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Ornithine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452248/mercaptopyruvate-acts-as-endogenous-vasodilator-independently-of-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-activity
#1
Emma Mitidieri, Teresa Tramontano, Danila Gurgone, Valentina Citi, Vincenzo Calderone, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Antonia Katsouda, Noriyuki Nagahara, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Giuseppe Cirino, Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Raffaella Sorrentino
Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is produced by the action of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). 3-MST converts 3-mercaptopyruvate (MPT) to H 2 S and pyruvate. H 2 S is recognized as an endogenous gaseous mediator with multiple regulatory roles in mammalian cells and organisms. In the present study we demonstrate that MPT, the endogenous substrate of 3-MST, acts also as endogenous H 2 S donor. Colorimetric, amperometric and fluorescence based assays demonstrated that MPT releases H 2 S in vitro in an enzyme-independent manner...
February 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450546/a-plasma-metabolomic-signature-of-the-exfoliation-syndrome-involves-amino-acids-acylcarnitines-and-polyamines
#2
Stéphanie Leruez, Thomas Bresson, Juan M Chao de la Barca, Alexandre Marill, Grégoire de Saint Martin, Adrien Buisset, Jeanne Muller, Lydie Tessier, Cédric Gadras, Christophe Verny, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Guy Lenaers, Philippe Gohier, Dominique Bonneau, Gilles Simard, Dan Milea, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
Purpose: To determine the plasma metabolomic signature of the exfoliative syndrome (XFS), the most common cause worldwide of secondary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: We performed a targeted metabolomic study, using the standardized p180 Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit with a QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer, to compare the metabolomic profiles of plasma from individuals with XFS (n = 16), and an age- and sex-matched control group with cataract (n = 18). Results: A total of 151 metabolites were detected correctly, 16 of which allowed for construction of an OPLS-DA model with a good predictive capability (Q2cum = 0...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450408/effect-of-arginase-1-inhibition-on-the-incidence-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#3
Luis F Hernandez, Peter Buchwald, Midhat H Abdulreda
Metabolism of the amino acid L-arginine is implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes including autoimmune conditions such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Alternate arginine metabolism through the citrulline-nitric oxide (NO) or the ornithine pathways can lead to proinflammatory or immune regulatory effects, respectively. In this report, we blocked the arginine-ornithine metabolic pathway by inhibiting the enzyme arginase-1 with Nω-hydroxy-nor-arginine (nor-NOHA) to make arginine more available to the alternate citrulline pathway for augmented NO production and increased incidence of autoimmune T1D in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice...
January 2018: Current Research in Diabetes & Obesity Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439324/altered-expression-of-urea-cycle-enzymes-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-overexpressing-pc12-cells-and-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#4
Henryk Jęśko, Walter J Lukiw, Anna Wilkaniec, Magdalena Cieślik, Magdalena Gąssowska-Dobrowolska, Emilia Murawska, Wojciech Hilgier, Agata Adamczyk
Urea cycle enzymes may play important yet poorly characterized roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous results showed that amyloid-β (Aβ) affects urea cycle enzymes in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in arginases, other urea cycle enzymes, and nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) in PC12 cells transfected with AβPP bearing the double 'Swedish' mutation (APPsw, K670M/N671L) and in postmortem sporadic AD brain hippocampus; the mutation intensifies Aβ production and strongly associates with AD neuropathology...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437727/unique-case-of-gyrate-atrophy-with-a-well-preserved-electroretinogram-erg
#5
Kirti M Jasani, Neil R A Parry, Graeme Black, Simon P Kelly
Gyrate atrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the ornithine-δ-amino transferase gene. We present an interesting case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with increasing myopia, nyctalopia and failing vision. Examination revealed posterior subscapsular cataracts, narrowed peripheral visual fields and scalloped atrophic peripheral chorioretinal lesions. Blood investigations showed a raised plasma ornithine level at 917 μmol/L (normal range: 32-88 μmol/L) confirming the diagnosis of gyrate atrophy...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436980/virtual-screening-of-natural-inhibitors-targeting-ornithine-decarboxylase-with-pharmacophore-scaffolding-of-dfmo-and-validation-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation-studies
#6
Sivashanmugam Muthukumaran, K N Sulochana, V Umashankar
Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC) is an enzyme that initiates polyamine synthesis in human. Polyamines play key roles in cell-cell adhesion, cell motility and Cell cycle regulation. Higher synthesis of polyamines also occurs in rapidly proliferating cancer cells are mediated by ODC. As per earlier studies, Di-Flouro Methyl Orninthine (DFMO) is a proven efficient inhibitor ODC targeting the catalytic activity, however, its usage is limited due to side effects. Targeting ODC is considered as a potential therapeutic modality in the treatment of cancer...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433939/targeted-mrna-therapy-for-ornithine-transcarbamylase-deficiency
#7
Mary G Prieve, Pierrot Harvie, Sean D Monahan, Debashish Roy, Allen G Li, Teri L Blevins, Amber E Paschal, Matt Waldheim, Eric C Bell, Anna Galperin, Jean-Rene Ella-Menye, Michael E Houston
We describe a novel, two-nanoparticle mRNA delivery system and show that it is highly effective as a means of intracellular enzyme replacement therapy (i-ERT) using a murine model of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Our Hybrid mRNA Technology delivery system (HMT) comprises an inert lipid nanoparticle that protects the mRNA from nucleases in the blood as it distributes to the liver and a polymer micelle that targets hepatocytes and triggers endosomal release of mRNA. This results in high-level synthesis of the desired protein specifically in the liver...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427946/bioreducible-amino-acid-derived-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-delivery-of-functional-proteins
#8
Adarsh R Kallar, Jayabalan Muthu, Shivaram Selvam
We report the preparation of protein encapsulated amino acid derived redox-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) as effective nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of proteins. More specifically, acryloyl derivatives of lysine, ornithine, cystine and cystamine, were employed as monomers and disulfide crosslinkers for non-covalent encapsulation of model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were interfacially crosslinked via free radical polymerization to form redox-responsive protein NPs. Notably, prepared NPs exhibited high protein loading content between 37 and 45%, averaged ∼400 nm in hydrodynamic size and possessed a mean surface charge of -15 mV...
