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Brain segmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090600/learning-based-3t-brain-mri-segmentation-with-guidance-from-7t-mri-labeling
#1
Renping Yu, Minghui Deng, Pew-Thian Yap, Zhihui Wei, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen
Brain magnetic resonance image segmentation is one of the most important tasks in medical image analysis and has considerable importance to the effective use of medical imagery in clinical and surgical setting. In particular, the tissue segmentation of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for brain measurement and disease diagnosis. A variety of studies have shown that the learning-based techniques are efficient and effective in brain tissue segmentation. However, the learning-based segmentation methods depend largely on the availability of good training labels...
October 2016: Machine Learning in Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088902/brain-tumor-segmentation-using-deep-belief-networks-and-pathological-knowledge
#2
Tianming Zhan, Yi Chen, Xunning Hong, Zhenyu Lu, Yunjie Chen
In this paper, we propose an automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) and pathological knowledge. The proposed method is targeted against gliomas (both low and high grade) obtained in multi-sequence magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Firstly, a novel deep architecture is proposed to combine the multi-sequences intensities feature extraction with classification to get the classification probabilities of each voxel. Then, graph cut based optimization is executed on the classification probabilities to strengthen the spatial relationships of voxels...
January 12, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#3
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087433/exploration-of-the-most-effective-dural-incision-design-in-a-decompressive-craniectomy
#4
Mutsumi Nagai, Mami Ishikawa
OBJECTIVE: During a decompressive craniectomy performed for a severe cerebral infarction, sufficient coverage of the underlying bulging brain by converting the flat dura mater to a more dome-like shape is essential. In this procedure, suturing to patch dural substitutes on the dural rifts occupies most of the operative time and is cumbersome. We present a new dural incision design that provides an appropriate volume of subdural space with minimal incisions. METHODS: The ideal incision design was geometrically analyzed and verified by simulations using a physics engine...
January 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076974/topological-organization-of-whole-brain-white-matter-in-hiv-infection
#5
Laurie M Baker, Sarah Cooley, Ryan P Cabeen, David H Laidlaw, John A Joska, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Jodi Heaps-Woodruff, Lauren E Salminen, Robert H Paul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with neuroimaging alterations. However, little is known about the topological organization of whole-brain networks and the corresponding association with cognition. As such, we examined structural whole-brain white matter connectivity patterns and cognitive performance in 29 HIV+ young adults (mean age = 25.9) with limited or no HIV treatment history. HIV+ participants and demographically similar HIV- controls (n = 16) residing in South Africa underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing...
January 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074911/further-evidence-for-microtubule-independent-dimerization-of-tppp-p25
#6
J Oláh, T Szénási, S Szunyogh, A Szabó, A Lehotzky, J Ovádi
Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP/p25) is a brain-specific disordered protein that modulates the dynamics and stability of the microtubule network by its assembly promoting, cross-linking and acetylation enhancing activities. In normal brain it is expressed primarily in differentiated oligodendrocytes; however, at pathological conditions it is enriched in inclusions of both neurons and oligodendrocytes characteristic for Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively. The objective of this paper is to highlight a critical point of a recently published Skoufias's paper in which the crucial role of the microtubules in TPPP/p25 dimerization leading to microtubule bundling was suggested...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074434/lessons-learned-from-the-world-s-first-successful-penis-allotransplantation
#7
REVIEW
Andre van der Merwe, Amir Zarrabi, Alexander Zühlke, Nicola Barsdorf, Rafique Moosa
We performed a successful penis allotransplantation on 11 December 2014. Sharing the lessons learned might help more patients in need to be treated this way. We divided the project into manageable segments that was each overseen by an expert. The ethical review and conduct paved the way for a publically acceptable and successful project. Screening for a psychological stable recipient is important. The most difficult part of the project was finding a donor penis. This was successfully negotiated with the family of a brain dead donor by creating a neo-phallus for the donor, thereby maintaining the dignity of the donor...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074235/long-term-brain-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-functioning-in-children-treated-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-high-dose-methotrexate-chemotherapy-alone-or-combined-with-cns-radiotherapy-at-reduced-total-dose-to-12%C3%A2-gy
#8
Olga Zając-Spychała, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Katarzyna Karmelita-Katulska, Jakub Pilarczyk, Katarzyna Derwich, Jacek Wachowiak
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. METHODS: Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment...
