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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773433/-cerebral-and-pulmonary-nocardiosis-to-nocardia-abscessus-in-an-immunocompetent-algerian-patient
#1
D Arrache, H Zait, V Rodriguez-Nava, E Bergeron, T Durand, M Yahiaoui, F Grenouillet, A Amrane, F Chaouche, A Baiod, K Madani, B Hamrioui
Nocardial brain abscess is often occurring in immunocompromised patients. It is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Here, the authors describe a case of cerebral and pulmonary nocardiosis mimicking a metastatic tumor in an apparently health 40-year-old Algerian male. The patient presented multiple brain abscess revealed by inaugural epileptic seizure. He was afebrile and presented with left hemiparesis. Staging imaging showed a nodular lung lesion in the apical segment of the right lower lobe. The patient underwent double craniotomy for resection of the lesion...
May 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772379/the-segmentation-of-the-human-brain-a-message-to-the-neuroimaging-community-from-an-adjacent-domain-of-the-neurosciences
#2
Rudolf Nieuwenhuys
Morphological and genoarchitectonic studies have conclusively shown that the human brain (and that of all vertebrates) is segmented i. e. is fundamentally composed of a number of rostrocaudally arranged brain segments or neuromeres. However in the current neuroimaging literature the term segmentation, derived initially from computer graphics technology, is used instead to indicate the neuroanatomical parcellation or subdivision of neural structures in the fully formed brain, especially the cortex. The neuroimaging community should be aware of the prior use of this term in the parallel discipline of neuroembryology, and should use a different one e...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771191/pure-spinal-multiple-sclerosis-a-possible-novel-entity-within-the-multiple-sclerosis-disease-spectrum
#3
Jie Ping Schee, Shanthi Viswanathan
We identified five female patients retrospectively with relapsing short-segment partial myelitis whose clinical and paraclinical features were suggestive of cord involvement of multiple sclerosis (MS)-type albeit not rigidly fulfilling the 2017 McDonald criteria. Notably, these patients had not developed any typical MS-like brain lesions despite repeated neuroimaging assessments over years. Comprehensive work-up for differential diagnoses of MS and other causes of transverse myelitis particularly neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders had been consistently negative on longitudinal follow-up...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768727/a-congenic-line-of-the-c57bl-6j-mouse-strain-that-is-proficient-in-melatonin-synthesis
#4
Zhijing Zhang, Eduardo Silveyra, Nange Jin, Christophe P Ribelayga
The C57BL/6J (B6) is the most common inbred mouse strain used in biomedical research in the United States. Yet, this strain is notoriously known for being deficient in the biosynthesis of melatonin, an important effector of circadian clocks in the brain and in the retina. Melatonin deficiency in this strain results from non-functional alleles of the genes coding two key enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and N-acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (Asmt). By introducing functional alleles of the Aanat and Asmt genes from the melatonin-proficient CBA/CaJ (CBA) mouse strain to B6, we have generated a B6 congenic line that has acquired the capacity of rhythmic melatonin synthesis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767690/entorhinal-cortex-volume-is-associated-with-dual-task-gait-cost-among-older-adults-with-mci-results-from-the-gait-and-brain-study
#5
Ryota Sakurai, Robert Bartha, Manuel Montero-Odasso
Background: Low dual-task gait performance (the slowing of gait speed while performing a demanding cognitive task) is associated with low cognitive performance and an increased risk of progression to dementia in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. However, the reason for this remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dual-task cost and regional brain volume, focusing on the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and motor and lateral frontal cortices in older adults with mild cognitive impairment...
May 15, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764912/mitochondrial-pitrm1-peptidase-loss-of-function-in-childhood-cerebellar-atrophy
#6
Yeshaya Langer, Adi Aran, Suleyman Gulsuner, Bassam Abu Libdeh, Paul Renbaum, Dario Brunetti, Pedro-Filipe Teixeira, Tom Walsh, Sharon Zeligson, Roberta Ruotolo, Rachel Beeri, Imad Dweikat, Maher Shahrour, Ariella Weinberg-Shukron, Fouad Zahdeh, Enrico Baruffini, Elzbieta Glaser, Mary-Claire King, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Massimo Zeviani, Reeval Segel
OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic basis of a childhood-onset syndrome of variable severity characterised by progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, psychotic episodes and cerebellar atrophy. METHODS: Identification of the underlying mutations by whole exome and whole genome sequencing. Consequences were examined in patients' cells and in yeast. RESULTS: Two brothers from a consanguineous Palestinian family presented with progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, mental retardation and psychotic episodes...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763764/machine-learning-based-brain-tumour-segmentation-on-limited-data-using-local-texture-and-abnormality
#7
Stijn Bonte, Ingeborg Goethals, Roel Van Holen
Brain tumour segmentation in medical images is a very challenging task due to the large variety in tumour shape, position, appearance, scanning modalities and scanning parameters. Most existing segmentation algorithms use information from four different MRI-sequences, but since this is often not available, there is need for a method able to delineate the different tumour tissues based on a minimal amount of data. We present a novel approach using a Random Forests model combining voxelwise texture and abnormality features on a contrast-enhanced T1 and FLAIR MRI...
