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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793156/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-scalp-in-tension
#1
Lisa Falland-Cheung, Mario Scholze, Pamela F Lozano, Benjamin Ondruschka, Darryl C Tong, Paul A Brunton, J Neil Waddell, Niels Hammer
Mechanical properties of the human scalp have not been investigated to a great extent with limited information available. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline material data for human scalp tissue of various ages, which can be applied to experimental and constitutive models, such as in the area of impact biomechanics. This study used specimens from the left and right temporal, fronto-parietal and occipital regions of the human scalp. It investigated the tensile behavior of scalp tissue using tissues harvested from unfixed, fresh cadavers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793116/patterns-of-invasive-growth-in-malignant-gliomas-the-hippocampus-emerges-as-an-invasion-spared-brain-region
#2
Awais A Mughal, Lili Zhang, Artem Fayzullin, Andres Server, Yuping Li, Yingxi Wu, Rainer Glass, Torstein Meling, Iver A Langmoen, Trygve B Leergaard, Einar O Vik-Mo
BACKGROUND: Widespread infiltration of tumor cells into surrounding brain parenchyma is a hallmark of malignant gliomas, but little data exist on the overall invasion pattern of tumor cells throughout the brain. METHODS: We have studied the invasive phenotype of malignant gliomas in two invasive mouse models and patients. Tumor invasion patterns were characterized in a patient-derived xenograft mouse model using brain-wide histological analysis and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
May 21, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792881/the-temporal-association-of-robotic-surgical-diffusion-with-overtreatment-of-the-small-renal-mass
#3
Paras H Shah, Manaf A Alom, Bradley C Leibovich, R Houston Thompson, Robert G Uzzo, Louis R Kavoussi, Lee Richstone, Bimal Bhindi, Elizabeth B Habermann, Vidhu Joshi, Stephen A Boorjian
PURPOSE: To evaluate contemporary practice patterns in the management of small renal masses. METHODS: We identified 52,804 patients within the National Cancer Database diagnosed with a small renal mass (≤4cm) between 2010-2014. Utilization trends for active surveillance, ablation, and robotic, laparoscopic, and open surgical techniques were compared among all-comers, elderly patients (≥75 years) and individuals with competing health risks (Charlson index ≥2)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792291/diurnal-variations-of-depression-related-health-information-seeking-case-study-in-finland-using-google-trends-data
#4
Jonas Christoffer Tana, Jyrki Kettunen, Emil Eirola, Heikki Paakkonen
BACKGROUND: Some of the temporal variations and clock-like rhythms that govern several different health-related behaviors can be traced in near real-time with the help of search engine data. This is especially useful when studying phenomena where little or no traditional data exist. One specific area where traditional data are incomplete is the study of diurnal mood variations, or daily changes in individuals' overall mood state in relation to depression-like symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this exploratory study was to analyze diurnal variations for interest in depression on the Web to discover hourly patterns of depression interest and help seeking...
May 23, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791806/seasonal-dynamics-of-bacterioplankton-community-in-a-large-shallow-highly-dynamic-freshwater-lake
#5
Zhaoyu Kong, Wenbo Kou, Yantian Ma, Haotian Yu, Gang Ge, Lan Wu
The spatio-temporal shifts of bacterioplankton community can mirror their transition of functional traits in aquatic ecosystem. However, our understanding of spatio-temporal variation of bacterioplankton community composition structure (BCCs) within large, shallow and highly dynamic freshwater lake is still elusive. Here we examined the seasonal and spatial variability of BCCs in the Poyang Lake by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to explore how hydrological changes affect the BCCs. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the BCCs varied significantly among four sampling seasons, but not spatially...
