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Muktak Aklujkar, Ching Leang, Pravin M Shrestha, Minita Shrestha, Derek R Lovley
Clostridium ljungdahlii derives energy by lithotrophic and organotrophic acetogenesis. C. ljungdahlii was grown organotrophically with fructose and also lithotrophically, either with syngas - a gas mixture containing hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO), or with H2 and CO2. Gene expression was compared quantitatively by microarrays using RNA extracted from all three conditions. Gene expression with fructose and with H2/CO2 was compared by RNA-Seq. Upregulated genes with both syngas and H2/CO2 (compared to fructose) point to the urea cycle, uptake and degradation of peptides and amino acids, response to sulfur starvation, potentially NADPH-producing pathways involving (S)-malate and ornithine, quorum sensing, sporulation, and cell wall remodeling, suggesting a global and multicellular response to lithotrophic conditions...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dong Joon Kim, Mee-Hyun Lee, KangDong Liu, Do Young Lim, Eunmiri Roh, Hanyong Chen, Sung-Hyun Kim, Jung-Hyun Shim, Myoung Ok Kim, Wenwen Li, Fayang Ma, Mangaladoss Fredimoses, Ann M Bode, Zigang Dong
Herbacetin is a flavonol compound that is found in plants such as flaxseed and ramose scouring rush herb, it possesses a strong antioxidant capacity, and exerts anticancer effects on colon and breast cancer. However, the effect of herbacetin on skin cancer has not been investigated. Herein, we identified herbacetin as a dual V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor, and illustrated its anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo against cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma cell growth...
September 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
Robert S Phillips, Pafe Poteh, Katherine A Miller, Timothy R Hoover
STM2360 is a gene located in a small operon of undetermined function in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. The amino acid sequence of STM2360 shows significant similarity (∼30% identity) to diaminopimelate decarboxylase (DapDC), a Fold III pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme involved in l-lysine biosynthesis. We have found that the protein coded by STM2360 has a previously undocumented catalytic activity, d-ornithine/d-lysine decarboxylase (DOKDC). The reaction products, cadaverine and putrescine, respectively, were identified by NMR and mass spectrometry...
October 9, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
G Rossi, M Cerquetella, S Scarpona, G Pengo, K Fettucciari, G Bassotti, A E Jergens, J S Suchodolski
Spermine (SPM) and its precursor putrescine (PUT), regulated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and diamino-oxidase (DAO), are polyamines required for cell growth and proliferation. Only a few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory and tumour inhibitory properties of probiotics on mucosal polyamine levels. We investigated the effects of a high concentration multistrain probiotic for human use on colonic polyamine biosynthesis in dogs. Histological sections (inflammatory bowel disease, n=10; polyposis, n=5) were assessed after receiving 112 to 225×10(9) lyophilised bacteria daily for 60 days at baseline (T0) and 30 days after treatment end (T90)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Pilar Garcia-Jimenez, Montserrat Montero-Fernandez, R Rafael Robaina
When applied in vitro, methyl jasmonate is sensed by the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricate, substantially and visually affecting its carposporogenesis. However, although there is some understanding of the morphological changes induced by methyl jasmonate in vitro, little is known about the genes that are involved in red seaweed carposporogenesis and how their protein products act. For the work reported herein, the expression of genes in red seaweed that encode enzymes involved in the synthesis of methyl jasmonate (jasmonic acid carboxyl methyl transferase and a putative methyl transferase) was monitored, additionally the genes involved in oxidation (cytochrome P450 and WD40), jasmonate synthesis, signal transduction, and regulation of reactive oxygen species (MYB), and reproduction (ornithine decarboxylase) were monitored...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Rafał Szewczyk, Anna Kuśmierska, Przemysław Bernat
Ametryn is a representative of a class of s-triazine herbicides absorbed by plant roots and leaves and characterized as a photosynthesis inhibitor. It is still in use in some countries in the farming of pineapples, soybean, corn, cotton, sugar cane or bananas; however, due to the adverse effects of s-triazine herbicides on living organisms use of these pesticides in the European Union has been banned. In the current study, we characterized the biodegradation of ametryn (100 mg L(-1)) by entomopathogenic fungal cosmopolite Metarhizium brunneum...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Wei Liu, Yuan-Hao Wu, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Ya Liu, Yi Wang, Bin Xue, Bin Liu, Yue Cai, Bo Zhang, Yang Ji
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the effects of lentivirus-mediated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) in rats with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty Lewis rats were randomized into control group (ten rats without processing) and RA group (ten rats of adjuvant-induced arthritis). The third-generation FLSs were randomized into test, control and blank groups. MTT assay and flow cytometry were employed to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively...
