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Spatial patterning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107539/towards-cost-effective-operational-monitoring-systems-for-complex-waters-analyzing-small-scale-coastal-processes-with-optical-transmissometry
#1
Marta Ramírez-Pérez, Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Sonja Wiegmann, Elena Torrecilla, Raul Bardaji, Rüdiger Röttgers, Astrid Bracher, Jaume Piera
The detection and prediction of changes in coastal ecosystems require a better understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological interactions, which involves that observations should be performed continuously. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for small, simple and cost-effective in situ sensors to analyze complex coastal waters at a broad range of scales. In this context, this study seeks to explore the potential of beam attenuation spectra, c(λ), measured in situ with an advanced-technology optical transmissometer, for assessing temporal and spatial patterns in the complex estuarine waters of Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) as a test site...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106500/cortical-plasticity-of-motor-eloquent-areas-measured-by-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-patients-with-glioma
#2
Neal Conway, Noémie Wildschuetz, Tobias Moser, Lucia Bulubas, Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cerebral plasticity. Coupled with noninvasive detection of its occurrence, such an understanding has huge potential to improve glioma therapy. The authors aimed to demonstrate the frequency of plastic reshaping, find clues to the patterns behind it, and prove that it can be recognized noninvasively using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). METHODS The authors used nTMS to map cortical motor representation in 22 patients with gliomas affecting the precentral gyrus, preoperatively and 3-42 months postoperatively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106453/giant-amplification-of-noise-in-fluctuation-induced-pattern-formation
#3
Tommaso Biancalani, Farshid Jafarpour, Nigel Goldenfeld
The amplitude of fluctuation-induced patterns might be expected to be proportional to the strength of the driving noise, suggesting that such patterns would be difficult to observe in nature. Here, we show that a large class of spatially extended dynamical systems driven by intrinsic noise can exhibit giant amplification, yielding patterns whose amplitude is comparable to that of deterministic Turing instabilities. The giant amplification results from the interplay between noise and nonorthogonal eigenvectors of the linear stability matrix, yielding transients that grow with time, and which, when driven by the ever-present intrinsic noise, lead to persistent large amplitude patterns...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106430/exclusion-and-hierarchy-of-time-scales-lead-to-spatial-segregation-of-molecular-motors-in-cellular-protrusions
#4
I Pinkoviezky, N S Gov
Molecular motors that carry cargo along biopolymer filaments within cells play a crucial role in the functioning of the cell. In particular, these motors are essential for the formation and maintenance of the cellular protrusions that play key roles in motility and specific functionalities, such as the stereocilia in hair cells. Typically, there are several species of motors, carrying different cargos, that share the same track. Furthermore, it was observed that in the mature stereocilia, the different motors occupy well-segregated bands as a function of distance from the tip...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106418/spatiotemporal-dynamics-and-reliable-computations-in-recurrent-spiking-neural-networks
#5
Ryan Pyle, Robert Rosenbaum
Randomly connected networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons provide a parsimonious model of neural variability, but are notoriously unreliable for performing computations. We show that this difficulty is overcome by incorporating the well-documented dependence of connection probability on distance. Spatially extended spiking networks exhibit symmetry-breaking bifurcations and generate spatiotemporal patterns that can be trained to perform dynamical computations under a reservoir computing framework...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106317/changes-in-vascular-reactivity-and-endothelial-ca-2-dynamics-with-chronic-low-flow
#6
Mark S Taylor, Chung-Sik Choi, Leith Bayazid, Katherine E Glosemeyer, Calvin C P Baker, David S Weber
Disruption of blood flow promotes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes vessels to remodeling and atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest spatial and temporal tuning of local Ca(2+) signals along the endothelium is vital to vascular function. In the current study, we examined whether chronic flow disruption causes alteration of dynamic endothelial Ca(2+) signal patterning associated with changes in vascular structure and function. For these studies, we performed surgical partial-ligation (PL) of the left carotid arteries of mice to establish chronic low flow for 2 weeks; right carotid arteries remained open and served as controls (C)...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106193/light-driven-reversible-surface-functionalization-with-anthracenes-visible-light-writing-and-mild-uv-erasing