May 23, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791463/recurrent-spatio-temporal-modeling-of-check-ins-in-location-based-social-networks
#6
Ali Zarezade, Sina Jafarzadeh, Hamid R Rabiee
Social networks are getting closer to our real physical world. People share the exact location and time of their check-ins and are influenced by their friends. Modeling the spatio-temporal behavior of users in social networks is of great importance for predicting the future behavior of users, controlling the users' movements, and finding the latent influence network. It is observed that users have periodic patterns in their movements. Also, they are influenced by the locations that their close friends recently visited...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791296/attending-to-what-and-where-background-connectivity-integrates-categorical-and-spatial-attention
#7
Alexa Tompary, Naseem Al-Aidroos, Nicholas B Turk-Browne
Top-down attention prioritizes the processing of goal-relevant information throughout visual cortex based on where that information is found in space and what it looks like. Whereas attentional goals often have both spatial and featural components, most research on the neural basis of attention has examined these components separately. Here we investigated how these attentional components are integrated by examining the attentional modulation of functional connectivity between visual areas with different selectivity...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790285/peripapillary-vessel-density-changes-in-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-a-new-biomarker
#8
Nicole Balducci, Maria Lucia Cascavilla, Antonio Ciardella, Chiara La Morgia, Giacinto Triolo, Vincenzo Parisi, Francesco Bandello, Alfredo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli, Piero Barboni
IMPORTANCE: The contribution of the microvascular supply to the pathogenesis of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is poorly understood. BACKGROUND: We aimed at measuring the peripapillary capillary vessel density (VD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) at different stages of LHON. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two LHON patients divided in 4 groups: unaffected mutation carriers (LHON-u); early subacute stage (LHON-e); late subacute stage (LHON-l); chronic stage (LHON-ch)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789937/visual-and-auditory-steady-state-responses-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Ali Khaleghi, Hadi Zarafshan, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
We designed a study to investigate the patterns of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when performing a motor response inhibition task. Thirty 12- to 18-year-old adolescents with ADHD and 30 healthy control adolescents underwent an electroencephalogram (EEG) examination during steady-state stimuli when performing a stop-signal task. Then, we calculated the amplitude and phase of the steady-state responses in both visual and auditory modalities...
May 22, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789642/spatial-and-temporal-variations-of-particulate-organic-carbon-in-the-yellow-bohai-sea-over-2002-2016
#10
Hang Fan, Xiujun Wang, Haibo Zhang, Zhitong Yu
The Yellow-Bohai Sea (YBS) is a typical marginal sea in the Northwest Pacific Ocean; however, little is known about the dynamics of particulate organic carbon (POC) and underlying mechanisms. Here, we analyze the spatial and temporal variations of surface POC derived from MODIS-Aqua during 2002-2016. Overall, POC is higher in the Bohai Sea (315-588 mg m-3 ) than in the Yellow Sea (181-492 mg m-3 ), and higher in the nearshore than in the offshore. Surface POC is highest in spring in the YBS, and lowest in winter (summer) in the Bohai Sea (the Yellow Sea)...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788902/dystonia-deafness-syndrome-caused-by-actb-p-arg183trp-heterozygosity-shows-striatal-dopaminergic-dysfunction-and-response-to-pallidal-stimulation
#11
Inger Marie Skogseid, Oddveig Røsby, Ane Konglund, James P Connelly, Bård Nedregaard, Greg Eigner Jablonski, Nadja Kvernmo, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Joel C Glover
BACKGROUND: Dystonia-deafness syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, with sensorineural deafness typically manifesting earlier than dystonia. ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity has been reported in six patients to cause combined infant-onset deafness and dystonia manifesting in adolescence or young adulthood. Three of these have received beneficial pallidal stimulation. Brain imaging to assess striatal function has not been reported previously, however. Nor has a comprehensive hypothesis been presented for how the pleiotropic manifestations of this specific beta-actin gene mutation originate developmentally...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788771/understanding-design-vulnerabilities-in-the-physical-environment-relating-to-patient-fall-patterns-in-a-psychiatric-hospital-seven-years-of-sentinel-events
#12
Sara Bayramzadeh, Margaret Portillo, Candy Carmel-Gilfilen
BACKGROUND: The influence of the physical environment on patient falls has not been fully explored in psychiatric units, despite this patient population's vulnerability and the critical role of the physical environment in patient safety. AIMS: The research objective is to describe the spatial and temporal pattern of falls occurrences and their location in relation to the levels of safety continuum model. METHOD: This article presents an exploratory case study design...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788536/community-disassembly-under-global-change-evidence-in-favor-of-the-stress-dominance-hypothesis
#13
Lucie Kuczynski, Gaël Grenouillet
Ecological theory suggests that communities are not random combinations of species but rather the results of community assembly processes filtering and sorting species that are able to coexist together. To date, such processes (i.e. assembly rules) have been inferred from observed spatial patterns of biodiversity combined with null model approaches, but relatively few attempts have been made to assess how these processes may be changing through time. Specifically in the context of the on-going biodiversity crisis and global change, understanding how processes shaping communities may be changing and identifying the potential drivers underlying these changes become increasingly critical...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788488/surveillance-of-mosquitoes-diptera-culicidae-in-southern-iowa-2016
#14
Kristofer B Kovach, Ryan C Smith
The mosquito fauna of Iowa has been extensively investigated over several decades, providing a wealth of information regarding species distributions, relative abundance, temporal activity patterns, and identifying vectors of medical importance. However, these investigations have had unequal coverage, leaving the mosquito fauna in some parts of the state, including southern Iowa, largely uncharacterized. With the heightened public health threat of Zika virus in the summer of 2016, greater emphasis was placed on surveying for two potential Zika virus vectors: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus)...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788327/tree-ring-proxies-of-larch-bud-moth-defoliation-latewood-width-and-blue-intensity-are-more-precise-than-tree-ring-width
#15
Estelle Arbellay, Ingrid Jarvis, Raphaël D Chavardès, Lori D Daniels, Markus Stoffel
Reconstructions of defoliation by larch bud moth (LBM, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) based on European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) tree rings have unraveled outbreak patterns over exceptional temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we conducted tree-ring analyses on 105 increment cores of European larch from the Valais Alps, Switzerland. The well-documented history of LBM outbreaks in Valais provided a solid baseline for evaluating the LBM defoliation signal in multiple tree-ring parameters. First, we used tree-ring width measurements along with regional records of LBM outbreaks to reconstruct the occurrence of these events at two sites within the Swiss Alps...
