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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160141/effects-of-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-on-cerebral-vascular-histopathological-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-rats
#1
Uylissa A Rodriguez, Yaping Zeng, Donald James Deyo, Margaret O Parsley, Bridget E Hawkins, Donald S Prough, Douglas DeWitt
To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for two hrs post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159580/low-left-amygdala-volume-is-associated-with-a-longer-duration-of-unipolar-depression
#2
Maxim Zavorotnyy, Rebecca Zöllner, L R Schulte-Güstenberg, L Wulff, S Schöning, U Dannlowski, H Kugel, V Arolt, C Konrad
The amygdala plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). While robust findings support a negative impact of illness duration on hippocampal volume in MDD, morphometric studies of the amygdala have yielded inhomogeneous results. Considering the methodical problems of automatic segmentation methods, a standardized segmentation protocol with proven inter- and intra-rater reliability was employed using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. To identify the effect of MDD on amygdala morphometry, 23 unipolar depressed patients who responded to antidepressant medication and 30 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159042/evaluation-of-a-deep-learning-approach-for-the-segmentation-of-brain-tissues-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-presumed-vascular-origin-in%C3%A2-mri
#3
Pim Moeskops, Jeroen de Bresser, Hugo J Kuijf, Adriënne M Mendrik, Geert Jan Biessels, Josien P W Pluim, Ivana Išgum
Automatic segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin (WMH) in MRI of older patients is widely described in the literature. Although brain abnormalities and motion artefacts are common in this age group, most segmentation methods are not evaluated in a setting that includes these items. In the present study, our tissue segmentation method for brain MRI was extended and evaluated for additional WMH segmentation. Furthermore, our method was evaluated in two large cohorts with a realistic variation in brain abnormalities and motion artefacts...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158887/medical-imaging-lesion-detection-based-on-unified-gravitational-fuzzy-clustering
#4
Jean Marie Vianney Kinani, Alberto Jorge Rosales Silva, Francisco Gallegos Funes, Dante Mújica Vargas, Eduardo Ramos Díaz, Alfonso Arellano
We develop a swift, robust, and practical tool for detecting brain lesions with minimal user intervention to assist clinicians and researchers in the diagnosis process, radiosurgery planning, and assessment of the patient's response to the therapy. We propose a unified gravitational fuzzy clustering-based segmentation algorithm, which integrates the Newtonian concept of gravity into fuzzy clustering. We first perform fuzzy rule-based image enhancement on our database which is comprised of T1/T2 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images to facilitate a smoother segmentation...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157745/differential-diagnosis-of-parkinsonian-syndromes-using-dopamine-transporter-and-perfusion-spect
#5
Shigetoshi Takaya, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Tomohisa Okada, Gosuke Okubo, Sei Nishida, Kaori Togashi, Hidenao Fukuyama, Ryosuke Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether a combined analysis of dopamine transporter (DAT)- and perfusion-SPECT images (or either) could: (1) distinguish atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) from Lewy body diseases (LBD; majority Parkinson disease [PD]), and (2) differentiate among APS subgroups (progressive supranuclear palsy [PSP], corticobasal syndrome [CBS], and multiple system atrophy [MSA]). METHODS: We recruited consecutive patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (LBD, n = 46; APS, n = 33)...
November 14, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156419/segmentation-of-the-hippocampus-by-transferring-algorithmic-knowledge-for-large-cohort-processing
#6
Benjamin Thyreau, Kazunori Sato, Hiroshi Fukuda, Yasuyuki Taki
The hippocampus is a particularly interesting target for neuroscience research studies due to its essential role within the human brain. In large human cohort studies, bilateral hippocampal structures are frequently identified and measured to gain insight into human behaviour or genomic variability in neuropsychiatric disorders of interest. Automatic segmentation is performed using various algorithms, with FreeSurfer being a popular option. In this manuscript, we present a method to segment the bilateral hippocampus using a deep-learned appearance model...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156413/anterior-posterior-gradient-differences-in-lobar-and-cingulate-cortex-cerebral-blood-flow-in-late-life-depression
#7
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression, contributing to changes in cerebral function. We examined whether late-life depression was associated with differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and whether such differences were related to vascular risk and cerebrovascular pathology, specifically white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes. Twenty-three depressed elders and 20 age- and sex-matched elders with no psychiatric history completed cranial 3T MRI. MRI procedures included a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition obtained while on room air and during a hypercapnia challenge allowing for calculation of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156241/pre-linguistic-segmentation-of-speech-into-syllable-like-units
#8
Okko Räsänen, Gabriel Doyle, Michael C Frank
Syllables are often considered to be central to infant and adult speech perception. Many theories and behavioral studies on early language acquisition are also based on syllable-level representations of spoken language. There is little clarity, however, on what sort of pre-linguistic "syllable" would actually be accessible to an infant with no phonological or lexical knowledge. Anchored by the notion that syllables are organized around particularly sonorous (audible) speech sounds, the present study investigates the feasibility of speech segmentation into syllable-like chunks without any a priori linguistic knowledge...
