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Temporal patterning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931157/is-nocturnal-foraging-in-a-tropical-bee-an-escape-from-interference-competition
#1
Adam R Smith, Shannon M Kitchen, Ryan M Toney, Christian Ziegler
Temporal niche partitioning may result from interference competition if animals shift their activity patterns to avoid aggressive competitors. If doing so also shifts food sources, it is difficult to distinguish the effects of interference and consumptive competition in selecting for temporal niche shift. Bees compete for pollen and nectar from flowers through both interference and consumptive competition, and some species of bees have evolved nocturnality. Here, we use tropical forest canopy towers to observe bees (the night-flying sweat bees Megalopta genalis and M...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931014/phonological-memory-in-sign-language-relies-on-the-visuomotor-neural-system-outside-the-left-hemisphere-language-network
#2
Yuji Kanazawa, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toru Ishii, Toshihiko Aso, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Koichi Omori
Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930994/measuring-in-vivo-changes-in-extracellular-neurotransmitters-during-naturally-rewarding-behaviors-in-female-syrian-hamsters
#3
Kelsey M Moore, Brett T Himmler, Benjamin A Teplitzky, Matthew D Johnson, Robert L Meisel
The ability to measure neurotransmitter release on a rapid time scale allows patterns of neurotransmission to be linked to specific behaviors or manipulations; a powerful tool in elucidating underlying mechanisms and circuitry. While the technique of microdialysis has been used for decades to measure nearly any analyte of interest in the brain, this technique is limited in temporal resolution. Alternatively, fast scan cyclic voltammetry is both temporally precise and extremely sensitive; however, because this technically difficult method relies on the electroactivity of the analyte of interest, the possibility to detect nonelectroactive substances (e...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930977/fourier-based-diffraction-analysis-of-live-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Jenny Magnes, Harold M Hastings, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Clara Alivisatos, Adam Warner, Miranda Hulsey-Vincent
This manuscript describes how to classify nematodes using temporal far-field diffraction signatures. A single C. elegans is suspended in a water column inside an optical cuvette. A 632 nm continuous wave HeNe laser is directed through the cuvette using front surface mirrors. A significant distance of at least 20-30 cm traveled after the light passes through the cuvette ensures a useful far-field (Fraunhofer) diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern changes in real time as the nematode swims within the laser beam...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930946/evaluating-the-traditional-day-and-night-shift-in-an-acute-care-surgery-fellowship-is-the-swing-shift-a-better-choice
#5
Paul J Chestovich, Christopher F McNicoll, Nichole K Ingalls, Deborah A Kuhls, Douglas R Fraser, Shawna L Morrissey, John J Fildes
BACKGROUND: Fellowship trainees in Acute Care Surgery require experience in the management of complex and operative trauma cases. Trauma center staffing usually follows standard 12 or 24 hour shifts, with resident and fellow trainees following a similar schedule. Although trauma admissions can be generally unpredictable, we analyzed temporal trends of trauma patient arrival times to determine the best time frame to maximize trainee experience during each day. METHODS: We reviewed ten years (2007-2016) of trauma registry data for blunt and penetrating trauma activations...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930539/transcriptional-regulation-of-p57-kip2-expression-during-development-differentiation-and-disease
#6
Marianna N Rossi, Oriella Andresini, Francesca Matteini, Rossella Maione
p57(kip2) is the most complex member of the CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and plays a fundamental role in regulating cell cycle and differentiation during mammalian development. Consistently with a key role for p57(kip2) in the spatial and temporal control of cell proliferation, its expression is fine-tuned by multiple regulatory mechanisms, resulting in a tissue-, developmental phase- and cell type-specific pattern. Moreover, p57(kip2) is an imprinted gene, further supporting the importance of its proper expression dosage...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929740/use-of-mobile-device-data-to-better-estimate-dynamic-population-size-for-wastewater-based-epidemiology
#7
Kevin V Thomas, Arturo Amador, Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Malcolm Reid