February 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422298/amino-acid-profiles-of-young-adults-differ-by-sex-body-mass-index-and-insulin-resistance
#9
M Guevara-Cruz, J M Vargas-Morales, A L Méndez-García, A M López-Barradas, O Granados-Portillo, G Ordaz-Nava, A K Rocha-Viggiano, C A Gutierrez-Leyte, E Medina-Cerda, J L Rosado, J C Morales, N Torres, A R Tovar, L G Noriega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19...
January 10, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419804/alpha-difluoromethylornithine-an-irreversible-inhibitor-of-polyamine-biosynthesis-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-against-hyperproliferative-and-infectious-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Nicole LoGiudice, Linh Le, Irene Abuan, Yvette Leizorek, Sigrid C Roberts
The fluorinated ornithine analog α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, eflornithine, ornidyl) is an irreversible suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The ubiquitous and essential polyamines have many functions, but are primarily important for rapidly proliferating cells. Thus, ODC is potentially a drug target for any disease state where rapid growth is a key process leading to pathology. The compound was originally discovered as an anticancer drug, but its effectiveness was disappointing...
February 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416041/structural-basis-for-amino-acid-transport-by-the-cat-family-of-slc7-transporters
#11
Katharina E J Jungnickel, Joanne L Parker, Simon Newstead
Amino acids play essential roles in cell biology as regulators of metabolic pathways. Arginine in particular is a major signalling molecule inside the cell, being a precursor for both l-ornithine and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and a key regulator of the mTORC1 pathway. In mammals, cellular arginine availability is determined by members of the solute carrier (SLC) 7 family of cationic amino acid transporters. Whereas CAT-1 functions to supply cationic amino acids for cellular metabolism, CAT-2A and -2B are required for macrophage activation and play important roles in regulating inflammation...
February 7, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412691/lack-of-contribution-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-to-cholinergic-vasodilation-in-murine-renal-afferent-arterioles
#12
Sungmi Park, Benjamin J Bivona, Lisa M Harrison-Bernard
We have previously reported significant increases in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunostaining in renal arterioles of angiotensin type 1A receptor (AT1A) knockout mice, and in arterioles and macula densa cells of AT1A/AT1B knockout mice. The contribution of nitric oxide derived from endothelial and macula densa cells in the maintenance of afferent arteriolar tone and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation were functionally determined in kidneys of wild-type, AT1A, and AT1A/AT1B knockout mice. Acetylcholine-induced changes in arteriolar diameters of in vitro blood perfused juxtamedullary nephrons were measured during control conditions, in the presence of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NLA), or the highly selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, N5-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-L-ornithine (VNIO)...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412048/arginase-a-multifaceted-enzyme-important-in-health-and-disease
#13
R William Caldwell, Paulo C Rodriguez, Haroldo A Toque, S Priya Narayanan, Ruth B Caldwell
The arginase enzyme developed in early life forms and was maintained during evolution. As the last step in the urea cycle, arginase cleaves l-arginine to form urea and l-ornithine. The urea cycle provides protection against excess ammonia, while l-ornithine is needed for cell proliferation, collagen formation, and other physiological functions. In mammals, increases in arginase activity have been linked to dysfunction and pathologies of the cardiovascular system, kidney, and central nervous system and also to dysfunction of the immune system and cancer...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410783/functional-roles-of-ornithine-decarboxylase-and-arginine-decarboxylase-during-the-peri-implantation-period-of-pregnancy-in-sheep
#14
Yasser Y Lenis, Gregory A Johnson, Xiaoqiu Wang, Wendy W Tang, Kathrin A Dunlap, M Carey Satterfield, Guoyao Wu, Thomas R Hansen, Fuller W Bazer
Background: Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401708/role-of-cationic-side-chains-in-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-c18g
#15
Eric M Kohn, David J Shirley, Lubov Arotsky, Angela M Picciano, Zachary Ridgway, Michael W Urban, Benjamin R Carone, Gregory A Caputo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been an area of great interest, due to the high selectivity of these molecules toward bacterial targets over host cells and the limited development of bacterial resistance to these molecules throughout evolution. The peptide C18G has been shown to be a selective, broad spectrum AMP with a net +8 cationic charge from seven lysine residues in the sequence. In this work, the cationic Lys residues were replaced with other natural or non-proteinogenic cationic amino acids: arginine, histidine, ornithine, or diaminopropionic acid...
