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Ornithine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816437/selective-targeting-by-a-mechanism-based-inactivator-against-plp-dependent-enzymes-mechanisms-of-inactivation-and-alternative-turnover
#1
Romila Mascarenhas, Hoang V Le, Kenneth D Clevenger, Helaina J Lehrer, Dagmar Ringe, Neil L Kelleher, Richard B Silverman, Dali Liu
Potent mechanism-based inactivators can be rationally designed against PLP-dependent drug targets, such as ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) or γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT). An important challenge, however, is the lack of selectivity towards other PLP-dependent off-target enzymes, because of similarities in mechanisms of all PLP-dependent aminotransferase reactions. On the basis of complex crystal structures, we investigate the inactivation mechanism of OAT, a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) target, by (1R,3S,4S)-3-amino-4-fluorocyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (FCP), a known inactivator of GABA-AT...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815739/kernicterus-in-a-boy-with-ornithine-transcarbamylase-deficiency-a-case-report
#2
Eduardo López-Corella, Isabel Ibarra-González, Cynthia Fernández-Lainez, Miguel Á Rodríguez-Weber, Sara Guillén-Lopez, Leticia Belmont-Martínez, David Agüero-Linares, Marcela Vela-Amieva
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is an X-linked urea cycle defect associated with severe and usually fatal hyperammonemia. This study describes a patient with early onset lethal OTCD due to a known pathogenic variant (c.298+1G>A), as well as the novel autopsy finding of kernicterus with relatively low blood concentration of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) (11.55 mg/dL). The patient was a full-term male with a family history of two previous male siblings who died as newborns after acute neurologic deterioration...
August 16, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813782/urea-cycle-pathway-targeted-therapeutic-action-of-naringin-against-ammonium-chloride-induced-hyperammonemic-rats
#3
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar
Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i...
August 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812434/-pemetrexed-sildenafil-via-autophagy-dependent-hdac-down-regulation-enhances-the-immunotherapy-response-of-nsclc-cells
#4
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
Pemetrexed is an approved therapeutic in NSCLC and ovarian cancer. Our studies focused on the ability of [pemetrexed + sildenafil] exposure to alter the immunogenicity of lung and ovarian cancer cells. Treatment of lung and ovarian cancer cells with [pemetrexed + sildenafil] in vitro rapidly reduced the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2 and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increased the expression of Class I MHCA. In a cell-specific fashion, some cells also released the immunogenic nuclear protein HMGB1 into the extracellular environment...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808255/critical-role-for-arginase-2-in-obesity-associated-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Tamara Zaytouni, Pei-Yun Tsai, Daniel S Hitchcock, Cory D DuBois, Elizaveta Freinkman, Lin Lin, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Patrick J Lenehan, Brian M Wolpin, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Eduardo M Torres, Nicholas Stylopoulos, Clary B Clish, Nada Y Kalaany
Obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Despite recent identification of metabolic alterations in this lethal malignancy, the metabolic dependencies of obesity-associated PDA remain unknown. Here we show that obesity-driven PDA exhibits accelerated growth and a striking transcriptional enrichment for pathways regulating nitrogen metabolism. We find that the mitochondrial form of arginase (ARG2), which hydrolyzes arginine into ornithine and urea, is induced upon obesity, and silencing or loss of ARG2 markedly suppresses PDA...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805303/controlled-release-of-igf1-enhances-urethral-sphincter-function-and-histological-structure-in-the-treatment-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-a-rodent-model
#6
Hao Yan, Liren Zhong, Yaodong Jiang, Jian Yang, Junhong Deng, Shicheng Wei, Emmanuel Opara, Anthony Atala, Xiangming Mao, Margot Damaser, Yuanyuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) diminishes the quality of life of millions, particularly women who have delivered vaginally, which can injure the urethral sphincter. Despite several well-established treatments for SUI, growth factor therapy might provide an alternative to promote urethral sphincter repair. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of controlled release of IGF1 from alginate-poly-L-ornithine-gelatin microbeads (IGF1-A-PLO-G microbeads) on sphincter tissue regeneration in a rat model of SUI...