May 7, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761357/classifying-brain-metastases-by-their-primary-site-of-origin-using-a-radiomics-approach-based-on-texture-analysis-a-feasibility-study
#8
Rafael Ortiz-Ramón, Andrés Larroza, Silvia Ruiz-España, Estanislao Arana, David Moratal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the capability of MRI texture analysis to differentiate the primary site of origin of brain metastases following a radiomics approach. METHODS: Sixty-seven untreated brain metastases (BM) were found in 3D T1-weighted MRI of 38 patients with cancer: 27 from lung cancer, 23 from melanoma and 17 from breast cancer. These lesions were segmented in 2D and 3D to compare the discriminative power of 2D and 3D texture features. The images were quantized using different number of gray-levels to test the influence of quantization...
May 14, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755716/automatic-semantic-segmentation-of-brain-gliomas-from-mri-images-using-a-deep-cascaded-neural-network
#9
Shaoguo Cui, Lei Mao, Jingfeng Jiang, Chang Liu, Shuyu Xiong
Brain tumors can appear anywhere in the brain and have vastly different sizes and morphology. Additionally, these tumors are often diffused and poorly contrasted. Consequently, the segmentation of brain tumor and intratumor subregions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data with minimal human interventions remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a novel fully automatic segmentation method from MRI data containing in vivo brain gliomas. This approach can not only localize the entire tumor region but can also accurately segment the intratumor structure...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755313/individualized-functional-parcellation-of-the-human-amygdala-using-a-semi-supervised-clustering-method-a-7t-resting-state-fmri-study
#10
Xianchang Zhang, Hewei Cheng, Zhentao Zuo, Ke Zhou, Fei Cong, Bo Wang, Yan Zhuo, Lin Chen, Rong Xue, Yong Fan
The amygdala plays an important role in emotional functions and its dysfunction is considered to be associated with multiple psychiatric disorders in humans. Cytoarchitectonic mapping has demonstrated that the human amygdala complex comprises several subregions. However, it's difficult to delineate boundaries of these subregions in vivo even if using state of the art high resolution structural MRI. Previous attempts to parcellate this small structure using unsupervised clustering methods based on resting state fMRI data suffered from the low spatial resolution of typical fMRI data, and it remains challenging for the unsupervised methods to define subregions of the amygdala in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752653/imaging-neurodegeneration-in-down-syndrome-brain-templates-for-amyloid-burden-and-tissue-segmentation
#11
Patrick J Lao, Ben L Handen, Tobey J Betthauser, Karly A Cody, Annie D Cohen, Dana L Tudorascu, Charles K Stone, Julie C Price, Sterling C Johnson, William E Klunk, Bradley T Christian
The focus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuroimaging research has shifted towards an investigation of the earliest stages of AD pathogenesis, which manifests in every young adult with Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) resulting from a deterministic genetic predisposition to amyloid precursor protein overproduction. Due to morphological differences in brain structure in the DS population, special consideration must be given to processing pipelines and the use of normative atlases developed for the non-DS population...
May 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752227/a-novel-signal-modeling-approach-for-classification-of-seizure-and-seizure-free-eeg-signals
#12
Anubha Gupta, Pushpendra Singh, Mandar Karlekar
This paper presents a signal modeling-based new methodology of automatic seizure detection in EEG signals. The proposed method consists of three stages. First, a multirate filterbank structure is proposed that is constructed using the basis vectors of discrete cosine transform. The proposed filterbank decomposes EEG signals into its respective brain rhythms: delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma. Second, these brain rhythms are statistically modeled with the class of self-similar Gaussian random processes, namely, fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noises...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751068/multidimensional-brain-activity-dictated-by-winner-take-all-mechanisms
#13
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
A novel demon-based architecture is introduced to elucidate brain functions such as pattern recognition during human perception and mental interpretation of visual scenes. Starting from the topological concepts of invariance and persistence, we introduce a Selfridge pandemonium variant of brain activity that takes into account a novel feature, namely, demons that recognize short straight-line segments, curved lines and scene shapes, such as shape interior, density and texture. Low-level representations of objects can be mapped to higher-level views (our mental interpretations): a series of transformations can be gradually applied to a pattern in a visual scene, without affecting its invariant properties...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748420/daily-remote-ischaemic-conditioning-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Andrew Peter Vanezis, Jayanth Ranjit Arnold, Glenn Rodrigo, Florence Y Lai, Radek Debiec, Sheraz Nazir, Jamal Nasir Khan, Leong L Ng, Kamal Chitkara, John G Coghlan, Simon Lee Hetherington, Gerry P McCann, Nilesh J Samani
BACKGROUND: Remote ischaemic conditioning (rIC) is a cardioprotective tool which has shown promise in preclinical and clinical trials in the context of acute ischaemia. Repeated rIC post myocardial infarction may provide additional benefits which have not previously been tested clinically. METHODS: The trial assessed the role of daily rIC in enhancing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) recovery in patients with impaired LVEF (<45%) after ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI)...
