima Afroz Siddiqui, Jean Anne Currivan-Incorvia, Caroline A Ross, Marc A Baldo
Magnetic nanowires are the foundation of several promising nonvolatile computing devices, most notably magnetic racetrack memory and domain wall logic. Here, we determine the analog information capacity in these technologies, analyzing a magnetic nanowire containing a single domain wall. Although wires can be deliberately patterned with notches to define discrete positions for domain walls, the line edge roughness of the wire can also trap domain walls at dimensions below the resolution of the fabrication process, determining the fundamental resolution limit for the placement of a domain wall...
August 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813039/comparative-assessment-of-ssr-and-snp-markers-for-inferring-the-population-genetic-structure-of-the-common-fungus-armillaria-cepistipes
#17
T Tsykun, C Rellstab, C Dutech, G Sipos, S Prospero
During the last years, simple sequence repeats (SSRs, also known as microsatellites) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the most popular molecular markers for describing neutral genetic variation in populations of a wide range of organisms. However, only a limited number of studies has focused on comparing the performance of these two types of markers for describing the underlying genetic structure of wild populations. Moreover, none of these studies targeted fungi, the group of organisms with one of the most complex reproductive strategies...
August 16, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813026/breath-figure-self-assembly-a-versatile-method-of-manufacturing-membranes-and-porous-structures-physical-chemical-and-technological-aspects
#18
REVIEW
Edward Bormashenko
The review is devoted to the physical, chemical, and technological aspects of the breath-figure self-assembly process. The main stages of the process and impact of the polymer architecture and physical parameters of breath-figure self-assembly on the eventual pattern are covered. The review is focused on the hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales inherent to breath-figure self-assembly. Multi-scale patterns arising from the process are addressed. The characteristic spatial lateral scales of patterns vary from nanometers to dozens of micrometers...
August 16, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812675/spatial-complementarity-in-tree-crowns-explains-overyielding-in-species-mixtures
#19
Laura J Williams, Alain Paquette, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Christian Messier, Peter B Reich
Deciphering the mechanisms that link biodiversity with ecosystem functions is critical to understanding the consequences of changes in biodiversity. The hypothesis that complementarity and selection effects drive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions is well accepted, and an approach to statistically untangle the relative importance of these effects has been widely applied. In contrast, empirical demonstrations of the biological mechanisms that underlie these relationships remain rare. Here, on the basis of a field experiment with young trees, we provide evidence that one form of complementarity in plant communities-complementarity among crowns in canopy space-is a mechanism, related to light interception and use, that links biodiversity with ecosystem productivity...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812661/human-population-growth-offsets-climate-driven-increase-in-woody-vegetation-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Martin Brandt, Kjeld Rasmussen, Josep Peñuelas, Feng Tian, Guy Schurgers, Aleixandre Verger, Ole Mertz, John R B Palmer, Rasmus Fensholt
The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody vegetation. There is thus an incomplete understanding of how woody vegetation responds to socio-economic and environmental change. Here we used a passive microwave Earth observation data set to document two different trends in land area with woody cover for 1992-2011: 36% of the land area (6,870,000 km(2)) had an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km(2)), mostly in humid zones...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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