May 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788295/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-resembles-cortical-architecture-at-various-levels-of-isoflurane-anesthesia
#16
Felix Fischer, Florian Pieper, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Gerhard Engler, Claus C Hilgetag, Andreas K Engel
Cortical single neuron activity and local field potential patterns change at different depths of general anesthesia. Here, we investigate the associated network level changes of functional connectivity. We recorded ongoing electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity from temporo-parieto-occipital cortex of 6 ferrets at various levels of isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia and determined functional connectivity by computing amplitude envelope correlations. Through hierarchical clustering, we derived typical connectivity patterns corresponding to light, intermediate and deep anesthesia...
May 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787957/prolonged-performance-related-neuroendocrine-activation-and-perseverative-cognition-in-low-and-high-anxious-university-music-students
#17
Patrick Gomez, Carole Nielsen, Regina K Studer, Horst Hildebrandt, Petra L Klumb, Urs M Nater, Pascal Wild, Brigitta Danuser
Music performances are social-evaluative situations that can elicit marked short-term neuroendocrine activation and anxious thoughts especially in musicians suffering from music performance anxiety (MPA). The temporal patterns of neuroendocrine activity and concert-related worry and rumination (perseverative cognition, PC) days before and after a concert in low- and high-anxious musicians are unknown. The first goal of the present study was to investigate the prolonged effects of a solo music performance and the effects of trait MPA on salivary cortisol (sC), alpha-amylase (sAA), and concert-related PC...
May 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787866/handedness-dependent-functional-organizational-patterns-within-the-bilateral-vestibular-cortical-network-revealed-by-fmri-connectivity-based-parcellation
#18
V Kirsch, R Boegle, D Keeser, E Kierig, B Ertl-Wagner, T Brandt, M Dieterich
Current evidence points towards a vestibular cortex that involves a multisensory bilateral temporo-parietal-insular network with a handedness-dependent hemispheric lateralization. This study aimed to identify handedness-dependent organizational patterns of (lateralized and non-lateralized) functional subunits within the human vestibular cortex areas. 60 healthy volunteers (30 left-handed and 30 right-handed) were examined on a 3T MR scanner using resting state functional MRI (fMRI). The data was analyzed in four major steps using a functional connectivity based parcellation (fCBP) approach: (1) independent component analysis (ICA) on a whole brain level to identify different resting state networks (RSN); (2) creation of a vestibular informed mask from four whole brain ICs that included reference coordinates of the vestibular network extracted from meta-analyses of vestibular neuroimaging experiments; (3) Re-ICA confined to the vestibular informed mask; (4) cross-correlation of the activated voxels within the vestibular subunits (parcels) to each other (P-to-P) and to the whole-brain RSN (P-to-RSN)...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787860/tissue-transplantation-in-planarians-a-useful-tool-for-molecular-analysis-of-pattern-formation
#19
REVIEW
Jose Ignacio Rojo-Laguna, Sergi Garcia-Cabot, Emili Saló
Freshwater planarians are well known for their remarkable plasticity and regenerative capabilities. Most studies of planarian regeneration have specifically examined regeneration after transverse or longitudinal sectioning or during homeostasis in intact adults. However, tissue transplantation, first performed over a century ago, constitutes another important tool in the study of regeneration in planarians, and can be easily performed given this species' extraordinary healing capacity and its lack of a circulatory system...
May 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787492/dot-motion-perception-in-young-adult-emmetropes-and-myopes
#20
Hui-Ying Kuo, David A Atchison, Katrina Leanne Schmid
SIGNIFICANCE: Central motion perception, as assessed by minimum displacement detection, was reduced in highly myopic eyes. Peripheral motion detection may be influenced by myopia, particularly in the inferior-nasal retina. PURPOSE: Motion discrimination is a complex visual task processed mainly via the magnocellular pathway. We investigated whether it is affected in myopia. METHODS: Ninety young adults aged 18 to 28 years participated: 30 emmetropes (spherical equivalent refractions +1...
May 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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