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Ornithine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238850/further-studies-of-the-effects-of-aging-on-arginine-metabolites-in-the-rat-vestibular-nucleus-and-cerebellum
#1
P Liu, N Gupta, Y Jing, N D Collie, H Zhang, P F Smith
Some studies have demonstrated that aging is associated with impaired vestibular reflexes, especially otolithic reflexes, resulting in postural instability. However, the neurochemical basis of these age-related changes is still poorly understood. The L-arginine metabolic system has been implicated in changes in the brain associated with aging. In the current study, we examined the levels of L-arginine and its metabolising enzymes and downstream metabolites in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) and cerebellum (CE) of rats with and without behavioural testing which were young (4 months old), middle-aged (12 months old) or aged (24 months old)...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238287/genome-editing-for-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-advancing-towards-the-clinic
#2
REVIEW
Jessica L Schneller, Ciaran M Lee, Gang Bao, Charles P Venditti
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) include many disorders for which current treatments aim to ameliorate disease manifestations, but are not curative. Advances in the field of genome editing have recently resulted in the in vivo correction of murine models of IEM. Site-specific endonucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, in combination with delivery vectors engineered to target disease tissue, have enabled correction of mutations in disease models of hemophilia B, hereditary tyrosinemia type I, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and lysosomal storage disorders...
February 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237582/short-communication-arginase-inhibition-reduces-the-synthesis-of-casein-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#3
M Z Wang, L Y Ding, C Wang, L M Chen, J J Loor, H R Wang
The main purpose of this work was to determine the effect of arginase inhibition via N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) on casein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). Passage 2 BMEC isolated from dairy cows were seeded to 6-well plates and randomly divided into 4 treatments: (1) control [Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium:Nutrient Mixture F-12 medium (DMEM/F12)]; (2) nor-NOHA (DMEM/F12 + 1 mmol/L nor-NOHA); (3) nor-NOHA + arginine (DMEM/F12 + 1 mmol/L nor-NOHA + 3.2 mmol/L Arg); and (4) nor-NOHA + ornithine (DMEM/F12+ 1 mmol/L nor-NOHA + 1 mmol/L Orn)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225277/daryamide-analogues-from-a-marine-derived-streptomyces-species
#4
Peng Fu, Scott La, John B MacMillan
Three new cyclohexene amine derivatives, daryamides D-F (1-3), a new arylamine derivative, carpatamide D (4), and a new ornithine lactamization derivative, ornilactam A (5), were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces strain SNE-011. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The carpatamide skeleton could be considered as the biosynthetic precursor of the daryamides.
February 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221100/intracellular-degradation-and-localization-of-ns1-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-affect-its-protective-properties
#5
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Anastasia S Shevtsova, Liubov L Chernokhaeva, Anastasia A Latanova, Olga V Preobrazhenskaia, Andrey V Timofeev, Galina G Karganova, Vadim L Karpov
Currently, many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials; however, their efficacy needs to be improved. The potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In the current study, to increase the efficacy of NS1 encoded by plasmid, proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with ornithine decarboxylase as a signal of proteasomal degradation were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213886/dysregulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#6
Kevin D Quinn, Michaela Schedel, Yasmeen Nkrumah-Elie, Anthony Joetham, Michael Armstrong, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Richard Reisdorph, Erwin W Gelfand, Nichole Reisdorph
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex lung disease resulting from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. To understand the molecular changes that occur during the development of allergic asthma without genetic and environmental confounders, an experimental model of allergic asthma in mice was used. Our goals were to (1) identify changes at the small molecule level due to allergen exposure, (2) determine perturbed pathways due to disease, and (3) determine whether small molecule changes correlate with lung function...
February 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208756/homocysteine-editing-thioester-chemistry-coenzyme-a-and-the-origin-of-coded-peptide-synthesis-%C3%A2
#7
REVIEW
Hieronim Jakubowski
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) have evolved "quality control" mechanisms which prevent tRNA aminoacylation with non-protein amino acids, such as homocysteine, homoserine, and ornithine, and thus their access to the Genetic Code. Of the ten AARSs that possess editing function, five edit homocysteine: Class I MetRS, ValRS, IleRS, LeuRS, and Class II LysRS. Studies of their editing function reveal that catalytic modules of these AARSs have a thiol-binding site that confers the ability to catalyze the aminoacylation of coenzyme A, pantetheine, and other thiols...
