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Asthma and COPD

A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein which regulates interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair, and in the regulation of the immune response...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Katarzyna Górska, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Małgorzata Proboszcz, Rafał Krenke
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) seems a promising asthma biomarker. In earlier studies, mainly the serum concentration of TSLP was investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the TSLP concentration measured by two different ELISA kits in the serum, induced sputum, and exhaled breath condensate in asthma, COPD, and control subjects. The study included 24 asthmatics, 36 patients with COPD, and 12 controls. TSLP concentration was measured with the use of R&D and EIAab commercial ELISA kits. The results obtained with the EIAab kit were 3 to even 45-fold higher than those measured with the R&D kit...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jing Gao, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Jukka Koskela, Harri Alenius, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Tarja Laitinen, Witold Mazur, Ville Pulkkinen
Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a commonly encountered chronic airway disease. However, ACOS is still a consensus-based clinical phenotype and the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are inadequately characterized. To clarify the inflammatory mediatypical for ACOS, five biomarkers, namely interleukin (IL)-13, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), chitinase-like protein (YKL-40), and IL-6, were selected. This study hypothesized that sputum biomarkers relevant for airway inflammation in asthma (IL-13), COPD (MPO, NGAL), or in both asthma and COPD (YKL-40, IL-6) could be used to differentiate ACOS from COPD and asthma...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Horng-Chyuan Lin, Sang-Heon Cho, Aloke Gopal Ghoshal, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Shalini Bagga, Rab Faruqi, Shiva Sajjan, Camilla L Cahill, Kim K Hamrosi, De Yun Wang
Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study was a cross-sectional, observational study which examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across Asia-Pacific using 1 standard protocol. Here we report symptoms, healthcare resource use (HCRU), work impairment, and associated cost in Taiwan...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Sang-Heon Cho, Aloke Gopal Ghoshal, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Chaicharn Pothirat, Benjamas Chuaychoo, Songklot Aeumjaturapat, Shalini Bagga, Rab Faruqi, Shiva Sajjan, Santwona Baidya, De Yun Wang
Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) was a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of respiratory disease in adults across 6 Asia-Pacific countries.This article reports symptoms, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), work impairment and cost burden associated with allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis in Thailand.Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled at 4 hospitals in Thailand during October 2012 and October 2013...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gary P Anderson
In recent years, thousands of publications on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its related biology have entered the world literature, reflecting the increasing scientific and medical interest in this devastating condition. This article is a selective review of several important emerging themes that offer the hope of creating new classes of COPD medicines. Whereas basic science is parsing molecular pathways in COPD, its comorbidities, and asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) with unprecedented sophistication, clinical translation is disappointingly slow...
2016: F1000Research
Y S Prakash
Airway structure and function are key aspects of normal lung development, growth and aging, as well as of lung responses to the environment and the pathophysiology of important diseases such as asthma, COPD and fibrosis. In this regard, the contributions of airway smooth muscle (ASM) are both functional, in the context of airway contractility and relaxation, as well as synthetic, involving production and modulation of extracellular components, modulation of the local immune environment, cellular contribution to airway structure, and finally, interactions with other airway cell types such as epithelium, fibroblasts and nerves...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Caroline Anne Mitchell, Alice Pitt, Joe Hulin, Rod Lawson, Fleur Ashby, Ivan Appelqvist, Brigitte Delaney
OBJECTIVES: Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. SETTING: Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Steven Maltby, Peter G Gibson, Heather Powell, Vanessa M McDonald
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common airway diseases. Individuals with overlapping asthma and COPD experience increased health impairment and severe disease exacerbations. Efficacious treatment options are required for this population. Omalizumab (anti-IgE) therapy is effective in patients with severe, persistent asthma, but limited data are available on efficacy in populations with overlapping asthma and COPD. METHODS: Data from the Australian Xolair Registry (AXR) was used to compare treatment responses in individuals with asthma-COPD overlap to severe asthma alone...
