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Drug literature review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679596/observational-studies-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-effectiveness-in-copd-lessons-learned
#1
Samy Suissa, Pierre Ernst
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials at times investigate findings suggested by observational studies. For example, the TORCH trial, which did not show a mortality reduction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was motivated by some observational studies that suggested considerable reductions in mortality with these drugs. Reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. METHODS: We searched the literature to identify all observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, investigating the effectiveness of ICS on major outcomes in COPD patients, including death and hospitalization for COPD...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678967/development-and-evaluation-of-an-algorithm-based-tool-for-medication-management-in-nursing-homes-the-amber-study-protocol
#2
Susanne Erzkamp, Olaf Rose
BACKGROUND: Residents of nursing homes are susceptible to risks from medication. Medication Reviews (MR) can increase clinical outcomes and the quality of medication therapy. Limited resources and barriers between healthcare practitioners are potential obstructions to performing MR in nursing homes. Focusing on frequent and relevant problems can support pharmacists in the provision of pharmaceutical care services. This study aims to develop and evaluate an algorithm-based tool that facilitates the provision of Medication Management in clinical practice...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678668/the-effect-of-music-on-postoperative-recovery-in-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#3
Hanneke van der Wal-Huisman, Karolien S K Dons, Rineke Smilde, Erik Heineman, Barbara L van Leeuwen
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is an important part of the treatment modalities offered to older patients with cancer. Natural ageing processes lead to deterioration of organ function, making older patients more vulnerable and at risk for experiencing less-favourable outcomes and complications after surgery. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as music, may be preferable to medical interventions in older people, who are at risk for adverse effects and drug interactions due to altered physiology and drug metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678413/patient-access-to-medicines-in-two-countries-with-similar-health-systems-and-differing-medicines-policies-implications-from-a-comprehensive-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar, Todd Gammie, Ali Seyfoddin, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Louise E Curley
BACKGROUND: Countries with similar health systems but different medicines policies might result in substantial medicines usage differences and resultant outcomes. The literature is sparse in this area. OBJECTIVE: To review pharmaceutical policy research in New Zealand and Australia and discuss differences between the two countries and the impact these differences may have on subsequent medicine access. METHODS: A review of the literature (2008-2016) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles...
April 13, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678260/ganciclovir
#5
Abdullah A Al-Badr, Tariq D S Ajarim
Ganciclovir is synthetic nucleoside analog of guanine closely related to acyclovir but has greater activity against cytomegalovirus. This comprehensive profile on ganciclovir starts with a description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, chemical structure, elemental composition, and appearance. The uses and application of the drug are explained. The methods that were used for the preparation of ganciclovir are described and their respective schemes are outlined. The methods which were used for the physical characterization of the dug are: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, crystal structure, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676228/glaucoma-pathogenesis-and-neurotrophins-focus-on-the-molecular-and-genetic-basis-for-therapeutic-prospects
#6
Nitin Chitranshi, Yogita Dheer, Mojdeh Abbasi, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is a major feature of glaucoma pathology. Neuroprotective approaches that delay or halt the progression of RGC loss are needed to prevent vision loss which can occur even after conventional medical or surgical treatments to lower intraocular pressure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to examine the progress in genetics and cellular mechanisms associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, RGC dysfunction and cell death pathways in glaucoma...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676142/-analysis-of-acne-animal-model-based-on-chinese-and-western-medicine-clinical-symptoms-characteristic
#7
Zhen-Na Fu, Ting Wang, Ming Bai, Ming-San Miao
