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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329842/magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-progressive-brain-injury-in-rats-acutely-intoxicated-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#1
Brad A Hobson, Sílvia Sisó, Douglas J Rowland, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Acute intoxication with organophosphates (OPs) can trigger seizures that progress to status epilepticus, and survivors often exhibit chronic neuropathology, cognitive impairment, affective disorders and/or electroencephalographic abnormalities. Understanding how acute injury transitions to persistent neurological sequelae is critical to developing medical countermeasures for mitigating damage following OP-induced seizures. Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of neuropathology for one month after acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328952/understanding-the-unique-flowering-sequence-in-dipsacus-fullonum-evidence-from-geometrical-changes-during-head-development
#2
Somayeh Naghiloo, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
The genus Dipsacus is characterized by a remarkable bidirectional flowering sequence and a rare phyllotactic pattern. Considering that flower initiation and flowering sequence may be interconnected, we document the development of the head meristem in Dipsacus fullonum. Our results indicate a gradual change in the geometry of the head meristem beginning with a dome shaped stage, continuing with a remarkable widening in the middle part of the head meristem and ending in a spindle-like form. Quantitative data confirm that meristem expansion is higher in the middle part than at the base of the meristem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328939/multimodal-mr-imaging-reveals-large-scale-structural-and-functional-connectivity-changes-in-profound-early-blindness
#3
Corinna M Bauer, Gabriella V Hirsch, Lauren Zajac, Bang-Bon Koo, Olivier Collignon, Lotfi B Merabet
In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328546/temporal-patterns-and-drug-resistance-in-csf-viral-escape-among-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-adults
#4
Shibani S Mukerji, Vikas Misra, David Lorenz, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian, Jennifer Lyons, Spyridon Chalkias, Alysse Wurcel, Deirdre Burke, Nagagopal Venna, Susan Morgello, Igor J Koralnik, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape is an increasingly recognized clinical event among HIV-1-infected adults. We analyzed longitudinal data and drug-resistance mutations to characterize profiles of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy with discordant CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. METHODS: Forty-one cases of CSF escape defined as detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA when plasma levels were undetectable, or HIV-1 RNA >0.5-log higher in CSF than plasma, were identified from Boston Hospitals and National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) from 2005-2016...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327635/the-evolutionary-and-phylogeographic-history-of-woolly-mammoths-a-comprehensive-mitogenomic-analysis
#5
Dan Chang, Michael Knapp, Jacob Enk, Sebastian Lippold, Martin Kircher, Adrian Lister, Ross D E MacPhee, Christopher Widga, Paul Czechowski, Robert Sommer, Emily Hodges, Nikolaus Stümpel, Ian Barnes, Love Dalén, Anatoly Derevianko, Mietje Germonpré, Alexandra Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Silviu Constantin, Tatyana Kuznetsova, Dick Mol, Thomas Rathgeber, Wilfried Rosendahl, Alexey N Tikhonov, Eske Willerslev, Greg Hannon, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Ulrich Joger, Hendrik Poinar, Michael Hofreiter, Beth Shapiro
Near the end of the Pleistocene epoch, populations of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) were distributed across parts of three continents, from western Europe and northern Asia through Beringia to the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nonetheless, questions about the connectivity and temporal continuity of mammoth populations and species remain unanswered. We use a combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to assemble and interpret a data set of 143 mammoth mitochondrial genomes, sampled from fossils recovered from across their Holarctic range...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327111/temporal-distribution-of-gastroenteritis-viruses-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso-seasonality-of-rotavirus
#6
Nafissatou Ouedraogo, Stephanie Moustapha Tomba Ngangas, Isidore Juste Ouindguèta Bonkoungou, Aissatou Bénéwendé Tiendrebeogo, Kuan Abdoulaye Traore, Idrissa Sanou, Alfred Sababénédjo Traore, Nicolas Barro
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and adults, and continues to cause a major problem of public health in Burkina Faso. The temporal pattern of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A was studied by examining prevalence of gastroenteritis viruses in association with meteorological variables in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Stool samples from 263 children under 5 years of age and 170 older children patients, adolescent and adults with gastroenteritis were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012...