January 10, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072386/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#9
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070886/spinal-cord-atrophy-in-anterior-posterior-direction-reflects-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
H Lundell, O Svolgaard, A-M Dogonowski, J Romme Christensen, F Selleberg, P Soelberg Sørensen, M Blinkenberg, H R Siebner, E Garde
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how atrophy is distributed over the cross section of the upper cervical spinal cord and how this relates to functional impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We analysed the structural brain MRI scans of 54 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n=22), primary progressive MS (n=9), secondary progressive MS (n=23) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We measured the cross-sectional area (CSA), left-right width (LRW) and anterior-posterior width (APW) of the spinal cord at the segmental level C2...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069794/brain-ventriculomegaly-in-down-syndrome-mice-is-caused-by-pcp4-dose-dependent-cilia-dysfunction
#11
Matthieu Raveau, Takashi Nakahari, Sachie Asada, Keiichi Ishihara, Kenji Amano, Atsushi Shimohata, Haruhiko Sago, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Down syndrome is a leading cause of congenital intellectual disability caused by an additional copy of the chromosome 21. Patients display physiological and morphological changes affecting the brain and its function. Previously we showed that Ts1Cje and Ts2Cje, Down syndrome mouse models carrying overlapping trisomic segments of different length, show similar ventriculomegaly and neurogenesis dysfunction leading to the hypothesis of a cause-consequence relationship between these phenotypes. However, we here discovered that Ts1Rhr Down syndrome model, carrying an even shorter trisomic segment, was sufficient to trigger ventricular enlargement and ependymal cilia beating deficiency without affecting neurogenesis...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069584/role-of-norepinephrine-in-a%C3%AE-related-neurotoxicity-dual-interactions-with-tyr10-and-snk-26-28-of-a%C3%AE
#12
Mengmeng Liu, Liping Wan, Yannan Bin, Juan Xiang
With their capability to inhibit the formation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) fibril, norepinephrine (NE), and other catechol derivatives have been considered for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such treatment, however, remains debatable because of the diverse functions of Aβ and NE in AD pathology. Moreover, the complicated oxidation accompanying NE has caused the majority of the previous research to focus on the binding of NE oxides onto Aβ. The molecular mechanism by which Aβ interacts with the reduction state of NE, which is correlated with the brain function, should be urgently explored...
January 8, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068291/particle-swarm-optimization-for-programming-deep-brain-stimulation-arrays
#13
Edgar Peña, Simeng Zhang, Steve Deyo, YiZi Xiao, Matthew D Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy relies on both precise neurosurgical targeting and systematic optimization of stimulation settings to achieve beneficial clinical outcomes. One recent advance to improve targeting is the development of DBS arrays (DBSAs) with electrodes segmented both along and around the DBS lead. However, increasing the number of independent electrodes creates the logistical challenge of optimizing stimulation parameters efficiently. APPROACH: Solving such complex problems with multiple solutions and objectives is well known to occur in biology, in which complex collective behaviors emerge out of swarms of individual organisms engaged in learning through social interactions...