This paper aimed to analyze the existing acne animal model based on the characteristics of acne clinical symptoms between Chinese and western medicine, in order to provide reference for the establishment of the rational acne animal model. Relevant literatures at home and abroad in recent years were reviewed to summarize the research progress of diagnostic criteria and drug treatment of acne with Chinese and western medicine, and analyze the existing acne animal model. The animal acne models were pathological models, and mainly reflected the clinical indicators of western medicine...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676112/-effect-of-animal-medicines-for-extinguishing-wind-to-arrest-convulsions-on-central-nervous-system-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Zhi-Jie Yu, Jin-Song Li, Wei Peng, Ping Wang, Liang Xiong, Yu-Jie Liu, Ying Xu, Tao Sun
The human health is seriously affected by central nervous system(CNS) diseases, but the pathogenesis of CNS diseases is still not completely clear. Currently, the drugs used to treat CNS diseases are mainly receptor modulators and neurotransmitter inhibitors, which have serious side effects; and there are short of drugs for treating CNS diseases clinically. Studies suggest that animal medicines mainly include protein, polypeptide and small-molecule compounds, and have such pharmacological effects in calming, resisting convulsions and improving brain tissues...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675798/a-systematic-literature-review-and-network-meta-analysis-comparing-once-weekly-semaglutide-with-other-glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-previously-receiving-1-2-oral-anti-diabetic-drugs
#9
Michal Witkowski, Lars Wilkinson, Neil Webb, Alan Weids, Divina Glah, Hrvoje Vrazic
INTRODUCTION: Once-weekly semaglutide is a new glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue administered at a 1.0 or 0.5 mg dose. As head-to-head trials assessing once-weekly semaglutide as an add-on to 1-2 oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) vs other GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are limited, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed. The objective was to assess the relative efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide vs GLP-1 RAs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on 1-2 OADs...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675745/a-proposal-for-an-atypical-femur-fracture-treatment-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guideline
#10
REVIEW
R Dell, D Greene
The prevention as well as the treatment of atypical femur fractures (AFFs) remains controversial but there have been many clinical recommendations suggested. We have summarized these recommendations as well as expanded upon them in this paper. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the paper was to develop a clinical practice guideline that both treats AFF and decreases the risk of AFF in patients requiring antiresorptive medications. Examples of these medications include bisphosphonates and denosumab for the treatment of osteoporosis...
April 19, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674514/pharmacokinetic-studies-in-children-recommendations-for-practice-and-research
#11
REVIEW
Charlotte I S Barker, Joseph F Standing, Lauren E Kelly, Lauren Hanly Faught, Allison C Needham, Michael J Rieder, Saskia N de Wildt, Martin Offringa
Optimising the dosing of medicines for neonates and children remains a challenge. The importance of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) research is recognised both in medicines regulation and paediatric clinical pharmacology, yet there remain barriers to undertaking high-quality PK and PD studies. While these studies are essential in understanding the dose-concentration-effect relationship and should underpin dosing recommendations, this review examines how challenges affecting the design and conduct of paediatric pharmacological studies can be overcome using targeted pharmacometric strategies...
April 19, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674237/eslicarbazepine-acetate-exposure-in-pregnant-women-with-epilepsy
#12
Raquel Costa, Luís M Magalhães, Joana Graça, Mariana Vieira, Helena Gama, Joana Moreira, José F Rocha, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder requiring continued treatment during pregnancy. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is needed for seizure control, but the risk of adverse events has to be minimized for both mother and foetus. Available data on pregnancy and foetal/postnatal outcomes following eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) exposure via parent is herein presented for the first time. METHODS: ESL's global safety database was reviewed to identify pregnancy cases with exposure to ESL reported up to October 21st, 2017...
April 10, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673905/-cardiovascular-adverse-effects-of-antimuscarinics-used-in-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-in-the-elderly-a-review
#13
C Chesnel, A Charlanes, C Hentzen, N Turmel, X Biardeau, C Brochard, S Campagne, G Capon, X Deffieux, B Fatton, X Gamé, R Haddad, C Jeandel, J Kerdraon, P Manceau, P Mares, M Mezzadri, P Mongiat-Artus, A-C Petit, B Peyronnet, J-M Soler, C Thuillier, J-M Vetel, G Robain, G Amarenco
AIM: The aim of this study was to review the evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of urinary anticholinergic drugs in the elderly. METHODS: A literature review was conducted in October 2017 using the Medline/Pubmed database limiting the search to works in English or French. RESULTS: In total, 602 articles between March 1964 and October 2017 have been reported, 60 studies were analyzed, 19 were prospective trials. Geriatric population has a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (24...
