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Virginia Belloni, Alessia Galeazzi, Giulia Bernini, Mauro Mandrioli, Elisabetta Versace, Albrecht Haase
The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii has evolved morphological and behavioural adaptations to lay eggs under the skin of fresh fruits. This results in severe damage to a wide range of small fruits. Drosophila suzukii females typically lay few eggs per fruit, preferring healthy fruits. Hence, larvae are exposed to a reduced amount of nitrogenous waste. Differently, the innocuous Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs on fermented fruits already infested by conspecifics, with larvae developing in a crowded environment with the accumulation of nitrogenous waste such as ammonia and urea...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mohammed A Elmetwally, Yasser Lenis, Wanjin Tang, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
Ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) cells were used to investigate effects of epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) on their proliferation, migration and adhesion, secretion of interferon tau (IFNT), and expression of genes for synthesis of polyamines and apoptosis. Expression of mRNAs for agmatinase (AGMAT), arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) and solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A1) cationic amino acid transporter, Y + system), member 1 increased (P < 0.05) in oTr1 cells in response to EP and DA...
April 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Kelsey J Yamada, Cortney E Heim, Amy L Aldrich, Casey M Gries, Anna G Staudacher, Tammy Kielian
S. aureus is a leading cause of device-associated biofilm infections, which represent a serious health care concern based on their chronicity and antibiotic resistance. We previously reported that S. aureus biofilms preferentially recruit myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which promote monocyte and macrophage anti-inflammatory properties. This is associated with increased myeloid arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression, which has been linked to anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic activity that are observed during S...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Rianne Bartelds, Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi, Tjeerd Pols, Marc C A Stuart, Abbas Pardakhty, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Bert Poolman
Niosomes are used in studies for drug delivery or gene transfer. However, their physical properties and features relative to liposomes are not well documented. To characterize and more rationally optimize niosome formulations, the properties of these vesicle systems are compared to those of liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipids plus cholesterol. Niosomes are highly stable and only slightly more leaky than liposomes as assayed by calcein leakage; the permeability for ions (KCl) is higher than that of liposomes...
2018: PloS One
John J Tanner, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Donald Frederick Becker
Interest in how proline contributes to cancer biology is expanding due to the emerging role of a novel proline metabolic cycle in cancer cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis. Proline biosynthesis and degradation involve the shared intermediate, Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), which forms L-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde (GSAL) in a reversible non-enzymatic reaction. Proline is synthesized from glutamate or ornithine through GSAL/P5C, which is reduced to proline by P5C reductase (PYCR) in a NAD(P)H-dependent reaction...
April 12, 2018: Biochemistry
Jakob Lundgren, Anna Sandqvist, Mikael Hedeland, Ulf Bondesson, Gerhard Wikström, Göran Rådegran
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial function, including the nitric oxide (NO)-pathway, has previously been extensively investigated in heart failure (HF). In contrast, studies are lacking on the NO pathway after heart transplantation (HT). We therefore investigated substances in the NO pathway prior to and after HT in relation to hemodynamic parameters. DESIGN: 12 patients (median age 50.0 yrs, 2 females), heart transplanted between June 2012 and February 2014, evaluated at our hemodynamic lab, at rest, prior to HT, as well as four weeks and six months after HT were included...
April 12, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Linda Skibsted Kornerup, Lise Lotte Gluud, Hendrik Vilstrup, Gitte Dam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common and devastating complication to chronic liver disease. In this paper, we summarize the latest research and evidence of both conventional and up-coming treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses report beneficial effects of lactulose, branched-chain amino acids, rifaximin, and to some degree L-ornithine L-aspartate on the manifestations of HE in patients with cirrhosis, and generally the numbers needed to treat are low...
April 11, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Kyungjin Min, Hye-Jin Yoon, Atsushi Matsuura, Yong Hwan Kim, Hyung Ho Lee
L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD+, (ii) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid...
April 5, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hany M El-Bassossy, Thikryat Neamatallah, Khadijah S Balamash, Amani T Abushareb, Malcolm L Watson
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a major role in the development of many vascular complications that are mediated by endothelial dysfunction. The present work aimed to investigate the mechanism by which AGEs impair vasodilation. METHODS: The effect of AGEs on vasodilation induced by acetylcholine or D NONOate was examined by incubating isolated rat aortae with different AGEs concentrations. ACh-induced nitric oxide generation was assessed using the fluorescent probe diaminofluorecein (DAF-FM)...
April 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hwang Eui Cho, Min H Kang
Altered levels of polyamines in biological specimens have been suggested as potential biomarkers for cancer. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) is reported to modulate polyamines to potentially attenuate proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. A clinical trial is being conducted to evaluate DFMO in various cancers. To determine the pharmacodynamics effect of DFMO, an analytical assay is needed to accurately measure the changes in polyamines in cancer cells. In this study, a novel pH gradient LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitation of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in cancer cells...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Fangyu Jing, Xin Hu, Yunfeng Cao, Minghao Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yu Jing, Xiaodan Hu, Yu Gao, Zhitu Zhu
Patients with gastric ulcer (GU) have a significantly higher risk of developing gastric cancer (GC), especially within 2 years after diagnosis. The main way to improve the prognosis of GC is to predict the tumorigenesis and metastasis in the early stage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of human plasma amino acid metabolic profile for discriminating GC and GU. In this study, we first used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique to characterize the plasma amino acid metabolism in GC and GU patients...
