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Zhou Li, Yaping Li, Yan Zhang, Bizhen Cheng, Yan Peng, Xinquan Zhang, Xiao Ma, Linkai Huang, Yanhong Yan
Endogenous hormones and polyamines (PAs) could interact to regulate growth and tolerance to water stress in white clover. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the alteration of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level affected other hormones level and PAs metabolism contributing to the regulation of tolerance to water stress in white clover. Plants were pretreated with IAA or L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (L-AOPP, the inhibitor of IAA biosynthesis) for 3 days and then subjected to water-sufficient condition and water stress induced by 15% polyethylene glycol 6000 for 8 days in growth chambers...
June 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Bin Zhang, Miao Yu, Wen-Ping Wei, Bang-Ce Ye
BACKGROUND: ʟ-Ornithine is an important amino acid with broad applications in pharmaceutical and food industries. Despite lagging ʟ-ornithine productivity and cost reduction, microbial fermentation is a promising route for sustainable ʟ-ornithine production and thus development of robust microbial strains with high stability and productivity is essential. RESULTS: Previously, we systematically developed a new strain, SO1 originate from Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114, for ʟ-ornithine production...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Evert Njomen, Pawel A Osmulski, Corey L Jones, Maria E Gaczynska, Jetze J Tepe
The 20S proteasome is the main protease that directly targets intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) for proteolytic degradation. Mutations, oxidative stress or aging can induce the build-up of IDPs result-ing in incorrect signaling or aggregation, associated with the pathogenesis of many cancers and neuro-degenerative diseases. Drugs that facilitate 20S-mediated proteolysis have therefore many potential therapeutic applications. We report herein the modulation of proteasome assembly by the small mole-cule TCH-165, resulting in an increase in 20S levels...
June 13, 2018: Biochemistry
Martina A Steurer, Scott Oltman, Rebecca J Baer, Sky Feuer, Liang Liang, Randi A Paynter, Larry Rand, Kelli K Ryckman, Roberta L Keller, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
BACKGROUND: There is an emerging evidence that pulmonary hypertension is associated with amino acid, carnitine, and thyroid hormone aberrations. We aimed to characterize metabolic profiles measured by the newborn screen (NBS) in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) METHODS: Nested case-control study from population-based database. Cases were infants with ICD-9 code for PPHN receiving mechanical ventilation. Controls receiving mechanical ventilation were matched 2:1 for gestational age, sex, birth weight, parenteral nutrition administration, and age at NBS collection...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman
Carbamyl phosphate (CP) is well-known as an essential intermediate of pyrimidine and arginine/urea biosynthesis. Chemically, CP can be easily synthesized from dihydrogen phosphate and cyanate. Enzymatically, CP can be synthesized using three different classes of enzymes: (1) ATP-grasp fold protein based carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS); (2) Amino-acid kinase fold carbamate kinase (CK)-like CPS (anabolic CK or aCK); and (3) Catabolic transcarbamylase. The first class of CPS can be further divided into three different types of CPS as CPS I, CPS II, and CPS III depending on the usage of ammonium or glutamine as its nitrogen source, and whether N -acetyl-glutamate is its essential co-factor...
June 12, 2018: Biology
Josef Köhrle
More than a century after the discovery of L-Thyroxine, the main thyroid hormone secreted solely by the thyroid gland, several metabolites of this iodinated, tyrosine-derived ancestral hormone have been identified. These are utilized as hormones during development, differentiation, metamorphosis, and regulation of most biochemical reactions in vertebrates and their precursor species. Among those metabolites are the thyromimetically active 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5-Diiodo-L-thronine, reverse-T3 (3,3',5'-Triiodo-L-thyronine) with still unclear function, the recently re-discovered thyronamines (e...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laura Abaandou, Joseph Shiloach
Creating efficient cell lines is a priority for the biopharmaceutical industry, which produces biologicals for various uses. A recent approach to achieving this goal is the use of non-coding RNAs, microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), to identify key genes that can potentially improve production or growth. The ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 ( OAZ1 ) gene, a negative regulator of polyamine biosynthesis, was identified in a genome-wide siRNA screen as a potential engineering target, because its knock down by siRNA increased recombinant protein expression from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells by two-fold...