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an established approach for quantifying community drug use and has recently been applied to estimate population exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and phthalate plasticizers. A major source of uncertainty in the population weighted biomarker loads generated is related to estimating the number of people present in a sewer catchment at the time of sample collection. Here, the population quantified from mobile device-based population activity patterns was used to provide dynamic population normalized loads of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals during a known period of high net fluctuation in the catchment population...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929566/protracted-dendritic-growth-in-the-typically-developing-human-amygdala-and-increased-spine-density-in-young-asd-brains
#8
R K Weir, M D Bauman, B Jacobs, C M Schumann
The amygdala is a medial temporal lobe structure implicated in social and emotional regulation. In typical development (TD), the amygdala continues to increase volumetrically throughout childhood and into adulthood, while other brain structures are stable or decreasing in volume. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the amygdala undergoes rapid early growth, making it volumetrically larger in children with ASD compared to TD children. Here we explore: 1) if dendritic arborization in the amygdala follows the pattern of protracted growth in TD and early overgrowth in ASD and 2), if spine density in the amygdala in ASD cases differs from TD from youth to adulthood...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929401/making-time-estimation-of-internally-versus-externally-defined-durations
#9
Michael D Klein, Jennifer A Stolz
Most research on the topic of duration estimation has examined the mechanisms underlying estimation of durations that are demarcated by experimental stimuli. It is not clear whether the estimation of durations that are instead defined by our own mental processes (e.g., response times) is underlain by the same mechanisms. Across five experiments, we tested whether the pattern of interference between concurrent temporal and nontemporal tasks was similar for the two types of intervals. Duration estimation of externally defined intervals slowed performance on a concurrent equation verification task, regardless of whether participants were required to report their estimate by clicking within an analogue scale or by reproducing the duration...
September 19, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928646/cortical-activation-during-action-observation-action-execution-and-interpersonal-synchrony-in-adults-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#10
Anjana N Bhat, Michael D Hoffman, Susanna L Trost, McKenzie L Culotta, Jeffrey Eilbott, Daisuke Tsuzuki, Kevin A Pelphrey
Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS) as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014). In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation ("Watch" partner), action execution ("Do" on your own), and IPS (move "Together")...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928409/modelling-sequences-and-temporal-networks-with-dynamic-community-structures
#11
Tiago P Peixoto, Martin Rosvall
In evolving complex systems such as air traffic and social organisations, collective effects emerge from their many components' dynamic interactions. While the dynamic interactions can be represented by temporal networks with nodes and links that change over time, they remain highly complex. It is therefore often necessary to use methods that extract the temporal networks' large-scale dynamic community structure. However, such methods are subject to overfitting or suffer from effects of arbitrary, a priori-imposed timescales, which should instead be extracted from data...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927717/automated-dissection-of-permanent-effects-of-hippocampal-or-prefrontal-lesions-on-performance-at-spatial-working-memory-and-circadian-timing-tasks-of-c57bl-6-mice-in-intellicage
#12
Vootele Voikar, Sven Krackow, Hans-Peter Lipp, Anton Rau, Giovanni Colacicco, David P Wolfer
To evaluate permanent effects of hippocampal and prefrontal cortex lesion on spatial tasks, lesioned and sham-operated female C57BL mice were exposed to a series of conditioning schemes in IntelliCages housing 8-10 transponder-tagged mice from each treatment group. Sequential testing started at 51 to 172days after bilateral lesions and lasted for 154 and 218days in two batches of mice, respectively. Spontaneous undisturbed behavioral patterns clearly separated the three groups, hippocampals being characterized by more erratic hyperactivity, and strongly impaired circadian synchronization ability...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927240/temporal-dynamics-of-hippocampal-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-interactions-during-the-delay-period-of-a-working-memory-guided-foraging-task
#13
Maxym Myroshnychenko, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips, Christopher C Lapish