August 14, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802268/ornithine-decarboxylase-mediated-production-of-putrescine-influences-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-regulating-ros-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#7
Chen-Gao Wu, Jia-Long Tian, Rui Liu, Peng-Fei Cao, Tian-Jun Zhang, Ang Ren, Liang Shi, Ming-Wen Zhao
Putrescine is an important polyamine that participates in a variety of stress responses. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of putrescine. A homolog of the gene encoding ODC was cloned from Ganoderma lucidum In the ODC-silenced strains, the transcript levels of the ODC gene and the putrescine content were significantly decreased. The ODC-silenced strains were more sensitive to oxidative stress. The content of ganoderic acid was increased by approximately 43-46% in the ODC-silenced strains...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795795/mass-defect-based-dimethyl-pyrimidinyl-ornithine-dipyro-tags-for-multiplex-quantitative-proteomics
#8
Dustin C Frost, Amanda R Buchberger, Lingjun Li
We have developed a novel amine-reactive mass defect-based chemical tag, dimethyl pyrimidinyl ornithine (DiPyrO), that is compact in size, is suitable for various biological samples, and enables highly multiplexed quantification of peptides at the MS1 level without increasing mass spectral complexity. The DiPyrO tag structure incorporates heavy isotopes in a variety of configurations to impart as much as 45.3 mDa or as little as 5.8 mDa per tag between labeled peptides. Notably, peptides containing lysine are labeled with two tags, doubling the imparted mass defect to up to 90...
August 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792616/proteomic-profiling-of-liver-and-plasma-in-chronic-ethanol-feeding-model-of-hepatic-alcohol-dehydrogenase-deficient-deer-mice
#9
Kamlesh K Bhopale, Samir M Amer, Lata Kaphalia, Kizhake V Soman, John E Wiktorowicz, G A Shakeel Ansari, Bhupendra S Kaphalia
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol abuse, a major risk factor for such diseases as hepatitis and cirrhosis, impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, key ethanol metabolizing enzyme). Therefore, differentially altered hepatic and plasma proteomes were identified in chronic ethanol feeding model of hepatic ADH-deficient (ADH(-) ) deer mice to understand the metabolic basis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: ADH(-) deer mice were fed 3.5g% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for three months, and histology of the liver assessed...
August 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776395/electrokinetic-potential-stabilization-by-bile-acid-microencapsulating-formulation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-cultured-in-high-ratio-poly-l-ornithine-gel-hydrogel-colloidal-dispersion-applications-in-cell-biomaterials-tissue-engineering-and-biotechnological-applications
#10
Armin Mooranian, Rebecca Negrulj, Ryu Takechi, Emma Jamieson, Grant Morahan, Hani Al-Salami
INTRODUCTION: Current trials for β-cell transplantation have been hindered by poor cell viability and function post-transplantation. Recently, electric charges of the microencapsulating formulation carrying β-cells have shown significant effects on cell survival and function. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the effects of electric charge, of novel colloidal formulation containing β-cells, on cell viability, biological activity and insulin release. METHODS: A new formulation, containing high ratios of poly-L-ornithine, suspending electrical-stimulation hydrogel and polystyrene sulphone (1:1:0...
August 4, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766647/facile-functionalization-of-peptide-nucleic-acids-pnas-for-antisense-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-detection
#11
Digvijay Gahtory, Merita Murtola, Maarten M J Smulders, Tom Wennekes, Han Zuilhof, Roger Strömberg, Bauke Albada
In this report, we show how a convenient on-resin copper-click functionalization of azido-functionalized peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) allows various PNA-based detection strategies. Firstly, a thiazole orange (TO) clicked PNA probe facilitates a binary readout when combined with F/Q labeled DNA, giving increased sensitivity for antisense detection. Secondly, our TO-PNA conjugate also allows single nucleotide polymorphism detection. Since antisense detection is also possible in the absence of the TO label, our sensing platform based on azido-d-ornithine containing PNA even allows for additional and more advanced functionalization and sensing strategies...
August 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760433/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-in-treatment-of-liver-cirrhosis-updated-views-on-how-to-attenuate-their-harmful-effects-on-cataplerosis-and-ammonia-formation
#12
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) supplementation is common for patients with liver cirrhosis due to decreased levels of BCAA in the blood plasma of these patients, which plays a role in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and cachexia. The unique pharmacologic properties of BCAA also are a factor for use as supplementation in this population. In the present article, BCAA is shown to provide nitrogen to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) for synthesis of glutamate, which is a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) in the brain and muscles...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759594/rapid-discrimination-of-strain-dependent-fermentation-characteristics-among-lactobacillus-strains-by-nmr-based-metabolomics-of-fermented-vegetable-juice
#13
Satoru Tomita, Katsuichi Saito, Toshihide Nakamura, Yasuyo Sekiyama, Jun Kikuchi