April 6, 2018: IUBMB Life
Mian Fu, Chenyu Zhang, Yuxuan Dai, Xue Li, Miaobo Pan, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian, Liang Ge
Closed-loop glucose-responsive insulin delivery with excellent biocompatibility has the potential to improve the health and quality of life of diabetic patients. Herein, we developed an excellent glucose-responsive insulin delivery system using a pH-sensitive peptide hydrogel loaded with insulin and a glucose-specific enzyme. The designed peptide can be used as a carrier that is loaded with insulin and enzyme via a self-assembly process under physiological conditions. When hyperglycemia is encountered, the enzymatic conversion of glucose into gluconic acid leads to a decrease in the local pH, and the hydrogel is disassembled because of the strong inter- and intramolecular electrostatic repulsions between ornithine (Orn) residues; this is followed by the release of insulin...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Dita Musalkova, Eva Sticova, Martin Reboun, Jitka Sokolova, Jakub Krijt, Jitka Honzikova, Jiri Gurka, Magdalena Neroldova, Tomas Honzik, Jiri Zeman, Milan Jirsa, Lenka Dvorakova, Martin Hrebicek
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an X-linked disorder that causes recurrent and life-threatening episodes of hyperammonemia. The clinical picture in heterozygous females is highly diverse and derives from the genotype and the degree of inactivation of the mutated X chromosome in hepatocytes. Here, we describe molecular genetic, biochemical, and histopathological findings in the livers explanted from two female patients with late-onset OTC deficiency. Analysis of X-inactivation ratios by DNA methylation-based assays showed remarkable intra-organ variation ranging from 46:54 to 82:18 (average 70:30, n = 37), in favor of the active X chromosome carrying the mutation c...
April 6, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
E D Goldstein, R Cannistraro, P S Atwal, J F Meschia
Partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (pOTCD), an enzymatic defect within the urea cycle, is an increasingly recognized etiology for hyperammonemia of unclear source following a stressor within female adults. Here we present a case of newly diagnosed pOTCD following a systemic stressor and prolonged hospitalization course. From a neurological perspective, prompt recognition provided the patient with a swift and near complete recovery. We briefly review the pertinent literature pertaining to this genetically based condition including historical context and current therapeutic approaches...
April 2018: Neurohospitalist
Hayder Amin, Michele Dipalo, Francesco De Angelis, Luca Berdondini
A controlled geometry of in vitro neuronal networks allows investigation of the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuron-to-neuron and neuron-extracellular matrix interactions, which are essential to biomedical research. Herein, we report a selective guidance of primary hippocampal neurons by using arrays of three-dimensional vertical nanopillars (NPs) functionalized with a specific adhesion-promoting molecule-poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO). We show that 90% of neuronal cells are guided exclusively on the combinatorial PDLO/NP substrate...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Victor A Becerra-Rivera, Ed Bergström, Jane Thomas-Oates, Michael F Dunn
Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous polycations derived from basic l-amino acids whose physiological roles are still being defined. Their biosynthesis and functions in nitrogen-fixing rhizobia such as Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been extensively investigated. Thin layer chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed that S. meliloti Rm8530 produces the PAs, putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and homospermidine (HSpd), in their free forms and norspermidine (NSpd) in a form bound to macromolecules. The S...
April 2018: Microbiology
Fuqi Xu, Shigang Qiao, Hua Li, Yanjun Deng, Chen Wang, Jianzhong An
BACKGROUND: Anesthetic preconditioning (APC) of the myocardium is mediated in part by reversible alteration of mitochondrial function. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may mediate APC-induced cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of isoflurane on different states of mitochondrial respiration during the oxidation of complex I-linked substrates and the role of NO were investigated. METHODS: Mitochondria were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat hearts...
February 1, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
Sun-Hee Kim, Jason Roszik, Elizabeth A Grimm, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu
The progression from neoplastic initiation to malignancy happens in part because of the failure of immune surveillance. Cancer cells successfully escape immune recognition and elimination and create an immune-suppressive microenvironment. A suppressive metabolic microenvironment may also contribute to ineffective T-cell function. Tumor progression is characterized by a complex network of interactions among different cell types that cooperatively exploit metabolic reprogramming. As we start to recognize that cancer cells use different metabolism processes than normal cells do, a better understanding of the functional mechanisms of the regulation and reprogramming of the metabolic landscape in cancer cells is crucial to successful immunotherapy strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Taibo Liu, Binbin Huang, Lin Chen, Zhiqiang Xian, Shiwei Song, Riyuan Chen, Yanwei Hao
Polyamines (PAs), including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and thermospermine (T-Spm), play key roles in plant development, including fruit setting and ripening, morphogenesis, and abiotic/biotic stress. Their functions appear to be intimately related to their synthesis, which occurs via arginine/ornithine decarboxylase (ADC/ODC), Spd synthase (SPDS), Spm synthase (SPMS), and Acaulis5 (ACL5), respectively. Unfortunately, the expression and function of these PA synthesis-relate genes during specific developmental process or under stress have not been fully elucidated...
March 29, 2018: Gene
Lina Wei, Chunlei Xin, Wenjuan Wang, Cuifang Hao
PURPOSE: This study aimed to screen key genes and pathways involved in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and predict drugs for treatment of obese PCOS via bioinformatics approaches. METHODS: Microarray dataset GSE10946 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 7 cumulus cell samples from obese PCOS patients and 6 lean control samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between obese PCOS and controls were obtained using Bayesian test after data preprocessing, followed by functional enrichment analyses for DEGs...
March 27, 2018: Gene
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