Connections between the hippocampus (HC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are critical for working memory; however, the precise contribution of this pathway is a matter of debate. One suggestion is that it may stabilize retrospective memories of recently encountered task-relevant information. Alternatively, it may be involved in encoding prospective memories, or the internal representation of future goals. To explore these possibilities, simultaneous extracellular recordings were made from mPFC and HC of rats performing the delayed spatial win-shift on a radial maze...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926207/seasonal-rather-than-spatial-variability-drives-planktonic-and-benthic-bacterial-diversity-in-a-microtidal-lagoon-and-the-adjacent-open-sea
#14
G M Quero, L Perini, G Pesole, C Manzari, C Lionetti, M Bastianini, M Marini, G M Luna
Coastal lagoons are highly productive ecosystems, which are experiencing a variety of human disturbances at increasing frequency. Bacteria are key ecological players within lagoons, yet little is known about the magnitude, patterns and drivers of diversity in these transitional environments. We carried out a seasonal study in the Venice Lagoon (Italy) and the adjacent sea, to simultaneously explore diversity patterns in different domains (pelagic, benthic) and their spatio-temporal variability, and test the role of environmental gradients in structuring assemblages...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925716/differential-neural-activation-when-voluntarily-regulating-emotions-in-service-members-with-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Michael N Dretsch, Thomas A Daniel, Adam M Goodman, Jeffrey S Katz, Thomas Denney, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Jennifer L Robinson
The objective of this study was to characterize the functional activation of the neural correlates of voluntary regulation of emotion in soldiers both with and without chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a battery of cognitive and psychological health measures, we assessed differences between active-duty U.S. soldiers with chronic mTBI (n = 37) and without (Controls, n = 35). Participants were instructed to maintain (passively view), enhance, and suppress emotions associated with negative and neutral visual stimuli...
September 19, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925561/nestin-expressing-cell-types-in-the-temporal-lobe-and-hippocampus-morphology-differentiation-and-proliferative-capacity
#16
Joan Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Thomas Jacques, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Pamela Thompson, Sanjay Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years)...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#17
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923977/prepatterning-by-rhogefs-governs-rho-gtpase-spatiotemporal-dynamics-during-wound-repair
#18
Mitsutoshi Nakamura, Jeffrey M Verboon, Susan M Parkhurst
Like tissues, single cells are subjected to continual stresses and damage. As such, cells have a robust wound repair mechanism comprised of dynamic membrane resealing and cortical cytoskeletal remodeling. One group of proteins, the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), is critical for this actin and myosin cytoskeletal response in which they form distinct dynamic spatial and temporal patterns/arrays surrounding the wound. A key mechanistic question, then, is how these GTPase arrays are formed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923553/a-systematic-integrated-analysis-of-brain-expression-profiles-reveals-yap1-and-other-prioritized-hub-genes-as-important-upstream-regulators-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Min Xu, Deng-Feng Zhang, Rongcan Luo, Yong Wu, Hejiang Zhou, Li-Li Kong, Rui Bi, Yong-Gang Yao
INTRODUCTION: Profiling the spatial-temporal expression pattern and characterizing the regulatory networks of brain tissues are vital for understanding the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We performed a systematic integrated analysis of expression profiles of AD-affected brain tissues (684 AD and 562 controls). A network-based convergent functional genomic approach was used to prioritize possible regulator genes during AD development, followed by functional characterization...
September 15, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923313/functional-brain-networks-for-learning-predictive-statistics
#20
Joseph Giorgio, Vasilis M Karlaftis, Rui Wang, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Andrew Welchman, Zoe Kourtzi
Making predictions about future events relies on interpreting streams of information that may initially appear incomprehensible. This skill relies on extracting regular patterns in space and time by mere exposure to the environment (i.e., without explicit feedback). Yet, we know little about the functional brain networks that mediate this type of statistical learning. Here, we test whether changes in the processing and connectivity of functional brain networks due to training relate to our ability to learn temporal regularities...
August 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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