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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534951/contribution-of-methylglyoxal-to-delayed-healing-of-bone-injury-in-diabetes
#1
Takao Aikawa, Hidenori Matsubara, Shuhei Ugaji, Junichi Shirakawa, Ryoji Nagai, Seiichi Munesue, Ai Harashima, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
Patients with diabetes are vulnerable to delayed bone fracture healing or pseudoarthrosis. Chronic sustained hyperglycemia, reactive intermediate derivatives of glucose metabolism, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), and advanced glycation end‑products (AGEs) are implicated in diabetic complications. In the present study, it was examined whether MGO is able to cause disturbed bone healing in diabetes. Diabetes was induced in male mice by injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) for 5 days. A bone defect (1.0‑mm diameter) was created in the left distal femur, and bone repair was assessed from an examination of computed tomography scans...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528213/optimal-electrostatic-interactions-between-substrate-and-protein-are-essential-for-radical-chemistry-in-ornithine-4-5-aminomutase
#2
Caitlyn Makins, Douglas A Whitelaw, Michael McGregor, Alix Petit, Robert G Mothersole, Kathleen E Prosser, Kirsten R Wolthers
Ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (OAM) from Clostridium sticklandii is an adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes a 1,2-amino shift, interconverting D-ornithine and 2S, 4R-diaminopentanoate. The reaction occurs via a radical-based mechanism whereby a PLP-bound substrate radical undergoes intramolecular isomerization via an azacyclopropylcarbinyl radical intermediate. Herein, we investigated the catalytic role of active site residues that form non-covalent interactions with PLP and/or substrate, D-ornithine...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522372/effective-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-peptide-mutant-cbf-14-2-against-penicillin-resistant-bacteria-based-on-its-unnatural-amino-acids
#3
Wei Kang, Hanhan Liu, Lingman Ma, Mengxiao Wang, Shanshan Wei, Pengbo Sun, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Changlin Zhou, Jie Dou
Broad spectrum activities, a unique mode of actions and rare resistant variants make antimicrobial peptide (AMP) a potential alternative to antibiotics. However, AMPs still have limitations in clinical development due to their physiological stability, toxicity and manufacturing costs. Cbf-14, derived from cathelicidin-BF has been proven to be effective against drug-resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of Cbf-14 mutants were designed to overcome these limitations. Design strategies included substitutions of lysine (Lys) or leucine (Leu) with similar residues such as ornithine (Orn) and norleucine (Ile), which are unnatural amino acids, to generate AMPs with enhanced therapeutic potential...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520425/furan-and-lactam-jadomycin-biosynthetic-congeners-isolated-from-streptomyces-venezuelae-isp5230-cultured-with-n%C3%AE%C2%B5-trifluoroacetyl-l-lysine
#4
Stephanie M Forget, Andrew W Robertson, David P Overy, Russell G Kerr, David L Jakeman
Angucycline antibiotics are composed of a classical four-ring angularly linked polyaromatic backbone. Differential cyclization chemistry of the A- and B-rings in jadomycin biosynthesis led to the discovery of two new furan analogues, while oxidation led to a ring-opened form of the jadomycin Nε-trifluoroacetyl-l-lysine (TFAL) congener. The compounds were isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 cultures grown with TFAL. Biosynthetic incorporation using d-[1-(13)C]-glucose in cultures enabled the unambiguous assignment of the aldehyde, alcohol, and amide functionalities present in these new congeners through NMR spectroscopy...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#5
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514972/the-effect-of-tetraneura-ulmi-l-galling-process-on-the-activity-of-amino-acid-decarboxylases-and-the-content-of-biogenic-amines-in-siberian-elm-tissues
#6
K Kmieć, C Sempruch, G Chrzanowski, P Czerniewicz
Tetraneura ulmi (L.), a member of Eriosomatinae subfamily, is one of the gall-forming aphids occurring on elms. Sap-sucking behaviour of founding mothers results in the formation of new plant organs. This study documents the changes in the content of plant biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, tryptamine, spermine and histamine) and key enzymes of their biosynthesis: lysine decarboxylase (LDC), tyrosine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in galls and other parts of Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L...