October 3, 2017: Life Sciences
Yang Liu, Nannan Li, Mi Kyung Eom, Peter Schumann, Xin Zhang, Yanhua Cao, Yuanyuan Ge, Ming Xiao, Jiuran Zhao, Chi Cheng, Song-Gun Kim
Two Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, designated as 5L6(T) and 6L6, isolated from seeds of hybrid maize (Zea mays L., Jingke 968) were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were aerobic, motile, endospore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates were recognized as a species of the genus Bacillus, to which the five closest neighbours are Bacillus solani FJAT-18043(T) (99.8 % similarity), Bacillus horneckiae DSM 23495(T) (97...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Zuobing Liu, Myong Chol Kim, Liqiu Wang, Guoxin Zhu, Yumin Zhang, Yao Huang, Ziyan Wei, Wangmu Danzeng, Fang Peng
A gamma- and UV radiation-tolerant, Gram-negative, short-rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X-121(T), was isolated from soil samples collected from the Taklimakan desert in Xinjiang, China. Strain X-121(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Deinococcus depolymerans TDMA-24(T) (94.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain X-121(T) is a member of a novel species belonging to the clade formed by members of the genus Deinococcus in the family Deinococcaceae...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Anna Sandqvist, Jörn Schneede, David Kylhammar, Dan Henrohn, Jakob Lundgren, Mikael Hedeland, Ulf Bondesson, Göran Rådegran, Gerhard Wikström
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening condition, characterized by an imbalance of vasoactive substances and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature. Nitric oxide, formed from L-arginine, is essential for homeostasis and smooth muscle cell relaxation in PAH. Our aim was to compare plasma concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in PAH compared to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and healthy subjects. This was an observational, multicenter study comparing 21 patients with PAH to 14 patients with LVSD and 27 healthy subjects...
October 3, 2017: Heart and Vessels
Kendra Bufkin, Pablo Sobrado
N-Hydroxylating monooxygenases (NMOs) are involved in siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophores are high affinity iron chelators composed of catechol and hydroxamate functional groups that are synthesized and secreted by microorganisms and plants. Recently, a new siderophore named albachelin was isolated from a culture of Amycolatopsis alba growing under iron-limiting conditions. This work focuses on the expression, purification, and characterization of the NMO, abachelin monooxygenase (AMO) from A. alba. This enzyme was purified and characterized in its holo (FAD-bound) and apo (FAD-free) forms...
October 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Priyanshu R Rai, Rakesh R Somani, Pooja S Kandpile
Ornithine decarboxylase is the first enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. It is the rate-limiting enzyme which is included in the change of ornithine to putrescine which is the first polyamine. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) are natural and synthetic compounds which contains two or more amino group. Polyamines are highly implicated in cellular functions such as cell-growth & multiplication, DNA stabilization, gene transcription and translation, ion-channel activity, etc. Elevated levels of polyamines were found in highly proliferating tumour cells...