February 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397711/comprehensive-dissection-of-metabolic-changes-in-albino-and-green-tea-cultivars
#16
Chun-Fang Li, Jian-Qiang Ma, Dan-Juan Huang, Chun-Lei Ma, Ji-Qiang Jin, Ming-Zhe Yao, Liang Chen
Albino tea cultivars are special mutants of tea plants with white or yellow leaf color. In this study, three albino tea cultivars, including 'Anji Baicha', `Huangjinya', and 'Baijiguan', and two green tea cultivars, 'Longjin 43' and 'Fuding Dabaicha', were applied to metabolite profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate analyses revealed significantly different metabolite phenotypes in leaves among albino cultivars and green cultivars...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397169/inhibition-of-arginase-via-jugular-infusion-of-n%C3%AF-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine-inhibits-casein-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#17
L Y Ding, L M Chen, M Z Wang, J Zhang, J J Loor, G Zhou, X Zhang, H R Wang
A previous in vitro study revealed that Arg elicits positive effects on casein synthesis through alterations of the Arg-ornithine pathway in bovine mammary epithelial cells. The main purpose of this work was to determine the effects of arginase inhibition using Nω-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) on milk protein synthesis in vivo. Six healthy Chinese Holstein cows with similar body weight (550.0 ± 20 kg; means ± standard deviation), parity (4), body condition score (3.0), milk yield (21.0 ± 1.0 kg), and days in milk (80 ± 2) were selected and randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 22 d for each period (7 d for infusion and 15 d for washout)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396029/prenatal-treatment-of-ornithine-transcarbamylase-deficiency
#18
Yael Wilnai, Yair J Blumenfeld, Kristina Cusmano, Susan R Hintz, Deborah Alcorn, William E Benitz, William E Berquist, Jonathan A Bernstein, Ricardo O Castillo, Waldo Concepcion, Tina M Cowan, Kenneth L Cox, Deirdre J Lyell, Carlos O Esquivel, Margaret Homeyer, Louanne Hudgins, Melissa Hurwitz, Jonathan P Palma, Susan Schelley, Vishnu Priya Akula, Marshall L Summar, Gregory M Enns
PURPOSE OF STUDY: Patients with neonatal urea cycle defects (UCDs) typically experience severe hyperammonemia during the first days of life, which results in serious neurological injury or death. Long-term prognosis despite optimal pharmacological and dietary therapy is still poor. The combination of intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate (Ammonul®) can eliminate nitrogen waste independent of the urea cycle. We report attempts to improve outcomes for males with severe ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), a severe X-linked condition, via prenatal intravenous administration of Ammonul and arginine to heterozygous carrier females of OTCD during labor...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388539/sphingobacterium-bovisgrunnientis-sp-nov-isolated-from-yak-milk
#19
Manpreet Kaur, Harjodh Singh, Shivani Sharma, Sunita Mishra, Naga Radha Srinivas Tanuku, Anil Kumar Pinnaka
A novel Gram-negative, rod shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain YK2T, was isolated from yak milk from Leh, India. The strain was positive for oxidase- and catalase-activities and negative for starch hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, citrate utilization, urease, lysine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase activities. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH (summed feature 3)...
February 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381139/dietary-intake-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-is-associated-with-higher-levels-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-in-plasma-and-urine-the-codam-study
#20
Jean L J M Scheijen, Nordin M J Hanssen, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Carla J Van der Kallen, Edith J M Feskens, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by the reaction between reducing sugars and proteins. AGEs in the body have been associated with several age-related diseases. High-heat treated and most processed foods are rich in AGEs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether dietary AGEs, are associated with plasma and urinary AGE levels. METHODS: In 450 participants of the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht study (CODAM study) we measured plasma and urine concentrations of the AGEs Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) using UPLC-MS/MS...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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