February 9, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207514/arginine-methylation-dysfunction-increased-risk-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-coronary-artery-disease-population-a-case-control-study
#8
Shengyu Zhang, Shuyang Zhang, Hongyun Wang, Wei Wu, Yicong Ye
The plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) had been proved to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Few studies involved the entire arginine methylation dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate whether arginine methylation dysfunction is associated with acute coronary syndrome risk in coronary artery disease population.In total 298 patients undergoing coronary angiography because of chest pain with the diagnosis of stable angina pectoris or acute coronary syndrome from February 2013 to June 2014 were included...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188764/modulation-of-cerebral-rage-expression-following-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-in-rats-subjected-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a key mediator of neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a dualistic role in cerebral ischemia, depending on whether it originates from neuronal, inducible or endothelial synthase. Although a dynamic interplay between RAGE and NO pathways exists, its relevance in ischemic stroke has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on RAGE expression in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo)...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181575/mycorrhizas-alter-sucrose-and-proline-metabolism-in-trifoliate-orange-exposed-to-drought-stress
#10
Hui-Hui Wu, Ying-Ning Zou, Mohammed Mahabubur Rahman, Qiu-Dan Ni, Qiang-Sheng Wu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance drought tolerance in plants, whereas little is known regarding AMF contribution to sucrose and proline metabolisms under drought stress (DS). In this study, Funneliformis mosseae and Paraglomus occultum were inoculated into trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) under well watered and DS. Although the 71-days DS notably (P < 0.05) inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, AMF seedlings showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher plant growth performance and leaf relative water content, regardless of soil water status...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179423/xanthine-dehydrogenase-1-silencing-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-promotes-a-blood-feeding-induced-adulticidal-activity
#11
Jun Isoe, Natthida Petchampai, Yurika E Isoe, Katrina Co, Stacy Mazzalupo, Patricia Y Scaraffia
Aedesaegypti has 2 genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). We analyzed XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR in tissues from sugar- and blood-fed females. Differential XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression was observed in tissues dissected throughout a time course. We next exposed females to blood meals supplemented with allopurinol, a well-characterized XDH inhibitor. We also tested the effects of injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against XDH1, XDH2, or both. Disruption of XDH by allopurinol or XDH1 by RNA interference significantly affected mosquito survival, causing a disruption in blood digestion, excretion, oviposition, and reproduction...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169546/colloidal-vesicular-system-of-inositol-hexaphosphate-to-counteract-dmba-induced-dysregulation-of-markers-pertaining-to-cellular-proliferation-differentiation-and-inflammation-of-epidermal-layer-in-mouse-model
#12
Malti Arya, Prakash Tiwari, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Poonam Parashar, Mahendra Singh, Priyam Sinha, Narayan P Yadav, Gaurav Kaithwas, Krishna P Gupta, Shubhini A Saraf
Cancer is a global health problem and chemoprevention is a promising approach for reducing cancer burden. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a natural bioactive constituent of cereals, legumes etc., has momentous potential as an antiangiogenic agent, that specifically affects malignant cells. The shortcoming is its quick absorption on oral/ topical administration. Niosomes are flexible carriers for topical drug delivery. The central venture of current research was to optimize and characterize niosomal delivery system of IP6 for treatment of skin cancer...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167207/ornithine-decarboxylase-or-gamma-glutamylcysteine-synthetase-overexpression-protects-leishmania-vianna-guyanensis-against-antimony
#13
Maisa S Fonseca, Marcelo A Comini, Bethânia V Resende, Ana Maria M Santi, Antônio P Zoboli, Douglas S Moreira, Silvane M F Murta
Trypanosomatids present a unique mechanism for detoxification of peroxides that is dependent on trypanothione (bisglutathionylspermidine). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) produce molecules that are direct precursors of trypanothione. In this study, Leishmania guyanensis odc and gsh1 overexpressor cell lines were generated to investigate the contribution of these genes to the trivalent antimony (Sb(III))-resistance phenotype. The ODC- or GSH1-overexpressors parasites presented an increase of two and four-fold in Sb(III)-resistance index, respectively, when compared with the wild-type line...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166740/delineation-of-cystinuria-in-saudi-arabia-a-case-series
#14
Abdulrahman Obaid, Marwan Nashabat, Khalid Al Fakeeh, Abdullah T Al Qahtani, Majid Alfadhel
BACKGROUND: Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic disease that is caused by defects in two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which result in a renal reabsorptive defect of cystine and other dibasic amino acids, including ornithine, arginine, and lysine. Patients usually present with recurrent renal calculi and may develop renal impairment. Medical management includes high fluid intake and chelating agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing cystinuria in Saudi Arabia...