May 18, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514181/folic-acid-modulates-dmba-tpa-induced-changes-in-skin-of-mice-a-study-relevant-to-carcinogenesis
#7
Ashwani Koul, Navneet Kaur, Neha Arora Chugh
The present study was aimed at investigating the modulatory effects of folic acid (FA) on early stages of chemically induced skin cancer. For this, a two-stage model of skin tumorigenesis was employed. 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 500 nmol/100 ul of acetone) was applied topically for two weeks (twice weekly), followed by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA, 1.7 nmol/100 ul) twice weekly for six weeks on the depilated skin of mice, and FA was administered orally at a dose of 40 microgram/animal for 10 weeks daily...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513740/l-ornithine-stimulates-growth-hormone-release-in-a-manner-dependent-on-the-ghrelin-system
#8
Yee Yin Ho, Junya Nakato, Takafumi Mizushige, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Mamoru Tanida, Saori Akiduki, Kousaku Ohinata
We found that intraduodenal administration of l-ornithine (l-Orn) stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in Wistar rats, and then investigated its mechanism. GH-releasing activity after intraduodenal administration of l-Orn was blocked by [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, an antagonist of the ghrelin receptor; however, l-Orn (100 μM) has no affinity for the ghrelin receptor, suggesting that the GH-releasing activity of l-Orn is mediated via ghrelin release and activation of the ghrelin receptor. Intraduodenally administered l-Orn increased ghrelin mRNA expression in the duodenum but not in the stomach or hypothalamus...
May 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501704/genetic-variation-in-slc7a2-interacts-with-calcium-and-magnesium-intakes-in-modulating-the-risk-of-colorectal-polyps
#9
Pin Sun, Xiangzhu Zhu, Martha J Shrubsole, Reid M Ness, Elizabeth A Hibler, Qiuyin Cai, Jirong Long, Zhi Chen, Guoliang Li, Lifang Hou, Walter E Smalley, Todd L Edwards, Edward Giovannucci, Wei Zheng, Qi Dai
Solute carrier family 7, member 2 (SLC7A2) gene encodes a protein called cationic amino acid transporter 2, which mediates the transport of arginine, lysine and ornithine. l-Arginine is necessary for cancer development and progression, including an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Furthermore, previous studies found that both calcium and magnesium inhibit the transport of arginine. Thus, calcium, magnesium or calcium:magnesium intake ratio may interact with polymorphisms in the SLC7A2 gene in association with colorectal cancer...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500346/structural-studies-of-the-periplasmic-portion-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-cdgh-from-vibrio-cholerae
#10
Min Xu, Yi-Zhi Wang, Xiu-An Yang, Tao Jiang, Wei Xie
Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger involved in bacterial signal transduction and produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) generally containing highly variable periplasmic signal-recognition domains. CdgH is a DGC enzyme that regulates rugosity associated phenotypes in Vibrio cholerae. CdgH has two N-terminal tandem periplasmic substrate-binding (PBPb) domains for its signal recognition; however, the role of the tandem PBPb domains remains unclear. Here, we reported the crystal structure of the periplasmic portion of CdgH, which indicated that both tandem PBPb domains consist of typical interlobe ligand-binding architecture...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500077/alternative-start-sites-downstream-of-nonsense-mutations-drive-antigen-presentation-and-tolerance-induction-to-c-terminal-epitopes
#11
Scott N Ashley, Suryanarayan Somanathan, Christian Hinderer, Maxwell Arias, Deirdre McMenamin, Christine Draper, James M Wilson
CTL responses to the transgene product remain an active area of concern for the gene therapy field. A patient's underlying genetic mutation may influence the qualitative nature of these potentially destructive T cell responses. Individuals with a mutation that introduces a premature termination codon (PTC) that prevents synthesis of the full-length peptide are considered more likely to mount a transgene-specific T cell response because of a lack of immune tolerance to C-terminal epitopes as a consequence of absent endogenous Ag presentation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490108/evaluation-of-2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-in-foods-with-an-emphasis-on-rice-flavour
#12
REVIEW
Xuan Wei, Dody D Handoko, Leela Pather, Lisa Methven, J Stephen Elmore
The popcorn-like aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) is a key contributor to the desirable aroma of fragrant rice and is also important in the aroma of other foods, such as pandan leaf, popcorn and Mediterranean sausage. It can be formed enzymatically in the rice grain as it grows and is also formed, as part of the Maillard reaction, when rice is heated. This review examines the formation of 2-AP in rice and other foods, particularly its formation during cooking, focusing on the importance of the Maillard reaction between reducing sugar breakdown products and 1-pyrroline derived from the amino acids proline and ornithine...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489938/metabolites-contributing-to-rhizoctonia-solani-ag-1-ia-maturation-and-sclerotial-differentiation-revealed-by-uplc-qtof-ms-metabolomics
#13
Wenjin Hu, Xinli Pan, Hafiz Muhammad Khalid Abbas, Fengfeng Li, Wubei Dong
Rhizoctonia solani is a causative agent of sheath blight, which results in huge economic losses every year. During its life cycle, the formation of sclerotia helps Rhizoctonia solani withstand a variety of unfavorable factors. Oxidative stress is a key factor that induces sclerotium formation. The differentiated and undifferentiated phenotypes of R. solani AG-1-IA were obtained by controlling aerial conditions. Metabolomics based on the mass spectrometry technique combined with multivariate and univariate analyses was used to investigate the metabolic variation in vegetative, differentiated and undifferentiated mycelia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489377/svetamycins-a-g-unusual-piperazic-acid-containing-peptides-from-streptomyces-sp