#7
Tanja K Claus, Siham Telitel, Alexander Welle, Martin Bastmeyer, Andrew P Vogt, Guillaume Delaittre, Christopher Barner-Kowollik
We introduce a methodology to reversibly pattern planar surfaces via the light-induced dimerization of anthracenes, particularly involving a 9-triazolylanthracene motif. Specifically, we demonstrate that the visible light-induced forward reaction can be employed to pattern small molecule species as well as polymers in a spatially resolved fashion. Under UV irradiation, the generated patterns can be erased to regenerate reactive areas, which are then available for a new functionalization step. The dynamic change in surface chemistry is evidenced by ToF-SIMS...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106080/morphological-physiological-and-anatomical-traits-of-plant-functional-types-in-temperate-grasslands-along-a-large-scale-aridity-gradient-in-northeastern-china
#8
Chengyuan Guo, Linna Ma, Shan Yuan, Renzhong Wang
At the species level, plants can respond to climate changes by changing their leaf traits; however, there is scant information regarding the responses of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types (PFTs) to aridity. Herein, the leaf traits of five PFTs representing 17 plant species in temperate grasslands were examined along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China. The results show that leaf thickness in shrubs, perennial grasses and forbs increased with heightened aridity...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105798/patterns-of-change-in-the-population-and-spatial-distribution-of-oriental-white-storks-ciconia-boyciana-wintering-in-poyang-lake
#9
Zhen-Hua Wei, Yan-Kuo Li, Peng Xu, Fa-Wen Qian, Ji-Hong Shan, Xiao-Bin Tu
Using total counts in simultaneous annual surveys, we monitored the population size and spatial distribution of oriental white storks (Ciconia boyciana) wintering in Poyang Lake between 1998 and 2011. Results showed that Poyang Lake wetland is an important wintering ground for oriental white storks, with an annual average population number of 2 305±326. The population sizes in 2004, 2005, 2010, and 2011 were higher than the highest-ever estimate of its global population. In 2005, we recorded 3 789 individuals, which was the maximum population number within the period of 1998-2011...
November 18, 2016: Zool Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105773/exosomal-biomarkers-of-brain-insulin-resistance-associated-with-regional-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Roger J Mullins, Maja Mustapic, Edward J Goetzl, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
: Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. CONTROLS: Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ42 )...
January 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105541/spatial-distribution-of-mast-cells-around-vessels-and-glands-in-human-gastric-carcinoma
#11
Diego Guidolin, Simona Ruggieri, Tiziana Annese, Cinzia Tortorella, Andrea Marzullo, Domenico Ribatti
The spatial distribution of mast cells inside the tumor stroma has been little investigated. In this study, we have evaluated tumor mast cells (MCs) distribution in gastric cancer through the analysis of the morphological features of the spatial patterns generated by these cells, including size, shape, and architecture of the cell pattern. The pattern of distribution of tryptase- and chymase-positive MCs around the blood vessels and gastric glands in human gastric adenocarcinoma samples was investigated by immunohistochemical techniques and by introducing a quantitative approach to characterize the spatial distribution of MCs...
January 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105407/campanula-lingulata-populations-on-mt-olympus-greece-where-s-the-abundant-centre
#12
Anastasia E Tzortzaki, Despoina Vokou, John M Halley
BACKGROUND: The abundant-centre hypothesis (ACH) assumes that a species becomes more abundant at the centre of its range, where the environmental conditions are most favorable. As we move away from this centre, abundance and occupancy decline. Although this is obvious intuitively, efforts to confirm the hypothesis have often failed. We investigated the abundance patterns of Campanula lingulata across its altitudinal range on Mt. Olympus, Greece, in order to evaluate the "abundant centre" hypothesis along an elevation gradient...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104542/hippocampal-morphology-and-cognitive-functions-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#13
Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Simon R Cox, Jaeil Kim, Natalie A Royle, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alan J Gow, Devasuda Anblagan, Mark E Bastin, Jinah Park, John M Starr, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Structural measures of the hippocampus have been linked to a variety of memory processes and also to broader cognitive abilities. Gross volumetry has been widely used, yet the hippocampus has a complex formation, comprising distinct subfields which may be differentially sensitive to the deleterious effects of age, and to different aspects of cognitive performance. However, a comprehensive analysis of multidomain cognitive associations with hippocampal deformations among a large group of cognitively normal older adults is currently lacking...
