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Brain segmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527587/relationship-between-carotid-computed-tomography-dual-energy-and-brain-leukoaraiosis
#1
Luca Saba, Roberto Sanfilippo, Antonella Balestrieri, Fulvio Zaccagna, Giovanni Maria Argiolas, Jasjit S Suri, Roberto Montisci
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between the carotid computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield unit (HU)-based plaque attenuation values measured using dual-energy CT (DECT) scanner and brain leukoaraiosis (LA). METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients (34 males, 16 females; mean age, 69 years; age range, 46-84 years) who underwent carotid CT and brain magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. CT examinations were performed with a DECT scanner, and LA lesion volume quantification was performed using a semiautomated segmentation technique...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527269/-first-evidence-of-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-arenavirus-infection-in-mus-musculus-rodents-captured-in-the-urban-area-of-the-municipality-of-sincelejo-sucre-colombia
#2
Anais Castellar, Marco Guevara, Juan D Rodas, Andrés F Londoño, Esteban Arroyave, Francisco J Díaz, Silvana Levis, Pedro J Blanco
INTRODUCTION: The lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is an Old World arenavirus that infects Mus musculus, and can cause congenital hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis and multisystemic failure in transplant human recipients. Although the disease has not been clinically diagnosed in Colombia yet, there have been reports of infection with the Pichindé virus in rodents from Cauca and Valle del Cauca departments, and with the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba department. OBJECTIVE: To identify the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from Mus musculus captured in the municipality of Sincelejo...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521678/ipgk-pseaac-identify-lysine-phosphoglycerylation-sites-in-proteins-by-incorporating-four-different-tiers-of-amino-acid-pairwise-coupling-information-into-the-general-pseaac
#3
Li-Ming Liu, Yan Xu, Kuo-Chen Chou
BACKGROUND: Occurring at Lys residues, the PGK (lysine phosphoglycerylation) is a special kind of post-translational modification (PTM). It may invert the charge potential of the modified residue and change the protein structures and functions, causing various diseases in liver, brain, and kidney. OBJECTIVE: From the angles of both basic research and drug development, we are facing a critical challenging problem: for an uncharacterized protein sequence containing many Lys residues, which ones can be of phosphoglycerylation, and which ones cannot? METHOD: To address this problem, we have developed a predictor called iPGK-PseAAC by incorporating into the general PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) with four different tiers of amino acid pairwise coupling information, where tiers 1, 2, 3, and 4 refer to the amino acid pairwise couplings between all the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th most contiguous residues along a protein segment, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512057/normative-morphometric-data-for-cerebral-cortical-areas-over-the-lifetime-of-the-adult-human-brain
#4
Olivier Potvin, Louis Dieumegarde, Simon Duchesne
Proper normative data of anatomical measurements of cortical regions, allowing to quantify brain abnormalities, are lacking. We developed norms for regional cortical surface areas, thicknesses, and volumes based on cross-sectional MRI scans from 2713 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94 years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting regional cortical estimates of each hemisphere were produced using age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors...
May 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510270/mouse-fgf8-cre-lacz-lineage-analysis-defines-the-territory-of-the-postnatal-mammalian-isthmus
#5
Charles Watson, Tomomi Shimogori, Luis Puelles
The isthmus is recognized as the most rostral segment of the hindbrain in non-mammalian vertebrates . In mammalian embryos, transient Fgf8 expression defines the developing isthmic region, lying between the midbrain and the first rhombomere, but there has been uncertainty about the existence of a distinct isthmic segment in postnatal mammals. We attempted to find if the region of early embryonic Fgf8 expression (which is considered to involve the entire extent of the prospective isthmus initially) might help to identify the boundaries of the isthmus in postnatal animals...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509387/progranulin-increases-phagocytosis-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-culture
#6
Hiromi Murase, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yoshiki Kuse, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells take part in retinal preservation, such as phagocytizing the shed photoreceptor outer segments (POS), every day. The incomplete phagocytic function accelerates RPE degeneration and formation of the toxic by-product lipofuscin. Excessive lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic of various blinding diseases in the human eye. Progranulin is a cysteine-rich protein that has multiple biological activities, and it has a high presence in the retina. Progranulin has been recognized to be involved in macrophage phagocytosis in the brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509077/relationships-between-cognitive-impairment-on-adas-cog-and-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-spect-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Toshiyuki Okubo, Yukihiko Shirayama
The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506434/erp-signatures-of-conscious-and-unconscious-word-and-letter-perception-in-an-inattentional-blindness-paradigm
#8
Kathryn Schelonka, Christian Graulty, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez, Michael A Pitts
A three-phase inattentional blindness paradigm was combined with ERPs. While participants performed a distracter task, line segments in the background formed words or consonant-strings. Nearly half of the participants failed to notice these word-forms and were deemed inattentionally blind. All participants noticed the word-forms in phase 2 of the experiment while they performed the same distracter task. In the final phase, participants performed a task on the word-forms. In all phases, including during inattentional blindness, word-forms elicited distinct ERPs during early latencies (∼200-280ms) suggesting unconscious orthographic processing...