June 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Unnikrishnan M Chandrasekharan, Zeneng Wang, Yuping Wu, W H Wilson Tang, Stanley L Hazen, Sihe Wang, M Elaine Husni
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In RA, chronic inflammation may lead to endothelial dysfunction, an early indicator of CVD, owing to diminished nitric oxide (NO) production. Because L-arginine is the sole precursor of NO, we hypothesized that levels of L-arginine metabolic products reflecting NO metabolism are altered in patients with RA. METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with RA (n = 119) and age- and sex-matched control subjects (n = 238) were used for this study...
June 8, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Qihao Wu, Robert W Deering, Gaiyun Zhang, Bixia Wang, Xin Li, Jiadong Sun, Jianwei Chen, Huawei Zhang, David C Rowley, Hong Wang
Marine actinobacteria continue to be a rich source for the discovery of structurally diverse secondary metabolites. Here we present a new hydroxymate siderophore produced by Amycolatopsis albispora , a recently described species of this less explored actinomycete genus. Strain WP1T was isolated from sediments collected at -2945 m in the Indian Ocean. The new siderophore, designated albisporachelin, was isolated from iron depleted culture broths and the structure was established by 1D and 2D NMR and MS/MS experiments, and application of a modified Marfey's method...
June 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Lu Li, Xiaoxue Wen, Zhiyou Wen, Shouwen Chen, Ling Wang, Xuetuan Wei
Control of biogenic amines (BAs) is critical to guarantee the safety of fermented meat products. The aim of this study is to evaluate the BAs formation and degradation abilities of lactic acid bacteria from Chinese bacon to obtain the beneficial candidate for BAs control. Seven lactic acid bacteria were selected from the typical Chinese bacon products, identified as Lactobacillus curvatus by 16S rDNA analysis. Then, genes analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were performed to evaluate the BAs formation and degradation abilities of as-selected strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Efstathia Papada, Ljilja Torović, Charalampia Amerikanou, Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos, Ilias Smyrnioudis, Andriana C Kaliora
We aimed to explore whether plasma-free amino acids are modified in response to terpenes administration in healthy humans. In this open-label, single-arm acute trial, seventeen healthy male volunteers were administered with a naturally occurring product of known terpenes-namely mastiha-after overnight fasting. Blood samples were collected at different time points before and after ingestion. We aimed at identifying and quantifying 60 free amino acids in plasma applying Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A total of 24 free amino acids were quantified...
June 3, 2018: Nutrients
Bodhisattwa Banerjee, Debaprasad Koner, Gitalee Bhuyan, Nirmalendu Saha
The present study demonstrates the unique presence of three different gs genes (cmgs01, cmgs02, and cmgs03) in air-breathing ureogenic magur catfish (Clarias magur), which is otherwise reported to be encoded by a single gene in higher vertebrates. Of these three genes, two (cmgs01and cmgs03) were identified as 'liver' form, predominantly expressed in liver cells, and the third one as 'brain' form (cmgs02), expressed chiefly in brain cells. Molecular characterization studies have revealed conservation of homologous active site residues in all the three gs genes...
June 1, 2018: Gene
Xiuzhen Sheng, Min Liu, Haibo Liu, Xiaoqian Tang, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Streptococcus iniae is a major Gram-positive pathogen that causes invasive disease in fish worldwide. In this study, in order to identify immunogenic proteins for developing highly effective vaccine against S. iniae, whole-cell lysate proteins of S. iniae were analyzed by western blotting using flounder anti-S. iniae antibodies, and two positive protein bands of molecular weight 37 kDa and 40 kDa were screened, which were identified as pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit alpha (PDHA1), BMP family ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (BMP) and L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT), lactate oxidas (LOx) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) by mass spectrometry...