November 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151777/multimodal-image-registration-through-simultaneous-segmentation
#9
Iman Aganj, Bruce Fischl
Multimodal image registration facilitates the combination of complementary information from images acquired with different modalities. Most existing methods require computation of the joint histogram of the images, while some perform joint segmentation and registration in alternate iterations. In this work, we introduce a new non-information-theoretical method for pairwise multimodal image registration, in which the error of segmentation - using both images - is considered as the registration cost function...
November 2017: IEEE Signal Processing Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#10
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149715/robust-brain-roi-segmentation-by-deformation-regression-and-deformable-shape-model
#11
Zhengwang Wu, Yanrong Guo, Sang Hyun Park, Yaozong Gao, Pei Dong, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
We propose a robust and efficient learning-based deformable model for segmenting regions of interest (ROIs) from structural MR brain images. Different from the conventional deformable-model-based methods that deform a shape model locally around the initialization location, we learn an image-based regressor to guide the deformable model to fit for the target ROI. Specifically, given any voxel in a new image, the image-based regressor can predict the displacement vector from this voxel towards the boundary of target ROI, which can be used to guide the deformable segmentation...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149249/human-accelerated-regions-and-other-human-specific-sequence-variations-in-the-context-of-evolution-and-their-relevance-for-brain-development
#12
Anastasia Levchenko, Alexander Kanapin, Anastasia Samsonova, Raul Gainetdinov
The review discusses, in a format of a timeline, the studies of different types of genetic variants, present in Homo sapiens, but absent in all other primate, mammalian or vertebrate species, tested so far. The main characteristic of these variants is that they are found in regions of high evolutionary conservation. These sequence variations include single nucleotide substitutions (called human accelerated regions), deletions and segmental duplications. The rationale for finding such variations in the human genome is that they could be responsible for traits, specific to our species, of which the human brain is the most remarkable...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147635/global-and-targeted-pathway-impact-of-gliomas-on-white-matter-integrity-based-on-lobar-localization
#13
David R Ormond, Shawn D'Souza, John A Thompson
Primary brain tumors comprise 28% of all tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Pathophysiology of high-grade gliomas includes significant distortion of white matter architecture, necrosis, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier, and increased intracranial pressure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a diffusion weighted imaging technique, can be used to assess white matter architecture. Use of DTI as a non-invasive pathophysiological tool to analyze glioma impact on white matter microstructure has yet to be fully explored...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145754/cortical-and-subcortical-brain-morphometry-differences-between-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-individuals-across-the-lifespan-results-from-the-enigma-asd-working-group
#14
Daan van Rooij, Evdokia Anagnostou, Celso Arango, Guillaume Auzias, Marlene Behrmann, Geraldo F Busatto, Sara Calderoni, Eileen Daly, Christine Deruelle, Adriana Di Martino, Ilan Dinstein, Fabio Luis Souza Duran, Sarah Durston, Christine Ecker, Damien Fair, Jennifer Fedor, Jackie Fitzgerald, Christine M Freitag, Louise Gallagher, Ilaria Gori, Shlomi Haar, Liesbeth Hoekstra, Neda Jahanshad, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Joost Janssen, Jason Lerch, Beatriz Luna, Mauricio Moller Martinho, Jane McGrath, Filippo Muratori, Clodagh M Murphy, Declan G M Murphy, Kirsten O'Hearn, Bob Oranje, Mara Parellada, Alessandra Retico, Pedro Rossa, Katya Rubia, Devon Shook, Margot Taylor, Paul M Thompson, Michela Tosetti, Gregory L Wallace, Fengfeng Zhou, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139161/cognitive-abilities-brain-white-matter-hyperintensity-volume-and-structural-network-connectivity-in-older-age
#15
Stewart J Wiseman, Tom Booth, Stuart J Ritchie, Simon R Cox, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, David Alexander Dickie, Natalie A Royle, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Joanna M Wardlaw, Mark E Bastin