February 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067614/experimental-determination-of-rupture-pressure-and-stress-of-adventitia-of-human-middle-cerebral-arteries
#14
Adam Piechna, Leszek Lombarski, Bogdan Ciszek, Krzysztof Cieslicki
Background Intracranial arterial dissections might be attributed to the particular biomechanical properties of their specific layers. Also, knowledge of adventitia properties would be crucial in the context of intracranial balloon angioplasty. Aims The purpose of this work was to determine the rupture pressure of separated adventitia and compare it to intact cerebral arterial segments. Methods Brain specimens were harvested from 14 autopsy subjects (age range from 23 to 86 years). Pressure-inflation tests were conducted on proximal segments of middle cerebral arteries and separated adventitia layers from contralateral arteries to assess the rupture pressure values...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066806/automated-segmentation-of-hyperintense-regions-in-flair-mri-using-deep-learning
#15
Panagiotis Korfiatis, Timothy L Kline, Bradley J Erickson
We present a deep convolutional neural network application based on autoencoders aimed at segmentation of increased signal regions in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging images. The convolutional autoencoders were trained on the publicly available Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) data set, and the accuracy was evaluated on a data set where 3 expert segmentations were available. The simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was used to provide the ground truth for comparison, and Dice coefficient, Jaccard coefficient, true positive fraction, and false negative fraction were calculated...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063977/enteric-glial-reactivity-to-systemic-lps-administration-changes-in-gfap-and-s100b-protein
#16
Raphaela da Cunha Franceschi, Patrícia Nardin, Clivia Valle Machado, Lucas Silva Tortorelli, Malcon Andrei Martinez-Pereira, Carolline Zanotto, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Denise Maria Zancan
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used to induce inflammation and promotes nervous system activation. Different regions of the brain present heterogeneous glial responses; thus, in order to verify whether systemic LPS-induced inflammation affects the enteric glia differently across the intestinal segments, we evaluated the expressions of two glial activity markers, GFAP and S100B protein, in different intestine segments, at 1h, 24h and 7days after acute systemic LPS administration (0.25 or 2.5mg kg-1) in rats. Histological inflammatory analysis indicated that the cecum was most affected when compared to the duodenum and proximal colon at the highest doses of LPS...
January 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063366/white-matter-lesions-relate-to-tract-specific-reductions-in-functional-connectivity
#17
Carolyn D Langen, Hazel I Zonneveld, Tonya White, Wyke Huizinga, Lotte G M Cremers, Marius de Groot, Mohammad Arfan Ikram, Wiro J Niessen, Meike W Vernooij
White matter lesions play a role in cognitive decline and dementia. One presumed pathway is through disconnection of functional networks. Little is known about location-specific effects of lesions on functional connectivity. This study examined location-specific effects within anatomically-defined white matter tracts in 1584 participants of the Rotterdam Study, aged 50-95. Tracts were delineated from diffusion magnetic resonance images using probabilistic tractography. Lesions were segmented on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images...
December 14, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060546/gray-matter-hypertrophy-and-thickening-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#18
Andrée-Ann Baril, Katia Gagnon, Pauline Brayet, Jacques Montplaisir, Louis De Beaumont, Julie Carrier, Chantal Lafond, Francis L'Heureux, Jean-François Gagnon, Nadia Gosselin
RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed with neuroimaging. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. METHODS: Seventy-one subjects (ages: 55 to 76; apnea-hypopnea index: 0...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059798/sporadic-cases-with-novel-mutations-and-pedigree-in-hereditary-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids
#19
Liyong Wu, Jia Liu, Longze Sha, Xianling Wang, Jieying Li, Jing Dong, Jianping Jia
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease, featured by cerebral white matter degeneration with demyelination and axonal spheroids. We collected three gene-confirmed HDLS cases in our neurodegenerative clinic. Two HDLS cases were sporadic with novel mutations, while another case had a family history with previously described mutations. All three cases suffered memory problems with white matter lesions and pyramid signs. No obvious clinical differences were observed between sporadic and familial HDLS cases...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059651/automatic-estimation-of-extent-of-resection-and-residual-tumor-volume-of-patients-with-glioblastoma
#20
Raphael Meier, Nicole Porz, Urspeter Knecht, Tina Loosli, Philippe Schucht, Jürgen Beck, Johannes Slotboom, Roland Wiest, Mauricio Reyes
OBJECTIVE In the treatment of glioblastoma, residual tumor burden is the only prognostic factor that can be actively influenced by therapy. Therefore, an accurate, reproducible, and objective measurement of residual tumor burden is necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a fully automatic segmentation method-brain tumor image analysis (BraTumIA)-for estimating the extent of resection (EOR) and residual tumor volume (RTV) of contrast-enhancing tumor after surgery. METHODS The imaging data of 19 patients who underwent primary resection of histologically confirmed supratentorial glioblastoma were retrospectively reviewed...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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