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Brain segmentation

Matthieu Delion, Mickael Dinomais, Philippe Mercier
Surgery of the posterior fossa represents a technical challenge because of the proximity of the vessels of the cerebellum. If the arterial vascularization of the cerebellum is well known, the main arterial variations and the whole venous vascularization are probably under recognized. We describe the vascular organization and the main variations through photographs of colored latex perfused brains, obtained with a surgical microscope. The arterial vascularization of the cerebellum is based on three arteries which all originate from the vertebrobasilar system: the superior cerebellar artery (SCA), the anterior and inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), and the posterior and inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)...
October 20, 2016: Cerebellum
Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Sohair M Khojah, Anthony P Payne, Dagmara McGuinness, Paul G Shiels
There is a paucity of information on the molecular biology of aging processes in the brain. We have used biomarkers of aging (SA β-Gal, p16(Ink4a), Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7) to demonstrate the presence of an accelerated aging phenotype across different brain regions in the AS/AGU rat, a spontaneous Parkinsonian mutant of PKCγ derived from a parental AS strain. P16(INK4a) expression was significantly higher in AS/AGU animals compared to age-matched AS controls (p < 0.001) and displayed segmental expression across various brain regions...
October 17, 2016: Cells
Mingyong Gao, Paul Lu, Dan Lynam, Bridget Bednark, W Marie Campana, Jeff Sakamoto, Mark Tuszynski
OBJECTIVE: We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. APPROACH: 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Pagani, Gianna C Riccitelli, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12)...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
J H Liang, Y Cheng, X Deng, Y Y Yu, X X Li
: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of large spot indirect ophthalmoscopy laser alone or combined with systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of early and middle stage retinoblastoma. Methods: Retrospective series case study. Clinical data of 21 patients (22 eyes) who were diagnosed as retinoblastoma (RB) in Peking University People's Hospital from March 2009 to August 2014 were collected. Medical and family history, ocular ultrasound, orbital and cranial MRI or CT examination of RB Children were detailed recorded...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Dirk Alexander Wittekind, Janek Spada, Alexander Gross, Tilman Hensch, Philippe Jawinski, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Ulrich Hegerl
OBJECTIVES: The arousal regulation model of affective disorders attributes an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders to dysregulation of brain arousal regulation. According to this model, sensation avoidance and withdrawal in depression and sensation seeking and hyperactivity in mania can be explained as auto-regulatory attempts to counteract a tonically high (depression) or unstable (mania) arousal. The aim of this study was to compare brain arousal regulation between manic and depressive bipolar patients and healthy controls...
September 2016: Bipolar Disorders
S Payabvash, S Taleb, J C Benson, A M McKinney
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute stroke presentation and outcome depend on both ischemic infarct volume and location. We aimed to determine the association between acute ischemic infarct topology and lesion volume and stroke severity at presentation and discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent MR imaging within 24 hours of symptom onset or last seen well were included. Infarcts were segmented and coregistered on the Montreal Neurological Institute-152 brain map...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Jennifer Mah, Heather Goad, Karsten Steinhauer
French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN) in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Fang Zhang, WenMing Hong, Yan Guo, QianYing Guo, XiaoPeng Hu
BACKGROUND: Microsurgery is a common treatment of brainstem tumors. However, misdirection, vascular damage, nerves injuries, paralysis, even death are all well-known complications, and the risk of adverse events is more likely in less experienced operators. This study was aimed to validate the accuracy of multimodal neuronavigation during microsurgery resection of brainstem tumors. METHODS: Ten patients with brainstem tumors underwent preoperative MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, computed tomography, three-dimensional print, and images loaded into the neuronavigation platform were used for its segmentation and preoperative planning...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Junichiro Hashimoto
