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Temporal patterning

Allison C Nugent, Bruce Luber, Frederick W Carver, Stephen E Robinson, Richard Coppola, Carlos A Zarate
Recently, independent components analysis (ICA) of resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has revealed resting state networks (RSNs) that exhibit fluctuations of band-limited power envelopes. Most of the work in this area has concentrated on networks derived from the power envelope of beta bandpass-filtered data. Although research has demonstrated that most networks show maximal correlation in the beta band, little is known about how spatial patterns of correlations may differ across frequencies...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Daniela Mier, Sarah Eisenacher, Franziska Rausch, Susanne Englisch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Vera Zamoscik, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective Theory of Mind (ToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Anurati Saha, Rebecca Rolfe, Simon Carroll, Daniel J Kelly, Paula Murphy
Chondrogenesis in vivo is precisely controlled in time and space. The entire limb skeleton forms from cells at the core of the early limb bud that condense and undergo chondrogenic differentiation. Whether they form stable cartilage at the articular surface of the joint or transient cartilage that progresses to hypertrophy as endochondral bone, replacing the cartilage template of the skeletal rudiment, is spatially controlled over several days in the embryo. Here, we follow the differentiation of cells taken from the early limb bud (embryonic day 11...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Jason Mackey, Jane C Khoury, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Brett M Kissela, Matthew L Flaherty, Opeolu Adeoye, Daniel Woo, Simona Ferioli, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Pooja Khatri, Joseph P Broderick, Mario Zuccarello, Dawn Kleindorfer
OBJECTIVE: To characterize temporal trends in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) incidence and outcomes over 5 time periods in a large population-based stroke study in the United States. METHODS: All SAHs among residents of the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region at least 20 years of age were identified and verified via study physician review in 5 distinct year-long study periods between 1988 and 2010. We abstracted demographics, care patterns, and outcomes, and we compared incidence and case-fatality rates across the study periods...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Bakary Danso, Archibald Worwui, Sukai Ceesay, Nwakanma Davies, David Jeffries, Umberto D'Alessandro, David Conway
BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide analyses of single nucleotide variation in Plasmodium falciparum identified evidence of an extended haplotype region on chromosome 6 in West Africa, suggesting recent positive selection. Such a pattern is not seen in samples from East Africa or South East Asia, so it could be marking a selective process specific to West Africa. Analyses of the haplotype structure in samples taken at different times could give clues to possible causes of selection. METHODS: This study investigates chromosome 6 extended haplotypes in The Gambia by analysing alleles at multiple microsatellite loci using genome sequence data previously obtained from clinical isolates collected in 2008, followed by genotyping of 13 loci in 439 isolates from 1984, 1991, 2008 and 2014...
October 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
Karen H Wang, Joseph L Goulet, Constance M Carroll, Melissa Skanderson, Samah Fodeh, Joseph Erdos, Julie A Womack, Erica A Abel, Harini Bathulapalli, Amy C Justice, Marcella Nunez-Smith, Cynthia A Brandt
BACKGROUND: Healthcare mobility, defined as healthcare utilization in more than one distinct healthcare system, may have detrimental effects on outcomes of care. We characterized healthcare mobility and associated characteristics among a national sample of Veterans. METHODS: Using the Veterans Health Administration Electronic Health Record, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to quantify healthcare mobility within a four year period. We examined the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and healthcare mobility, and characterized possible temporal and geographic patterns of healthcare mobility...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Sinem Acar, Ece Bulut, Bora Durul, Ilhan Uner, Mehmet Kur, M Dilek Avsaroglu, Hüseyin Avni Kirmaci, Yasar Osman Tel, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Yesim Soyer
192 Food samples (commonly consumed 8 food types), 355 animal samples (animal feces of bovine, ovine, goat and chicken) and 50 samples from clinical human cases in Sanliurfa city, Turkey in a year were collected to determine the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica mosaic in Turkey. 161 Salmonella isolates represented 17 serotypes, 20 sequence types (STs) and 44 PFGE patterns (PTs). 3 serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky, were recovered from three different hosts. The highest discriminatory power was obtained by PFGE (SID=0...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