March 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327104/characterizing-early-child-growth-patterns-of-height-for-age-in-an-urban-slum-cohort-of-bangladesh-with-functional-principal-component-analysis
#7
Yin Zhang, Jianhui Zhou, Feiyang Niu, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical stage of physical and cognitive growth that forms the foundation of future wellbeing. Stunted growth is presented in one of every 4 children worldwide and contributes to developmental impairment and under-five mortality. Better understanding of early growth patterns should allow for early detection and intervention in malnutrition. We aimed to characterize early child growth patterns and quantify the change of growth curves from the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326992/thai-rate-varied-vowel-length-perception-and-the-impact-of-musical-experience
#8
Angela Cooper, Yue Wang, Richard Ashley
Musical experience has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the perception of non-native speech contrasts. The present study examined whether or not musical experience facilitated the normalization of speaking rate in the perception of non-native phonemic vowel length contrasts. Native English musicians and non-musicians (as well as native Thai control listeners) completed identification and AX (same-different) discrimination tasks with Thai vowels contrasting in phonemic length at three speaking rates...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326910/circadian-rhythms-in-plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-differ-in-men-and-women
#9
Sean W Cain, Anne-Marie Chang, Irma Vlasac, Archana Tare, Clare Anderson, Charles A Czeisler, Richa Saxena
The measurement of circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a marker of disease and an indicator of recovery. Thus, knowing the temporal pattern and influence of potential circadian rhythms is important. Although several studies have measured BDNF at different times of day, no studies have done so while controlling for potential masking influences such as sleep and activity. Further, no previous study has examined circadian rhythms within individuals. We examined circadian rhythms in plasma BDNF while minimizing masking from behavioral and environmental factors using a 30-h constant routine (CR) protocol...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326610/dose-and-temporal-evaluation-of-ethylene-oxide-induced-mutagenicity-in-the-lungs-of-male-big-blue-mice-following-inhalation-exposure-to-carcinogenic-concentrations
#10
Mugimane G Manjanatha, Sharon D Shelton, Ying Chen, Barbara L Parsons, Meagan B Myers, Karen L McKim, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, Nigel P Moore, Lynne T Haber, Bruce Allen, Martha M Moore
Ethylene oxide (EO) is a direct acting alkylating agent; in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that it is both a mutagen and a carcinogen. However, it remains unclear whether the mode of action (MOA) for cancer for EO is a mutagenic MOA, specifically via point mutation. To investigate the MOA for EO-induced mouse lung tumors, male Big Blue (BB) B6C3F1 mice (10/group) were exposed to EO by inhalation, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 (0, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm EO), 8, or 12 weeks (0, 100, or 200 ppm EO). Lung DNA samples were analyzed for cII mutant frequency (MF) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure; the mutation spectrum was analyzed for mutants from control and 200 ppm EO treatments...
March 22, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326557/analysis-of-blood-flow-characteristics-in-a-model-of-a-mature-side-to-side-arteriovenous-fistula
#11
Ashkan Javadzadegan, Nay Myo Lwin, Muhammad Asyraf, Anne Simmons, Tracie Barber
The creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a common surgical procedure in hemodialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, several complications may occur after surgery, including thrombosis, stenosis, and aneurysm. These complications are attributed to hemodynamics perturbations including pathophysiological wall shear stress (WSS) and flow recirculation zones. In this study, we present a computational hemodynamic analysis in a model of a mature side-to-side AVF, which is then validated by experimental measurements...
March 21, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326126/scenarios-in-tropical-forest-degradation-carbon-stock-trajectories-for-redd
#12
REVIEW
Rafael B de Andrade, Jennifer K Balch, Amoreena L Parsons, Dolors Armenteras, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Janette Bulkan
BACKGROUND: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Using best available information, we: (i) develop short-term emissions factors (per area) for logging and fire degradation scenarios in tropical forests; and (ii) describe the temporal pattern of degradation emissions and recovery trajectory post logging and fire disturbance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326033/subcortical-shape-changes-hippocampal-atrophy-and-cortical-thinning-in-future-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#13
Andrea M Kälin, Min T M Park, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jason P Lerch, Lars Michels, Clemens Schroeder, Sarah D Broicher, Spyros Kollias, Roger M Nitsch, Anton F Gietl, Paul G Unschuld, Christoph Hock, Sandra E Leh