#14
Denis Dardic, Gianluigi Lauro, Giuseppe Bifulco, Patricia Laboudie, Peyman Sakhaii, Armin Bauer, Andreas Vilcinskas, Peter E Hammann, Alberto Plaza
Seven new halogenated peptides termed svetamycins A-G (1-7) have been isolated from laboratory cultures of a Streptomyces sp. Svetamycins A-D, F, and G are cyclic depsipeptides whereas svetamycin E is a linear analogue of svetamycin C. Their structures were determined using extensive spectroscopic analysis, and their stereochemical configuration was established by a combination of NMR data, quantum mechanical calculations, and chemical derivatizations. Svetamycins are characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl acetic acid and five amino acids including a rare 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid, a γ-halogenated piperazic acid, and a novel δ-methylated piperazic acid in svetamycins B-C, E, and G...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486080/arginine-improves-ph-homeostasis-via-metabolism-and-microbiome-modulation
#15
M Agnello, L Cen, N C Tran, W Shi, J S McLean, X He
Dental caries can be described as a dysbiosis of the oral microbial community, in which acidogenic, aciduric, and acid-adapted bacterial species promote a pathogenic environment, leading to demineralization. Alkali generation by oral microbes, specifically via arginine catabolic pathways, is an essential factor in maintaining plaque pH homeostasis. There is evidence that the use of arginine in dentifrices helps protect against caries. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mechanistic and ecological effect of arginine treatment on the oral microbiome and its regulation of pH dynamics, using an in vitro multispecies oral biofilm model that was previously shown to be highly reflective of the in vivo oral microbiome...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473819/metabolic-profiles-in-cell-lines-infected-with-classical-swine-fever-virus
#16
Hongchao Gou, Mingqiu Zhao, Jin Yuan, Hailuan Xu, Hongxing Ding, Jinding Chen
Viruses require energy and biosynthetic precursors from host cells for replication. An understanding of the metabolic interplay between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and host cells is important for exploring the complex pathological mechanisms of classical swine fever (CSF). In the current study, and for the first time, we utilized an approach involving gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the metabolic profiles within PK-15 and 3D4/2 cells infected with CSFV. The differential metabolites of PK-15 cells caused by CSFV infection mainly included the decreased levels of glucose 6-phosphate [fold change (FC) = -1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467636/an-exercise-in-brain-genoarchitectonics-analysis-of-azin2-lacz-expressing-neuronal-populations-in-the-mouse-hindbrain
#17
Margaret Martinez-de-la-Torre, Ana Lambertos, Rafael Peñafiel, Luis Puelles
We examined in detail the distribution of AZIN2 (antizyme inhibitor 2) expression in the adult mouse hindbrain and neighboring spinal cord. AZIN2, similar to previously known AZIN1, is a recently-discovered, a functional paralog of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Due to their structural similarity to ODC, both AZIN1 and AZIN2 counteract the inhibitory action of 3 known antizymes (AZ1-3) on the ODC synthesis of polyamines, thus increasing intracytoplasmic levels of polyamines. AZIN2 is strongly, but heterogeneously, expressed in the brain...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464918/growth-suppressive-effect-of-pegylated-arginase-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-xenografts
#18
Sze-Kwan Lam, Yuan-Yuan Li, Shi Xu, Leanne Lee Leung, Kin-Pong U, Yan-Fang Zheng, Paul Ning-Man Cheng, James Chung-Man Ho
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a difficult-to-treat global disease. Pegylated arginase (BCT-100) has recently shown anti-tumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia and melanoma. This study aims to investigate the effects of PEG-BCT-100 in MPM. METHODS: A panel of 5 mesothelioma cell lines (H28, 211H, H226, H2052 and H2452) was used to study the in vitro effects of BCT-100 by crystal violet staining. The in vivo effects of BCT-100 were studied using 211H and H226 nude mice xenografts...
May 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461838/bilateral-chorioretinal-scars-in-a-child-case-report
#19
Tomi Anca, Stefan Irina
The eye manifestations of intrauterine infections are multiple, but chorioretinal scars and/or active chorioretinitis are the most frequently reported. When associated with other systemic manifestations of the infection, the diagnosis becomes more obvious, but when eye involvement is the only abnormality, etiology often remains uncertain. We are presenting the case of an 8-year-old female patient whose fundus lesions revealed an unusual choroidoretinopathy, associated with cataract in one eye. Her general examination and her medical history were unremarkable...
June 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455330/regulation-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-synthesis-and-toxin-complex-formation-by-arginine-and-glucose-in-clostridium-botulinum-atcc-3502
#20
Chase M Fredrick, Guangyun Lin, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation are not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation was affected by arginine and glucose in C. botulinum types A and B. In the present study, C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was grown in toxin production medium (TPM) with different levels of arginine, glucose and three products of arginine metabolism, citrulline, proline and ornithine...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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