September 27, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Zhi-Gang Gong, Weijie Zhao, Jianbing Zhang, Xi Wu, Jing Hu, Guo-Chang Yin, Yong-Jiang Xu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a type of inflammation-related cancer that usually follows liver hepatitis that mostly caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. However, the metabolism disturbance of HCC and HBV-cirrhosis is not yet fully understood. In addition, there is little research on the relationships between inflammation mediators and HCC. In this study, we investigated serum metabolic abnormalities in HBV-cirrhosis and HCC patients through non-targeted metabolomics and targeted eicosanoid analysis...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Ashley Vardon, Madhumita Dandapani, Daryl Cheng, Paul Cheng, Carmela De Santo, Francis Mussai
Paediatric sarcomas and brain tumours, remain cancers of significant unmet need, with a poor prognosis for patients with high risk disease or those who relapse, and significant morbidities from treatment for those that survive using standard treatment approaches. Novel treatment strategies, based on the underlying tumour biology, are needed to improve outcomes. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that is imported from the extracellular microenvironment or recycled from intracellular precursors through the combined expression of the enzymes ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) enzymes...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Xiao-Mei Fang, Dong Yan, Jing-Lin Bai, Jing Su, Hong-Yu Liu, Bai-Ping Ma, Yu-Qin Zhang, Li-Yan Yu
A Gram-positive bacterium originating from the surface-sterilized leaf of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The isolate formed yellow, smooth, circular colonies on nutrient agar with 0.2 % starch (NSA). Cells were non-motile, non-sporulating, irregular rods or cocci. Strain CPCC 203535T had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of Ornithinimicrobium kibberense (96.9 %) and formed the deepest branch in the genus Ornithinimicrobium in the neighbour-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jacob Gubbens, Changsheng Wu, Hua Zhu, Dmitri V Filippov, Bogdan I Florea, Sébastien Rigali, Herman S Overkleeft, Gilles P van Wezel
The explosive increase in genome sequencing and the advances in bioinformatic tools have revolutionized the rationale for natural product discovery from actinomycetes. In particular, this has revealed that actinomycete genomes contain numerous orphan gene clusters that have the potential to specify many yet unknown bioactive specialized metabolites, representing a huge unexploited pool of chemical diversity. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel group of catecholate-hydroxamate siderophores termed qinichelins (2-5) from Streptomyces sp...
October 2, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Serena Niro, Mariantonietta Succi, Patrizio Tremonte, Elena Sorrentino, Raffaele Coppola, Gianfranco Panfili, Alessandra Fratianni
The evolution of free amino acids (FAA) in Caciocavallo cheeses, made with cow milk (CC) and cow milk mixed with ewe (CE) and goat (CG) milk, was studied throughout ripening. In all Caciocavallo cheeses produced, the total free amino acid (TFAA) content increased during ripening. In general, the highest TFAA content was found in cow cheeses, and the lowest in CG cheeses, whereas CE cheeses ranged over an intermediate level. In all the analyzed samples, during ripening, the content of the individual FAA increased with the exception of arginine...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Nicolas Weiss, Fanny Mochel, Marika Rudler, Sophie Demeret, Pascal Lebray, Filomena Conti, Damien Galanaud, Chris Ottolenghi, Jean-Paul Bonnefont, Marc Dommergues, Jacques Bernuau, Dominique Thabut
BACKGROUND: Inborn urea cycle deficiencies are under-recognized metabolic causes of hyperammonaemia in adults. METHODS: A 28-year-old primigravida, 7-week pregnant woman affected by hyperemesis gravidarum developed acute liver injury and then acute liver failure (ALF) in less than 48 hours. RESULTS: Because the patient developed atypical features, especially mildly elevated serum transaminases contrasting with very high blood ammonia levels (281 μmol/l), concomitant with normal serum creatinine, an inborn error of metabolism was suspected...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Bin Zhang, Miao Yu, Ying Zhou, Yixue Li, Bang-Ce Ye
BACKGROUND: L-Ornithine is a non-protein amino acid with extensive applications in medicine and the food industry. Currently, L-ornithine production is based on microbial fermentation, and few microbes are used for producing L-ornithine owing to unsatisfactory production titer. RESULTS: In this study, Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114, a high glutamate-producing strain, was developed for L-ornithine production by pathway engineering. First, argF was deleted to block L-ornithine to citrulline conversion...
September 22, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Yibo Shen, Yansong Fu, Yang Yu, Junwei Zhao, Jiansong Li, Yao Li, Xiangjing Wang, Ji Zhang, Wensheng Xiang
A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain NEAU-3TGS17T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus). The isolate grew at 0-35 °C (optimum 28-30 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-3TGS17T belonged to the genus Psychrobacillus. Sequence similarities between strain NEAU-3TGS17T and members of the genus Psychrobacillus with validly published names (Psychrobacillus psychrotolerans DSM 11706T, Psychrobacillus insolitus DSM 5T, Psychrobacillus psychrodurans DSM 11713T and Psychrobacillus soli NBRC 110600T) were 98...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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