Efficacy of future treatments depends on biomarkers identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment at highest risk for transitioning to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we applied recently developed analysis techniques to investigate cross-sectional differences in subcortical shape and volume alterations in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 23, age range 59-82, 47.8% female), future converters at baseline (n = 10, age range 66-84, 90% female) and at time of conversion (age range 68-87) compared to group-wise age and gender matched healthy control subjects (n = 23, age range 61-81, 47...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326015/serotonin-regulates-the-firing-of-principal-cells-of-the-subiculum-by-inhibiting-a-t-type-ca-2-current
#14
Anders V Petersen, Camilla S Jensen, Valérie Crépel, Mathias Falkerslev, Jean-François Perrier
The subiculum is the main output of the hippocampal formation. A high proportion of its principal neurons fire action potentials in bursts triggered by the activation of low threshold calcium currents. This firing pattern promotes synaptic release and regulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. The subiculum receives a high density of fibers originating from the raphe nuclei, suggesting that serotonin (5-HT) modulates subicular neurons. Here we investigated if and how 5-HT modulates the firing pattern of bursting neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325934/cordillera-zealandia-a-mesozoic-arc-flare-up-on-the-palaeo-pacific-gondwana-margin
#15
L A Milan, N R Daczko, G L Clarke
Two geochemically and temporally distinct components of the Mesozoic Zealandia Cordilleran arc indicate a shift from low to high Sr/Y whole rock ratios at c. 130 Ma. Recent mapping and a reappraisal of published Sr-Nd data combined with new in-situ zircon Hf isotope analyses supports a genetic relationship between the two arc components. A reappraisal of geophysical, geochemical and P-T estimates demonstrates a doubling in thickness of the arc to at least 80 km at c. 130 Ma. Contemporaneously, magmatic addition rates shifted from ~14 km(3)/my per km of arc to a flare-up involving ~100 km(3)/my per km of arc...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325610/depositional-history-and-inventories-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-sediment-cores-from-an-antarctic-specially-managed-area-admiralty-bay-king-george-island
#16
Tatiane Combi, César C Martins, Satie Taniguchi, Juliana Leonel, Rafael André Lourenço, Rosalinda Carmela Montone
Temporal patterns, fluxes and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in nine sediment cores collected from selected areas of Admiralty Bay off the Antarctic Peninsula. Concentrations of total PCBs were low, but slightly higher in comparison to low-impacted, remote environments in the world, ranging from below the detection limit to 11.9ngg(-1) in dry weight. PCB concentrations and inventories suggest a possible minor influence related to the nearby logistic activities, especially in the sediment core collected close to the Ferraz Station...
March 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324854/accounting-for-urban-biogenic-fluxes-in-regional-carbon-budgets
#17
Brady S Hardiman, Jonathan A Wang, Lucy R Hutyra, Conor K Gately, Jackie M Getson, Mark A Friedl
Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324120/-biological-mechanisms-of-radiation-effects
#18
S Gruber, W Dörr
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes is inevitable in modern medicine. The therapeutic application of irradiation is highly effective against cancer; however, this implies exposure of normal tissue structures to significant doses of radiation. Diagnostic or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation can result in tissue changes and tumor induction in the long term. Knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects is essential for individualization of the application...
March 21, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323825/association-between-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-the-brain-and-alzheimer-disease-neuropathology-and-cognitive-performance-a-nontargeted-metabolomic-study
#19
Stuart G Snowden, Amera A Ebshiana, Abdul Hye, Yang An, Olga Pletnikova, Richard O'Brien, John Troncoso, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Madhav Thambisetty
BACKGROUND: The metabolic basis of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and expression of AD symptoms is poorly understood. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids have previously been linked to both protective and pathogenic effects in AD. However, to date little is known about how the abundance of these species is affected by differing levels of disease pathology in the brain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed metabolic profiling on brain tissue samples from 43 individuals ranging in age from 57 to 95 y old who were stratified into three groups: AD (N = 14), controls (N = 14) and "asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease" (ASYMAD), i...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323620/discovery-of-novel-determinants-of-endothelial-lineage-using-chimeric-heterokaryons
#20
Wing Tak Wong, Gianfranco Matrone, XiaoYu Tian, Simion Alin Tomoiaga, Kin Fai Au, Shu Meng, Sayumi Yamazoe, Daniel Sieveking, Kaifu Chen, David M Burns, James K Chen, Helen M Blau, John P Cooke
We wish to identify determinants of endothelial lineage. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) were fused with human endothelial cells in stable, non-dividing, heterokaryons. Using RNA-seq it is possible to discriminate between human and mouse transcripts in these chimeric heterokaryons. We observed a temporal pattern of gene expression in the ESCs of the heterokaryons that recapitulated ontogeny, with early mesodermal factors being expressed before mature endothelial genes. A set of transcriptional factors not known to be involved in endothelial development was upregulated, one of which was POU class 3 homeobox 2 (Pou3f2)...
March 21, 2017: ELife
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