May 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504966/functional-characterization-of-the-lysosomal-membrane-protein-tmem192-in-mice
#9
Thuy Linh Nguyen, Janna Schneppenheim, Sönke Rudnik, Renate Lüllmann-Rauch, Christian Bernreuther, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Markus Glatzel, Paul Saftig, Bernd Schröder
The Transmembrane protein 192 (TMEM192) is a lysosomal/late endosomal protein initially discovered by organellar proteomics. TMEM192 exhibits four transmembrane segments with cytosolic N- and C-termini and forms homodimers. Devoid of significant homologies, the molecular function of TMEM192 is currently unknown. Upon TMEM192 knockdown in hepatoma cells, a dysregulation of autophagy and increased apoptosis were reported. Here, we aimed to define the physiological role of TMEM192 by analysing consequences of TMEM192 ablation in mice...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504947/robust-wireless-power-transmission-to-mm-sized-free-floating-distributed-implants
#10
S Abdollah Mirbozorgi, Pyungwoo Yeon, Maysam Ghovanloo
This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively...
May 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501699/the-ages-reykjavik-study-atlases-non-linear-multi-spectral-template-and-atlases-for-studies-of-the-ageing-brain
#11
Lars Forsberg, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Jesper Fredriksson, Asdis Egilsdottir, Bryndis Oskarsdottir, Olafur Kjartansson, Mark A van Buchem, Lenore J Launer, Vilmundur Gudnason, Alex Zijdenbos
Quantitative analyses of brain structures from Magnetic Resonance (MR) image data are often performed using automatic segmentation algorithms. Many of these algorithms rely on templates and atlases in a common coordinate space. Most freely available brain atlases are generated from relatively young individuals and not always derived from well-defined cohort studies. In this paper, we introduce a publicly available multi-spectral template with corresponding tissue probability atlases and regional atlases, optimised to use in studies of ageing cohorts (mean age 75 ± 5 years)...
May 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495307/event-related-potentials-during-encoding-comparing-unitization-to-relational-processing
#12
Hsiao-Wei Tu, Emma E Alty, Rachel A Diana
Context details are typically encoded into episodic memory via arbitrary associations to the relevant item, known as relational binding. Subsequent retrieval of those context details is primarily supported by recollection. Research suggests that context retrieval can rely on familiarity if the context details are "unitized" and thereby encoded as features of the item itself in a single new representation. With most investigations into unitization focusing on the contributions of familiarity and recollection during retrieval, little is known about unitization during encoding...
May 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495008/a-fully-automatic-approach-for-multimodal-pet-and-mr-image-segmentation-in-gamma-knife-treatment-planning
#13
Leonardo Rundo, Alessandro Stefano, Carmelo Militello, Giorgio Russo, Maria Gabriella Sabini, Corrado D'Arrigo, Francesco Marletta, Massimo Ippolito, Giancarlo Mauri, Salvatore Vitabile, Maria Carla Gilardi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, clinical practice in Gamma Knife treatments is generally based on MRI anatomical information alone. However, the joint use of MRI and PET images can be useful for considering both anatomical and metabolic information about the lesion to be treated. In this paper we present a co-segmentation method to integrate the segmented Biological Target Volume (BTV), using [(11)C]-Methionine-PET (MET-PET) images, and the segmented Gross Target Volume (GTV), on the respective co-registered MR images...