February 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157137/extracellular-polyamines-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-cancer-cells-by-odc-ssat-and-akt1-mediated-pathway
#15
Fujun Dai, Wubei Yu, Jia Song, Qian Li, Chaojie Wang, Songqiang Xie
High levels of polyamines were observed and were related to a poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, the mechanism is not obvious. The aim of this study is to mimic the extracellular polyamines in a tumor microenviroment and to explore the role of extracellular polyamines in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Three different concentrations of polyamines composed of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were used. Colony formation assay, wound healing assay, and transwell migration assay were performed...
February 2, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154261/preparation-and-evaluation-of-pegylated-poly-l-ornithine-complex-as-a-novel-absorption-enhancer
#16
Yusuke Kamiya, Tsutomu Yamaki, Masaki Uchida, Tomomi Hatanaka, Mitsutoshi Kimura, Masahiko Ogihara, Yasunori Morimoto, Hideshi Natsume
Polycationic compounds, such as poly-L-arginine and poly-L-ornithine (PLO), enhance the nasal absorption of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs. However, the bio availability corresponding to the dose of these enhancers has not been obtained in an open system study, where an administered solution is transferred to the pharynx because they do not exhibit mucoadhesion/retention in the nasal cavity. In this study, we prepared PEGylated-poly-L-ornithine (PEG-PLO) and investigated the effects of PEGylation on in vitro adhesion/retention properties, permeation enhancement efficiency, and cytotoxicity...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149015/role-of-bioflavonoid-quercetin-on-expression-of-urea-cycle-enzymes-astrocytic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hyperammonemic-rats
#17
Sivamani Kanimozhi, Perumal Subramanian, Sakkaravarthy Shanmugapriya, Subramanian Sathishkumar
This study evaluates the role of quercetin on the expression of urea cycle enzymes, astrocytic, neuronal and inflammatory markers in hyperammonemic rats. Hyperammonemia (provoked by intraperitonial injections of (ammonium chloride-100 mg/kg b.w for 56 days), showed diminished expression of urea cycle enzymes [carbamyl phosphate synthetase-1 (CPS-1), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and arginase (ARG)] in liver and decreased expression of neuronal and astrocytic markers-glutamine synthase (GS) and phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG) in brain and increased expression of brain inflammatory markers such as interleukin 6 (IL6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) (by western blot analysis) and exhibited downregulated expression of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in brain and ASS in liver investigated (by RT-PCR)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141791/former-very-preterm-infants-show-alterations-in-plasma-amino-acid-profiles-at-a-preschool-age
#18
Anna Posod, Susanne Müller, Irena Odri Komazec, Daniel Dejaco, Ulrike Pupp Peglow, Elke Griesmaier, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi, Daniela Karall, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
BACKGROUND: Amino acid analysis is a valuable tool for cardiovascular risk assessment. Preterm infants display plasma amino acid changes in the newborn period. Whether these changes persist is unknown to date. The aim of the present study was to assess whether former very preterm infants (VPI) show alterations in amino acid patterns indicative of an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile at a preschool age. METHODS: Five- to seven-year-old children born at term or <32 weeks' gestation (VPI) were included in the study...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137860/creatine-maintains-intestinal-homeostasis-and-protects-against-colitis
#19
Emre Turer, William McAlpine, Kuan-Wen Wang, Tianshi Lu, Xiaohong Li, Miao Tang, Xiaoming Zhan, Tao Wang, Xiaowei Zhan, Chun-Hui Bu, Anne R Murray, Bruce Beutler
Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132871/effects-of-a-chronic-l-arginine-supplementation-on-the-arginase-pathway-in-aged-rats
#20
Johnny Moretto, Anne-Sophie Guglielmetti, Maude Tournier-Nappey, Hélène Martin, Anne Prigent-Tessier, Christine Marie, Céline Demougeot
While ageing is frequently associated with l-arginine deficiency, clinical and experimental studies provided controversial data on the interest of a chronic l-arginine supplementation with beneficial, no or even deleterious effects. It was hypothesized that these discrepancies might relate to a deviation of l-arginine metabolism towards production of l-ornithine rather than nitric oxide as a result of age-induced increase in arginase activity. This study investigated the effect of ageing on arginase activity/expression in target tissues and determined whether l-arginine supplementation modulated the effect of ageing on arginase activity...
January 26, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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