OBJECTIVE: To assess brain structural connectivity in relation to cognitive abilities in healthy ageing, and the mediating effects of white matter hyper-intensity (WMH) volume. METHODS: MRI data were analysed in 558 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Brains were segmented into 85 regions and combined with tractography to generate structural connectomes. WMH volume was quantified. Relationships between whole-brain connectivity, assessed using graph theory metrics, and four major domains of cognitive ability (visuospatial reasoning, verbal memory, information processing speed and crystallized ability) were investigated, as was the mediating effects of WMH volume on these relationships...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137852/dysarthria-in-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-depends-on-the-posterior-location-of-active-electrode-contacts-a-pilot-study
#16
K A M Pauls, P J Bröckelmann, S Hammesfahr, J Becker, A Hellerbach, V Visser-Vandewalle, T A Dembek, I G Meister, L Timmermann
BACKGROUND: Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an efficient treatment for primary dystonia. We investigated stimulation-induced dysarthria, which is the most frequent side-effect of GPi-DBS. METHODS: Speech was recorded while reading a standard text, and performing rapid syllable repetitions ON and OFF DBS in ten dystonia patients (6 men; 3 cervical, 4 segmental, 3 generalized, unselected for DBS-related speech impairments). Speech and articulation rate, pauses, and syllable repetition rates were extracted via acoustic analysis...
November 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136034/a-fast-stochastic-framework-for-automatic-mr-brain-images-segmentation
#17
Marwa Ismail, Ahmed Soliman, Mohammed Ghazal, Andrew E Switala, Georgy Gimel'farb, Gregory N Barnes, Ashraf Khalil, Ayman El-Baz
This paper introduces a new framework for the segmentation of different brain structures (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) from 3D MR brain images at different life stages. The proposed segmentation framework is based on a shape prior built using a subset of co-aligned training images that is adapted during the segmentation process based on first- and second-order visual appearance characteristics of MR images. These characteristics are described using voxel-wise image intensities and their spatial interaction features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134725/reproducibility-of-brain-mri-segmentation-algorithms-empirical-comparison-of-local-map-pstaple-freesurfer-and-fsl-first
#18
Clemente Velasco-Annis, Alireza Akhondi-Asl, Aymeric Stamm, Simon K Warfield
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmentation of human brain structures is crucial for the volumetric quantification of brain disease. Advances in algorithmic approaches have led to automated techniques that save time compared to interactive methods. Recently, the utility and accuracy of template library fusion algorithms, such as Local MAP PSTAPLE (PSTAPLE), have been demonstrated but there is little guidance regarding its reproducibility compared to single template-based algorithms such as FreeSurfer and FSL-FIRST...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134190/locally-adaptive-magnetic-resonance-intensity-models-for-unsupervised-segmentation-of-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#19
Alfiia Galimzianova, Žiga Lesjak, Daniel L Rubin, Boštjan Likar, Franjo Pernuš, Žiga Špiclin
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease characterized by focal lesions and morphological changes in the brain captured on magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, extraction of the corresponding imaging markers requires accurate segmentation of normal-appearing brain structures (NABS) and the lesions in MR images. On MR images of healthy brains, the NABS can be accurately captured by MR intensity mixture models, which, in combination with regularization techniques, such as in Markov random field (MRF) models, are known to give reliable NABS segmentation...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132939/automated-brain-tissue-and-myelin-volumetry-based-on-quantitative-mr-imaging-with-various-in-plane-resolutions
#20
Christina Andica, Akifumi Hagiwara, Masaaki Hori, Misaki Nakazawa, Masami Goto, Saori Koshino, Koji Kamagata, Kanako K Kumamaru, Shigeki Aoki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmented brain tissue volume and myelin volume can now be automatically calculated using the SyMRI, which is based on quantification of R1 and R2 relaxation rates and proton density. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of SyMRI brain tissue and myelin volumetry using various in-plane resolutions. METHODS: We scanned 10 healthy subjects on a 1.5 T MR scanner with in-plane resolutions of 0.8, 2.0, and 3.0mm. Two scans were performed for each resolution...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
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