J M Glownia, A Natan, J P Cryan, R Hartsock, M Kozina, M P Minitti, S Nelson, J Robinson, T Sato, T van Driel, G Welch, C Weninger, D Zhu, P H Bucksbaum
Time-resolved femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from laser-excited molecular iodine are used to create a movie of intramolecular motion with a temporal and spatial resolution of 30 fs and 0.3 Å. This high fidelity is due to interference between the nonstationary excitation and the stationary initial charge distribution. The initial state is used as the local oscillator for heterodyne amplification of the excited charge distribution to retrieve real-space movies of atomic motion on ångstrom and femtosecond scales...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Tommi L Gaines, Daniel Werb, Jaime Arredondo, Victor M Alaniz, Carlos Vilalta, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. METHOD: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Christian Kärgel, Claudia Massau, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Viola Borchardt, Tillmann H C Krueger, Gilian Tenbergen, Jonas Kneer, Matthias Wittfoth, Alexander Pohl, Hannah Gerwinn, Jorge Ponseti, Till Amelung, Klaus M Beier, Sebastian Mohnke, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40)...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Arpita Bose, Rosalind Wood, Swathi Kiran
BACKGROUND: Verbal fluency tasks are included in a broad range of aphasia assessments. It is well documented that people with aphasia (PWA) produce fewer items in these tasks. Successful performance on verbal fluency relies on the integrity of both linguistic and executive control abilities. It remains unclear if limited output in aphasia is solely due to their lexical retrieval difficulties or has a basis in their executive control abilities. Analysis techniques, such as temporal characteristics of word retrieved, clustering and switching, are better positioned to inform the debate surrounding the lexical and/or executive control contribution for success in verbal fluency...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Marijn Bart Martens, Monica Frega, Jessica Classen, Lisa Epping, Elske Bijvank, Marco Benevento, Hans van Bokhoven, Paul Tiesinga, Dirk Schubert, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shui'er Han, Claudia Lunghi, David Alais
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is a psychophysical technique where a rapidly changing Mondrian pattern viewed by one eye suppresses the target in the other eye for several seconds. Despite the widespread use of CFS to study unconscious visual processes, the temporal tuning of CFS suppression is currently unknown. In the present study we used spatiotemporally filtered dynamic noise as masking stimuli to probe the temporal characteristics of CFS. Surprisingly, we find that suppression in CFS peaks very prominently at approximately 1 Hz, well below the rates typically used in CFS studies (10 Hz or more)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mikyung Lee, Zhichao Liu, Ruili Huang, Weida Tong
BACKGROUND: All biological processes are inherently dynamic. Biological systems evolve transiently or sustainably according to sequential time points after perturbation by environment insults, drugs and chemicals. Investigating the temporal behavior of molecular events has been an important subject to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the biological system in response to, such as, drug treatment. The intrinsic complexity of time series data requires appropriate computational algorithms for data interpretation...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Christoph Funk, Adrian Roth
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern for drug developers, regulators and clinicians. It is triggered by drug and xenobiotic insults leading to liver impairment or damage, in the worst-case liver failure. In contrast to acute "intrinsic" hepatotoxicity, DILI typically manifests in a very small subset of the population under treatment with no clear dose relationship and inconsistent temporal patterns and is therefore termed an idiosyncratic event. Involved are multifactorial, compound-dependent mechanisms and host-specific factors, making the prediction in preclinical test systems very challenging...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Kishan A Manani, Kim Christensen, Nicholas S Peters
Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF...
October 2016: Physical Review. E
Catherine S Hubbard, Lino Becerra, Jonathan H Smith, Justin M DeLange, Ryan M Smith, David F Black, Kirk M Welker, Rami Burstein, Fred M Cutrer, David Borsook
The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥15 headache days/month) to episodic (EM; <15 headache days/month) migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11), as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and <15 headache days/month), compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12), showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
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