In this study, we investigated the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics to discriminate strain-dependent fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are important microorganisms for fermented food production. To evaluate the discrimination capability, six type strains of Lactobacillus species and six additional L. brevis strains were used focusing on i) the difference between homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species and ii) strain-dependent characteristics within L. brevis. Based on the differences in the metabolite profiles of fermented vegetable juices, non-targeted principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separated the samples into those inoculated with homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758628/dictyobacter-aurantiacus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-member-of-the-family-ktedonobacteraceae-isolated-from-soil-and-emended-description-of-the-genus-thermosporothrix
#14
Shuhei Yabe, Yasuteru Sakai, Keietsu Abe, Akira Yokota, Akira Také, Atsuko Matsumoto, Arwan Sugiharto, Dwiningsih Susilowati, Moriyuki Hamada, Kazuhide Nara, I Made Sudiana, Shigeto Otsuka
A mesophilic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium that formed branched mycelia was isolated from paddy soil in Gunung Salak (Mount Salak), West Java, Indonesia. This strain, designated S-27T, grew at temperatures between 20 and 37 °C; the optimum growth temperature was 25 to 30 °C, and no growth was observed at 15 or 45 °C. The pH range for growth was pH 3.5 to 8.6; the optimum pH was 6.0, and no growth was observed at pH 3.0 or 9.2. Strain S-27T was able to hydrolyse polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose and xylan...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757091/advances-in-methods-for-characterization-of-hepatic-urea-cycle-enzymatic-activity-in-heparg-cells-using-uplc-ms-ms
#15
M F Moedas, A A A Adam, M A Farelo, L IJlst, R A F M Chamuleau, R Hoekstra, R J A Wanders, M F B Silva
Current methodologies for the assessment of urea cycle (UC) enzymatic activity are insufficient to accurately evaluate this pathway in biological specimens where lower UC is expected. Liver cell lines, including HepaRG, have been described to have limited nitrogen fixation through the UC, limiting their applicability as biocomponents for Bioartificial Livers (BAL). This work aims to develop novel and sensitive analytical solutions using Mass Spectrometry-based methodology to measure the activity of four UC enzymes in human liver and HepaRG cells...
July 27, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755408/effects-of-simple-rain-shelter-cultivation-on-fatty-acid-and-amino-acid-accumulation-in-chardonnay-grape-berries
#16
Nan Meng, Zhi-Yuan Ren, Xiao-Fan Yang, Qiu-Hong Pan
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter and open-field cultivation...
July 29, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754861/metabolomics-and-eicosanoid-analysis-identified-serum-biomarkers-for-distinguishing-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-hepatitis-b-virus-related-cirrhosis
#17
Zhi-Gang Gong, Weijie Zhao, Jianbing Zhang, Xi Wu, Jing Hu, Guo-Chang Yin, Yong-Jiang Xu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a type of inflammation-related cancer that usually follows liver hepatitis that mostly caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. However, the metabolism disturbance of HCC and HBV-cirrhosis is not yet fully understood. In addition, there is little research on the relationships between inflammation mediators and HCC. In this study, we investigated serum metabolic abnormalities in HBV-cirrhosis and HCC patients through non-targeted metabolomics and targeted eicosanoid analysis...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753291/intrinsic-hydrophobicity-versus-intraguest-interactions-in-hydrophobically-driven-molecular-recognition-in-water
#18
Roshan W Gunasekara, Yan Zhao
Molecular recognition of water-soluble molecules is challenging but can be achieved if the receptor possesses a hydrophobic binding interface complementary to the guest. When the guest molecule contains more than one hydrophobic group, intrahost interactions between the hydrophobes could strongly influence the binding of the guest by its host. In a series of ornithine derivatives functionalized with aromatic hydrophobes, the most electron-rich compound displayed the strongest binding, despite its lowest intrinsic hydrophobicity...
July 28, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752295/nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-the-metabolite-profiles-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-under-ferric-iron-stimulation
#19
Jun Zhou, Chenyang Lu, Dijun Zhang, Chennv Ma, Xiurong Su
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium endemic to coastal areas, and its pathogenicity has caused widespread seafood poisoning. In our previous research, the protein expression of V. parahaemolyticus in Fe(3+) medium was determined using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). Here, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to detect changes in the V. parahaemolyticus metabolome. NMR spectra were obtained using methanol-water extracts of intracellular metabolites from V. parahaemolyticus under various culture conditions, and 62 metabolites were identified, including serine, arginine, alanine, ornithine, tryptophan, glutamine, malate, NAD(+), NADP(+), oxypurinol, xanthosine, dCTP, uracil, thymine, hypoxanthine, and betaine...
August 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749571/l-ornithine-l-aspartate-in-bouts-of-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#20
Sandeep Singh Sidhu, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Omesh Goyal, Harsh Kishore, Navpreet Kaur
High quality data on efficacy of L-Ornithine L-Aspartate (LOLA) in cirrhotics with bouts of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) is missing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous LOLA in reversal of bouts of OHE in cirrhotics. In this prospective double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial conducted at two tertiary care institutes in India, 370 cirrhotics with bouts of OHE were screened. After exclusion, 193 (52.16%) patients were randomized to receive either intravenous infusions of LOLA (n=98), 30 grams daily or Placebo (n=95) for 5 days...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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