June 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493907/edema-is-not-a-reliable-diagnostic-sign-to-exclude-small-brain-metastases
#14
Tanja Schneider, Jan Felix Kuhne, Paul Bittrich, Julian Schroeder, Tim Magnus, Malte Mohme, Malte Grosser, Gerhard Schoen, Jens Fiehler, Susanne Siemonsen
No prior systematic study on the extent of vasogenic edema (VE) in patients with brain metastases (BM) exists. Here, we aim to determine 1) the general volumetric relationship between BM and VE, 2) a threshold diameter above which a BM shows VE, and 3) the influence of the primary tumor and location of the BM in order to improve diagnostic processes and understanding of edema formation. This single center, retrospective study includes 173 untreated patients with histologically proven BM. Semi-manual segmentation of 1416 BM on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and of 865 VE on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery/T2-weighted images was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493478/three-dimensional-models-of-the-segmented-human-fetal-brain-generated-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Yutaka Yamaguchi, Reina Miyazaki, Mikako Kamatani, Chigako Uwabe, Haruyuki Makishima, Momoko Nagai, Motoki Katsube, Akira Yamamoto, Hirohiko Imai, Katsumi Kose, Kaori Togashi, Shigehito Yamada
Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled us to obtain more detailed images of the human fetus in a nondestructive and noninvasive manner. Through detailed images, elaborate three-dimensional (3D) models of the developing brain can be reconstructed. The segmentation of the developing brain has been determined by serial sections. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to develop a 3D model of the fetal brain using magnetic resonance image (MRI). MR images from 19 specimens (11 embryonic specimens and eight fetal specimens from 5...
May 11, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492790/effects-of-low-dose-recombinant-human-brain-natriuretic-peptide-on-anterior-myocardial-infarction-complicated-by-cardiogenic-shock
#16
Yesheng Pan, ZhiGang Lu, Jingyu Hang, Shixin Ma, Jian Ma, Meng Wei
INTRODUCTION: The mortality due to cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is high even in patients with early revascularization. Infusion of low dose recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) at the time of AMI is well tolerated and could improve cardiac function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of rhBNP in AMI patients revascularized by emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who developed cardiogenic shock...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491942/a-dataset-of-multi-contrast-population-averaged-brain-mri-atlases-of-a-parkinson-s-disease-cohort
#17
Yiming Xiao, Vladimir Fonov, M Mallar Chakravarty, Silvain Beriault, Fahd Al Subaie, Abbas Sadikot, G Bruce Pike, Gilles Bertrand, D Louis Collins
Parkinson׳s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects the motor functions of the patients. Research and surgical treatment of PD (e.g., deep brain stimulation) often require human brain atlases for structural identification or as references for anatomical normalization. However, two pitfalls exist for many current atlases used for PD. First, most atlases do not represent the disease-specific anatomy as they are based on healthy young subjects. Second, subcortical structures, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) used in deep brain stimulation procedures, are often not well visualized...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491493/brainstem-shape-is-affected-by-clinical-course-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#18
Marcus Lo, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Conor Wild, Annika C Linke, David S C Lee, Victor K Han, Rhodri Cusack
The brainstem, critical for motor function, autonomic regulation, and many neurocognitive functions, undergoes rapid development from the third trimester. Accordingly, we hypothesized it would be vulnerable to insult during this period, and that a difficult clinical course in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would affect development, and be reflected through atypical shape. Our study population consisted of 66 neonates - all inpatients from the NICU at Victoria Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, ON, Canada, of which 45 entered the final analysis...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491492/associations-between-hippocampal-morphometry-and-neuropathologic-markers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-7%C3%A2-t-mri
#19
Anna E Blanken, Sona Hurtz, Chris Zarow, Kristina Biado, Hedieh Honarpisheh, Johanne Somme, Jenny Brook, Spencer Tung, Emily Kraft, Darrick Lo, Denise W Ng, Harry V Vinters, Liana G Apostolova
Hippocampal atrophy, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are established pathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease. We analyzed the temporal lobes of 9 Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and 7 cognitively normal (NC) subjects. Brains were scanned post-mortem at 7 Tesla. We extracted hippocampal volumes and radial distances using automated segmentation techniques. Hippocampal slices were stained for amyloid beta (Aβ), tau, and cresyl violet to evaluate neuronal counts. The hippocampal subfields, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, and subiculum were manually traced so that the neuronal counts, Aβ, and tau burden could be obtained for each region...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488804/three-dimensional-shape-and-surface-features-distinguish-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-from-nonspecific-white-matter-disease
#20
Braeden D Newton, Katy Wright, Mandy D Winkler, Francesca Bovis, Masaya Takahashi, Ivan E Dimitrov, Maria Pia Sormani, Marco C Pinho, Darin T Okuda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There remains a need to further refine the ability of clinicians to differentiate multiple sclerosis (MS) from other disease etiologies. Here, we illustrate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) geometric shape and surface lesion characteristics between disease states. METHODS: Standardized 3-Tesla 3D brain magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on enrolled MS and nonspecific white matter (NSWM) patients. Focal supratentorial lesions were identified, reconstructed using maximum intensity projection, manually segmented, and 3D printed...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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