May 10, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747059/toward-optimal-feature-and-time-segment-selection-by-divergence-method-for-eeg-signals-classification
#15
Jie Wang, Zuren Feng, Na Lu, Jing Luo
Feature selection plays an important role in the field of EEG signals based motor imagery pattern classification. It is a process that aims to select an optimal feature subset from the original set. Two significant advantages involved are: lowering the computational burden so as to speed up the learning procedure and removing redundant and irrelevant features so as to improve the classification performance. Therefore, feature selection is widely employed in the classification of EEG signals in practical brain-computer interface systems...
May 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746845/detection-of-stress-and-the-effects-of-central-nervous-system-depressants-by-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-electromyography-in-wakeful-rats
#16
K F Szűcs, G Grosz, M Süle, A Sztojkov-Ivanov, E Ducza, A Márki, A Kothencz, L Balogh, R Gáspár
AIMS: The altered gut-brain interaction can be in the background of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In the GI tract, the slow-wave myoelectric signals can be detected by electromyography (EMG). The aims of our study were to follow up the stress induced alteration in the GI tract by smooth muscle EMG in wakeful rats. MAIN METHODS: The GI tract myoelectric activity of male rats was measured by an electrode pair under the abdominal skin, the responses were detected and analyzed by a software using fast Fourier transformation...
May 7, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745510/-detection-algorithm-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-deposition-in-magnetic-resonance-image-based-on-pixel-feature-learning-method
#17
Fang Yan, Yongming Li, Xueru Zhu, Jie Wang, Pin Wang, Fan Li, Mingguo Qiu, Jian Qin
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposition is an important prevention and treatment target for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and early detection of Aβ deposition in the brain is the key to early diagnosis of AD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the perfect imaging technology for the clinical diagnosis of AD, but it cannot display the plaque deposition directly. In this paper, based on two feature selection modes-filter and wrapper, chain-like agent genetic algorithm (CAGA), principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), we designed six kinds of feature learning classification algorithms to detect the information (distribution) of Aβ deposition through magnetic resonance image pixels selection...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745374/lesion-volume-estimation-from-tbi-mri
#18
O V Sanjay Sarma, Martha Betancur, Ramana Pidaparti, L Karumbaiah
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major problem affecting millions of people around the world every year. Usually, TBI results from any direct or indirect physical impact, sudden jerks, or blunt impacts to the head, leading to damage to the brain. Current research in TBI is focused on analyzing the biological and behavioral states of patients prone to such injuries. This paper presents a technique applied on MRI images in estimation of lesion volumes in brain tissues of traumatic brain-injured laboratory rats that were subjected to controlled cortical impacts...
2018: Progress in advanced computing and intelligent engineering: proceedings of ICACIE 2016
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743771/cervical-myelopathy-in-a-child-a-rare-cause-of-hypoventilation-syndrome-presenting-with-type-2-respiratory-failure
#19
Alolika Mondal, Prabhas Prasun Giri
Hypoventilation syndrome leading to Type 2 respiratory failure is not a rare cause of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Common causes in pediatric population are Guillain-Barre syndrome and various central nervous system disorders such as encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, and drugs. Any injury or disease in the cervical cord can also produce respiratory paralysis causing respiratory failure. Here, we present two cases of mixed cerebral palsy with cervical myelopathy due to compression effect of fractured segments of first and second cervical vertebrae...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742403/alternative-splicing-at-n-terminus-and-domain-i-modulates-ca-v-1-2-inactivation-and-surface-expression
#20
Peter Bartels, Dejie Yu, Hua Huang, Zhenyu Hu, Stefan Herzig, Tuck Wah Soong
The CaV 1.2 L-type calcium channel is a key conduit for Ca2+ influx to initiate excitation-contraction coupling for contraction of the heart and vasoconstriction of the arteries and for altering membrane excitability in neurons. Its α1C pore-forming subunit is known to undergo extensive alternative splicing to produce many CaV 1.2 isoforms that differ in their electrophysiological and pharmacological properties. Here, we examined the structure-function relationship of human CaV 1.2 with respect to the inclusion or exclusion of mutually exclusive exons of the N-terminus exons 1/1a and IS6 segment exons 8/8a...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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