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Brain segmentation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445774/voxresnet-deep-voxelwise-residual-networks-for-brain-segmentation-from-3d-mr-images
#1
REVIEW
Hao Chen, Qi Dou, Lequan Yu, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng
Segmentation of key brain tissues from 3D medical images is of great significance for brain disease diagnosis, progression assessment and monitoring of neurologic conditions. While manual segmentation is time-consuming, laborious, and subjective, automated segmentation is quite challenging due to the complicated anatomical environment of brain and the large variations of brain tissues. We propose a novel voxelwise residual network (VoxResNet) with a set of effective training schemes to cope with this challenging problem...
April 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443270/brain-lesions-among-orally-fed-and-gastrostomy-fed-dysphagic-preterm-infants-can-routine-qualitative-or-volumetric-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predict-feeding-outcomes
#2
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Mohamed A El-Mahdy, Charles Pluto, Mark Smith, Ish K Gulati, Warren Lo, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
INTRODUCTION: The usefulness of qualitative or quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early detection of brain structural changes and prediction of adverse outcomes in neonatal illnesses warrants further investigation. Our aim was to correlate certain brain injuries and the brain volume of feeding-related cortical and subcortical regions with feeding method at discharge among preterm dysphagic infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective observational study design, we examined MRI data among 43 (22 male; born at 31...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443058/predicting-outcome-12-months-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-admitted-to-a-neurosurgery-service
#3
Torgeir Hellstrøm, Tobias Kaufmann, Nada Andelic, Helene L Soberg, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Eirik Helseth, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: Accurate outcome prediction models for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are key for prognostic assessment and clinical decision-making. Using multivariate machine learning, we tested the unique and added predictive value of (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain morphometric and volumetric characterization at 4-week postinjury and (2) demographic, preinjury, injury-related, and postinjury variables on 12-month outcomes, including global functioning level, postconcussion symptoms, and mental health in patients with MTBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441570/neural-indices-of-phonemic-discrimination-and-sentence-level-speech-intelligibility-in-quiet-and-noise-a-p3-study
#4
Tess K Koerner, Yang Zhang, Peggy B Nelson, Boxiang Wang, Hui Zou
This study examined how speech babble noise differentially affected the auditory P3 responses and the associated neural oscillatory activities for consonant and vowel discrimination in relation to segmental- and sentence-level speech perception in noise. The data were collected from 16 normal-hearing participants in a double-oddball paradigm that contained a consonant (/ba/ to /da/) and vowel (/ba/ to /bu/) change in quiet and noise (speech-babble background at a -3 dB signal-to-noise ratio) conditions. Time-frequency analysis was applied to obtain inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) and event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) measures in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands for the P3 response...
April 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440877/bdnf-nt3-regulate-ais-location-and-affect-neuronal-excitability-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Yu Guo, Zi-Jun Su, Yi-Kun Chen, Zhen Chai
Plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS) has aroused great interest in recent years because it regulates action potential initiation and neuronal excitability. AIS plasticity manifests as modulation of ion channels or variation in AIS structure. However, the mechanisms underlying structural plasticity of the AIS are not well understood. Here, we combined immunofluorescence, patch-clamp recordings, and pharmacological methods in cultured hippocampal neurons to investigate the factors participating in AIS structural plasticity during development...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439524/brainsegnet-a-convolutional-neural-network-architecture-for-automated-segmentation-of-human-brain-structures
#6
Raghav Mehta, Aabhas Majumdar, Jayanthi Sivaswamy
Automated segmentation of cortical and noncortical human brain structures has been hitherto approached using nonrigid registration followed by label fusion. We propose an alternative approach for this using a convolutional neural network (CNN) which classifies a voxel into one of many structures. Four different kinds of two-dimensional and three-dimensional intensity patches are extracted for each voxel, providing local and global (context) information to the CNN. The proposed approach is evaluated on five different publicly available datasets which differ in the number of labels per volume...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438709/characterization-of-high-resolution-gradient-echo-and-spin-echo-epi-for-fmri-in-the-human-visual-cortex-at-7t
#7
Catarina Rua, Mauro Costagli, Mark R Symms, Laura Biagi, Graziella Donatelli, Mirco Cosottini, Alberto Del Guerra, Michela Tosetti
The increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) offered by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) at 7T allows the acquisition of functional data at sub-millimetric spatial resolutions. However, simply reducing partial volume effects is not sufficient to precisely localize task-induced activation due to the indirect mechanisms that relate brain function and the changes in the measured signal. In this work T2* and T2 weighted Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) schemes based on Gradient Recalled Echo (GRE) and Spin Echo (SE) were evaluated in terms of temporal SNR, percent signal change, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), activation volume, and sensitivity and specificity to gray matter...
April 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438666/how-to-choose-the-right-mr-sequence-for-your-research-question-at-7-t-and-above
#8
José P Marques, David G Norris
The choice of a pulse sequence at ultra-high field can be influenced by a number of considerations and constraints that are not always the same as those at lower fields. Foremost amongst these is of course the information required and the time available, but considerations of static main field- and transmit field- inhomogeneities as well as power deposition can also play an important role. In this review we first briefly examine the characteristics of high field MRI, and then describe the performance and constraints relevant to the major imaging readouts, and their implementation with parallel imaging techniques...