October 11, 2016: Chest
Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Katarzyna Górska, Katarzyna Białek-Gosk, Joanna Hermanowicz-Salamon, Rafał Krenke
Asthma and COPD are the most common obstructive lung diseases characterized by inflammation in the lower airways which contribute to airflow limitation. Different inflammatory mediators are thought to play a key role in these diseases. This study was conducted in 13 patients with asthma, 12 patients with COPD, and 13 control subjects. The expression of mRNA of IL-6, IL-13, CXCL8, TSLP, IL-33, IL-25, IL-17, ECP, mast cell tryptase, CCL24, and CCL26 was assessed in induced sputum cells by real time PCR. We found that CXCL8 was strongly related to the neutrophil percentage but differed significantly in COPD and asthma patients...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Carolyn Tubby, Ola H Negm, Timothy Harrison, Patrick J Tighe, Ian Todd, Lucy C Fairclough
OBJECTIVE: The three main types of killer cells - CD8(+) T cells, NK cells and NKT cells - have been linked to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their role in a small subset of asthma patients displaying fixed airway obstruction (FAO), similar to that seen in COPD, has not been explored. The objective of the present study was to investigate killer cell numbers, phenotype and function in peripheral blood from asthma patients with FAO, asthma patients without FAO, and healthy individuals...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Mojgan Najafzadeh, Charmaine Normington, Badie K Jacob, Mohammad Isreb, Rajendran C Gopalan, Diana Anderson
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e., bulk (B) or nano-suspension (N) of aspirin (ASP) or ibuprofen (IBU) up to 500 μg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 μg/ml in the micronucleus assay...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Joanna C Watts, Claude S Farah, Leigh M Seccombe, Blake M Handley, Robin E Schoeffel, Amy Bertolin, Jessica Dame Carroll, Gregory G King, Cindy Thamrin
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is gaining clinical acceptance, facilitated by more commercial devices and clinical data. However, the effects of variations in testing protocols used in FOT data acquisition are unknown. We describe the effect of duration of data acquisition on FOT results in subjects with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy controls. FOT data were acquired from 20 healthy, 22 asthmatic and 18 COPD subjects for 60 s in triplicate. The first 16, 30 and 60 s of each measurement were analysed to obtain total, inspiratory and expiratory resistance of respiratory system (Rrs) and respiratory system reactance (Xrs) at 5 and 19 Hz...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Stefan Peters, Angelika Kronseder, Stefan Karrasch, Petra A Neff, Matz Haaks, Andreas R Koczulla, Petra Reinhold, Dennis Nowak, Rudolf A Jörres
The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been reported to be elevated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but results are inconsistent and difficult to reproduce. As H2O2 occurs in ambient air, we examined its association with exhaled H2O2 in human subjects. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 12 COPD patients and nine healthy control subjects was collected either with an inhalation filter (efficiency 81%) or without. Ambient air condensate (AAC) was collected in parallel and samples were analysed for H2O2...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Esther I Metting, Johannes C C M In 't Veen, P N Richard Dekhuijzen, Ellen van Heijst, Janwillem W H Kocks, Jacqueline B Muilwijk-Kroes, Niels H Chavannes, Thys van der Molen
The aim of this study was to develop and explore the diagnostic accuracy of a decision tree derived from a large real-life primary care population. Data from 9297 primary care patients (45% male, mean age 53±17 years) with suspicion of an obstructive pulmonary disease was derived from an asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) service where patients were assessed using spirometry, the Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, history data and medication use. All patients were diagnosed through the Internet by a pulmonologist...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
John W Upham, Yang Xi
Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen presenting cells. Because of their particular ability to initiate and regulate cell mediated and humoral immune responses, there is considerable interest in the role that DC play in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases, especially those in which there is an excessive immune response to specific antigens (as in asthma) or a deficient immune response (as in lung cancer). A number of DC subpopulations have been defined in the lungs including myeloid or conventional DC that initiate T-cell immunity and antibody production, and plasmacytoid DC that have an important role in anti-viral immunity and immune tolerance...
October 8, 2016: Chest
B P de São José, P A M Camargos, E D Bateman, C M A Botelho, J G F de Seixas Maciel, E V Mancuzo, R de Amorim Corrêa
BACKGROUND: There are few reports on the ability of primary care physicians (PCPs) to diagnose acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We assessed the agreement between PCPs and pulmonologists in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and acute respiratory infections (ARI). SETTING: Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: PCPs filled out a symptom-based questionnaire for adult patients presenting with respiratory symptoms...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Vinciane Saint-Criq, Michael A Gray
Salt and fluid absorption and secretion are two processes that are fundamental to epithelial function and whole body fluid homeostasis, and as such are tightly regulated in epithelial tissues. The CFTR anion channel plays a major role in regulating both secretion and absorption in a diverse range of epithelial tissues, including the airways, the GI and reproductive tracts, sweat and salivary glands. It is not surprising then that defects in CFTR function are linked to disease, including life-threatening secretory diarrhoeas, such as cholera, as well as the inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common life-limiting genetic diseases in Caucasian populations...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Feng-Jia Chen, Xin-Yan Huang, Yang-Li Liu, Geng-Peng Lin, Can-Mao Xie
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is an easy, sensitive, reproducible, and noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Accordingly, FeNO is extensively used to diagnose and manage asthma. Patients with COPD who share some of the features of asthma have a condition called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). The feasibility of using FeNO to differentiate ACOS patients from asthma and COPD patients remains unclear. METHODS: From February 2013 to May 2016, patients suspected with asthma and COPD through physician's opinion were subjected to FeNO measurement, pulmonary function test (PFT), and bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator test...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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