2018: PloS One
Jesús Marín-Sáez, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich, Francisco Javier Egea-González
Homeopathic products are still a controversial issue in modern medicine, understood as complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). In this particular case, homeopathic products prepared from Atropa Belladonna extracts may present specific problems due to the effects derived from its components. This article applies a simple, rapid and reliable method to the analysis of different homeopathic products obtained from Atropa Belladonna; drugs containing high concentration of plant extracts; and Atropa Belladonna seeds...
May 28, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Naoki Akasaka, Saori Kato, Saya Kato, Ryota Hidese, Yutaka Wagu, Hisao Sakoda, Shinsuke Fujiwara
Sake (rice wine) produced by multiple parallel fermentation (MPF) involving Aspergillus oryzae (strain RW) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under solid-state cultivation conditions contained 3.5 mM agmatine, while that produced from enzymatically saccharified rice syrup by S. cerevisiae contained <0.01 mM agmatine. Agmatine was also produced in ethanol-free rice syrup prepared with A. oryzae under solid-state cultivation (3.1 mM) but not under submerged cultivation, demonstrating that A. oryzae in solid-state culture produces agmatine...
May 25, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bing Cao, Dongfang Wang, Elisa Brietzke, Roger S McIntyre, Zihang Pan, Danielle Cha, Joshua D Rosenblat, Hannah Zuckerman, Yaqiong Liu, Qing Xie, Jingyu Wang
Amino acids and derivatives participate in the biosynthesis and downstream effects of numerous neurotransmitters. Variations in specific amino acids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein, we sought to compare levels of amino acids and derivatives between subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls (HC). Two hundred and eight subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria (DSM-IV)-defined schizophrenia and 175 age- and sex-matched HC were enrolled...
May 23, 2018: Amino Acids
Daniel Heinrich, Robert Barnett, Luke Tweedy, Robert Insall, Pierre Stallforth, Thomas Winckler
Among the amoebozoan species capable of forming fruiting bodies, the dictyostelid social amoebae stand out since they form true multicellular organisms by means of single cell aggregation. Upon food depletion, cells migrate across gradients of extracellular signals initiated by cells in aggregation centers. The model species that is widely used to study multicellular development of social amoebae, Dictyostelium discoideum, uses cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as a chemoattractant to coordinate aggregation...
May 24, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Nadine Paßlack, Jürgen Zentek
To test if arginine and ornithine, both components of the Krebs-Henseleit cycle, or zeolite, a potential ammonium absorber, can modulate the excretion of harmful bacterial metabolites, intestinal microbial protein fermentation was stimulated by feeding a high-protein (60.3%) diet as a single daily meal to 10 adult cats. The diet was supplemented without or with arginine (+50, 75, 100% compared to arginine in the basal diet), ornithine (+100, 150, 200% compared to arginine in the basal diet), or zeolite (0.125, 0...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
Bingming Chen, Yu Feng, Dustin C Frost, Xuefei Zhong, Amanda R Buchberger, Jillian Johnson, Meng Xu, Miriam Kim, Diane Puccetti, Carol Diamond, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Lingjun Li
We recently developed a novel amine-reactive mass defect-based chemical tag, dimethyl pyrimidinyl ornithine (DiPyrO), for quantitative proteomic analysis at the MS1 level. In this work, we further extend the application of the DiPyrO tag, which provides amine group reactivity, optical detection capability, and improved electrospray sensitivity, to quantify N-linked glycans enzymatically released from glycoproteins in the glycosylamine form. Duplex DiPyrO tags that differ in mass by 45.3 mDa were used to label the glycosylamine moieties of freshly released N-glycosylamines from glycoprotein standards and human serum proteins...
May 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Carmela De Santo, Paul Cheng, Andrew Beggs, Sharon Egan, Alberto Bessudo, Francis Mussai
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a poor prognosis. Current treatment strategies for high-stage melanoma are based around the use of immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PDL1 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies to stimulate anti-cancer T cell responses, yet a number of patients will relapse and die of disease. Here, we report the first sustained complete remission in a patient with metastatic melanoma who failed two immunotherapy strategies, by targeting tumour arginine metabolism...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
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