December 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104483/the-inhomogeneity-and-complexity-in-defining-fractionated-electrograms
#14
Lisette J M E van der Does, Natasja M S de Groot
Ablation strategies targeting areas of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) are not successful in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Fractionation of atrial electrograms may have multiple causes of both pathological and non-pathological origin. In order to get insight in the definitions used for determining areas of fractionation a literature search was performed using a systematic approach. A Pubmed search for studies describing fractionation during human atrial electrophysiological measurements resulted in 348 articles that were screened for new definitions of fractionation...
January 16, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103762/cultural-and-biological-factors-modulate-spatial-biases-over-development
#15
Luisa Girelli, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Giuseppe Grossi, Lisa S Arduino
Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings...
January 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103470/gender-differences-in-asymmetrical-limb-support-patterns-between-subjects-with-and-without-recurrent-low-back-pain
#16
Paul S Sung, J Tim Zipple, Pamela Danial
New insight regarding limb-dominance effects on temporal-spatial gait parameters is needed to further investigate subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP). Although an asymmetrical gait pattern was found to reflect natural functional differences, there is a lack of information regarding gender differences on dominant limb support patterns in subjects with LBP. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal-spatial gait parameters based on limb dominance and gender between subjects with and without LBP...
January 16, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103468/poly-a-binding-proteins-are-required-for-translational-regulation-in-vertebrate-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#17
Saffet Ozturk, Fatma Uysal
Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) function in the timely regulation of gene expression during oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development in vertebrates. To this end, PABPs bind to poly(A) tails or specific sequences of maternally stored mRNAs to protect them from degradation and to promote their translational activities. To date, two structurally different PABP groups have been identified: (1) cytoplasmic PABPs, including poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB), induced PABP and poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 3; and (2) nuclear PABPs, namely embryonic poly(A)-binding protein 2 and nuclear poly(A)-binding protein 1...
January 20, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102958/sliding-window-prior-data-assisted-compressed-sensing-for-mri-tracking-of-lung-tumors
#18
Eugene Yip, Jihyun Yun, Keith Wachowicz, Zsolt Gabos, Satyapal Rathee, B G Fallone
PURPOSE: Hybrid magnetic resonance imaging and radiation therapy devices are capable of imaging in real-time to track intrafractional lung tumor motion during radiotherapy. Highly accelerated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods can potentially reduce system delay time and/or improves imaging spatial resolution, and provide flexibility in imaging parameters. Prior Data Assisted Compressed Sensing (PDACS) has previously been proposed as an acceleration method that combines the advantages of 2D compressed sensing and the KEYHOLE view-sharing technique...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102912/different-spatio-temporal-eeg-features-drive-the-successful-decoding-of-binaural-and-monaural-cues-for-sound-localization
#19
Adam Bednar, Francis M Boland, Edmund C Lalor
The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring the environment and helps us to analyze complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101740/improving-parameter-inference-from-frap-data-an-analysis-motivated-by-pattern-formation-in-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#20
Lin Lin, Hans G Othmer
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is used to obtain quantitative information about molecular diffusion and binding kinetics at both cell and tissue levels of organization. FRAP models have been proposed to estimate the diffusion coefficients and binding kinetic parameters of species for a variety of biological systems and experimental settings. However, it is not clear what the connection among the diverse parameter estimates from different models of the same system is, whether the assumptions made in the model are appropriate, and what the qualities of the estimates are...
January 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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