April 16, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673712/update-on-systemic-prostate-cancer-therapies-management-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology
#14
REVIEW
Philipp Nuhn, Johann S De Bono, Karim Fizazi, Stephen J Freedland, Maurizio Grilli, Philip W Kantoff, Guru Sonpavde, Cora N Sternberg, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
CONTEXT: Introduction of novel agents for the management of advanced prostate cancer provides a range of treatment options with notable benefits for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). At the same time, understanding of optimal patient selection, effective sequential use, and development of resistance patterns remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review current systemic therapies and recent advances in drug development for mCRPC and strategies to aid in patient selection and optimal sequencing...
April 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672908/molecular-insights-into-trypanothione-reductase-inhibitor-interaction-a-structure-based-review
#15
REVIEW
Neha Tiwari, Neetu Tanwar, Manoj Munde
Information on how small molecules bind to the target enzyme has the potential to impact immensely on how medicinal chemists go about antiparasitic drug discovery. In this review, for the first time, we intend to make an assessment of the structural aspects of trypanothione reductase as drug target, and its complexes with several reversible drugs from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We attempt to reveal the mechanism of these interactions by careful accounting of the X-ray structures and their possible roles in biological activity to treat Trypanosomatidae diseases...
April 19, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672820/a-review-of-the-toxicity-of-compounds-found-in-herbal-dietary-supplements
#16
Amy Hudson, Elizabeth Lopez, Ahmad J Almalki, Amy L Roe, Angela I Calderón
Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk. While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities...
April 19, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672177/extended-release-drug-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#17
Christian Brandt, Theodor W May
Extended-release (ER) preparations are either available or have been tested for several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Indeed, they may be helpful in improving efficacy, tolerability, adherence, compared to the corresponding immediate release (IR) preparations available. The use of ER preparations has been advocated in women of childbearing age and is - depending on the drug - especially helpful in patients who are treated in combination with enzyme inducing AEDs as well as in children. Areas covered: Clinical and pharmacokinetic studies on ER formulations of AEDs were identified by a PubMed literature research...
April 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671943/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-context-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Giuseppe Bronte, Sara Bravaccini, Enrico Bronte, Marco Angelo Burgio, Christian Rolfo, Angelo Delmonte, Lucio Crinò
The identification of oncogenic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the development of targeted drugs. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) target lung tumours bearing EGFR-activating mutations. This new therapeutic strategy has greatly improved tumour response rates. However, drug resistance invariably occurs during TKI-based treatment. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the resistance mechanisms identified in EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with TKIs...
April 19, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671878/targeting-autophagy-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Angelique V Onorati, Matheus Dyczynski, Rani Ojha, Ravi K Amaravadi
Autophagy is a conserved, self-degradation system that is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis during stress conditions. Dysregulated autophagy has implications in health and disease. Specifically, in cancer, autophagy plays a dichotomous role by inhibiting tumor initiation but supporting tumor progression. Early results from clinical trials that repurposed hydroxychloroquine for cancer have suggested that autophagy inhibition may be a promising approach for advanced cancers. In this review of the literature, the authors present fundamental advances in the biology of autophagy, approaches to targeting autophagy, the preclinical rationale and clinical experience with hydroxychloroquine in cancer clinical trials, the potential role of autophagy in tumor immunity, and recent developments in next-generation autophagy inhibitors that have clinical potential...
April 19, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670916/readiness-of-sub-saharan-africa-healthcare-systems-for-the-new-pandemic-diabetes-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Linda E Kupfer
Background: Effective health systems are needed to care for the coming surge of diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Objective: We conducted a systematic review of literature to determine the capacity of SSA health systems to manage diabetes. Methodology: We used three different databases (Embase, Scopus, and PubMed) to search for studies, published from 2004 to 2017, on diabetes care in SSA. Results: Fifty-five articles met the inclusion criteria, covering the different aspects related to diabetes care such as availability of drugs and diagnostic tools, the capacity of healthcare workers, and the integration of diabetes care into HIV and TB platforms...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
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