The central aorta constitutes the main trunk of the systemic arterial tree. It dilates passively with cardiac ejection during systole and then constricts with its recoil function during diastole, thereby regulating blood pressure and blood flow. The central pulsatile hemodynamics affects local hemodynamics within as well as downstream of the aorta (e.g., end organs).The aorta progressively stiffens and dilates with advancing age, and such age-dependent change is accelerated by hypertension. According to the law of Laplace, wall stress depends on the diameter and pressure of the blood vessel...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lin Li, Mary Cazzell, Olajide Babawale, Hanli Liu
Atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography (atlas-DOT) is a computational means to image changes in cortical hemodynamic signals during human brain activities. Graph theory analysis (GTA) is a network analysis tool commonly used in functional neuroimaging to study brain networks. Atlas-DOT has not been analyzed with GTA to derive large-scale brain connectivity/networks based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. We introduced an automated voxel classification (AVC) method that facilitated the use of GTA with atlas-DOT images by grouping unequal-sized finite element voxels into anatomically meaningful regions of interest within the human brain...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Ahmad Chaddad, Camel Tanougast
To isolate the brain from non-brain tissues using a fully automatic method may be affected by the presence of radio frequency non-homogeneity of MR images (MRI), regional anatomy, MR sequences, and the subjects of the study. In order to automate the brain tumor (Glioblastoma) detection, we proposed a novel approach of skull stripping for axial slices derived from MRI. Then, the brain tumor was detected using multi-level threshold segmentation based on histogram analysis. Skull-stripping method, was applied by adaptive morphological operations approach...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Gajendra J Katuwal, Stefi A Baum, Nathan D Cahill, Chase C Dougherty, Eli Evans, David W Evans, Gregory J Moore, Andrew M Michael
Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mickael Dinomais, Sebastien Celle, Guillaume T Duval, Frederic Roche, Samir Henni, Robert Bartha, Olivier Beauchet, Cedric Annweiler
The clinical utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its shorter version (SMMSE) is still debated. There is a need to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of these cognitive tests. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether lower MMSE and SMMSE scores correlated with focal brain volume reduction in older adults. Participants from the GAIT study (n = 207; mean, 70.9±5.9 years; 57% female; mean MMSE 26.2±3.9; mean SMMSE 5.1±1.1) were evaluated using the MMSE and SMMSE and received a 1...
2016: PloS One
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Qingbao Yu, Lei Wu, David A Bridwell, Erik B Erhardt, Yuhui Du, Hao He, Jiayu Chen, Peng Liu, Jing Sui, Godfrey Pearlson, Vince D Calhoun
The topological architecture of brain connectivity has been well-characterized by graph theory based analysis. However, previous studies have primarily built brain graphs based on a single modality of brain imaging data. Here we develop a framework to construct multi-modal brain graphs using concurrent EEG-fMRI data which are simultaneously collected during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting states. FMRI data are decomposed into independent components with associated time courses by group independent component analysis (ICA)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jidan Zhong, David Q Chen, Matthew Walker, Adam Waspe, Thomas Looi, Karolina Piorkowska, James M Drake, Mojgan Hodaie
An increasing number of applications use the postnatal piglet model in neuroimaging studies, however, these are based primarily on T1 weighted image templates. There is a growing need for a multimodal structural brain template for a comprehensive depiction of the piglet brain, particularly given the growing applications of diffusion weighted imaging for characterizing tissue microstructures and white matter organization. In this study, we present the first multimodal piglet structural brain template which includes a T1 weighted image with tissue segmentation probability maps, diffusion weighted metric templates with multiple diffusivity maps, and population-based whole-brain fiber tracts for postnatal piglets...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sarron Randall-Demllo, Ruchira Fernando, Terry Brain, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Anthony L Cook, Nuri Guven, Dale Kunde, Kevin Spring, Rajaraman Eri
AIM: To determine if exacerbation of pre-existing chronic colitis in Winnie (Muc2 mutant) mice induces colonic dysplasia. METHODS: Winnie mice and C57BL6 as a genotype control, were administered 1% w/v dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) orally, followed by drinking water alone in week-long cycles for a total of three cycles. After the third cycle, mice were killed and colonic tissue collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Inflammation and severity of dysplasia in the colonic mucosa were assessed in H&E sections of the colon...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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