April 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436854/manifold-embedding-and-semantic-segmentation-for-intraoperative-guidance-with-hyperspectral-brain-imaging
#9
Daniele Ravi, Himar Fabelo, Gustavo Marrero Callico, GuangZhong Yang
Recent advances in hyperspectral imaging have made it a promising solution for intra-operative tissue characterization, with the advantages of being non-contact, non-ionizing and non-invasive. Working with hyperspectral images in vivo, however, is not straightforward as the high dimensionality of the data makes real-time processing challenging. In this paper, a novel dimensionality reduction scheme and a new processing pipeline are introduced to obtain a detailed tumour classification map for intra-operative margin definition during brain surgery...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436106/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-as-part-of-multimodal-treatment-of-acquired-hemophilia-in-a-patient-with-concurrent-acute-intracerebral-bleed-and-pulmonary-embolism
#10
Geoffrey D Wool, David Chapel, Angela Treml, Jonathan L Miller
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against Factor VIII (FVIII) define the rare but life-threatening bleeding disorder acquired hemophilia A (AHA). Correction of FVIII deficiency and eradication of the factor inhibitor are the ultimate therapeutic goals in this disorder. Bypassing agents such as recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) or FVIII inhibitor bypassing agent are often used to control coagulopathy before the inhibitor is eradicated. Bypassing agents carry a risk of thrombosis, however. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with newly diagnosed AHA and thalamic bleed who additionally had active atrial fibrillation and developed a segmental pulmonary embolism, limiting tolerable rFVIIa dosage...
April 24, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434101/predicting-dream-recall-eeg-activation-during-nrem-sleep-or-shared-mechanisms-with-wakefulness
#11
Serena Scarpelli, Aurora D'Atri, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Cristina Marzano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Cinzia Schiappa, Michele Ferrara, Luigi De Gennaro
The common knowledge of a uniqueness of REM sleep as a privileged scenario of dreaming still persists, although consolidated empirical evidence shows that the assumption that dreaming is just an epiphenomenon of REM sleep is no longer tenable. However, the brain mechanisms underlying dream generation and its encoding in memory during NREM sleep are still mostly unknown. In fact, only few studies have investigated on the mechanisms of dream phenomenology related to NREM sleep. For this reason, our study is specifically aimed to elucidate the electrophysiological (EEG) correlates of dream recall (DR) upon NREM sleep awakenings...
April 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#12
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432144/age-related-effects-and-sex-differences-in-gray-matter-density-volume-mass-and-cortical-thickness-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood
#13
Efstathios D Gennatas, Brian B Avants, Daniel H Wolf, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Kosha Ruparel, Rastko Ciric, Hakon Hakonarson, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur
Developmental structural neuroimaging studies in humans have long described decreases in gray matter volume and cortical thickness during adolescence. Gray matter density, a measure often assumed to be highly related to volume, has not been systematically investigated in development. We used T1 imaging data collected on the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort to study age-related effects and sex differences in four regional gray matter measures in 1189 youths aged 8 to 23 years. Custom T1 segmentation and a novel high-resolution gray matter parcellation were used to extract gray matter density (GMD), gray matter volume (GMV), gray matter mass (GMM, defined as GMD * GMV), and cortical thickness (CT) from 1625 brain regions...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431954/isolated-intracranial-fibromuscular-dysplasia-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery
#14
Min-Ju Yeo, Ho-Yeong Jeon, Min-Ju Cha, Hye-Yeon Jang, Sang-Gil Lee, Ji Seon Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Dong-Ick Shin
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory arterial disease that most commonly affects the renal and internal carotid arteries, but intracranial FMD is very rare. We report a patient with FMD involving the posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). A 24year old female was presented with a 4day history of right homonymous hemianopsia with throbbing headache in the left temporo-occipital area. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an acute ischemic stroke in the left PCA territory, while the Time of Flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) showed segmental luminal irregularities in the left proximal PCA...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428550/structure-based-dynamic-arrays-in-regulatory-domains-of-sodium-calcium-exchanger-ncx-isoforms
#15
Moshe Giladi, Su Youn Lee, Yarden Ariely, Yotam Teldan, Rotem Granit, Roi Strulovich, Yoni Haitin, Ka Young Chung, Daniel Khananshvili
Mammalian Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, NCX1 and NCX3, generate splice variants, whereas NCX2 does not. The CBD1 and CBD2 domains form a regulatory tandem (CBD12), where Ca(2+) binding to CBD1 activates and Ca(2+) binding to CBD2 (bearing the splicing segment) alleviates the Na(+)-induced inactivation. Here, the NCX2-CBD12, NCX3-CBD12-B, and NCX3-CBD12-AC proteins were analyzed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass-spectrometry (HDX-MS) to resolve regulatory variances in the NCX2 and NCX3 variants...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428014/concussion-induces-focal-and-widespread-neuromorphological-changes
#16
Dafna Sussman, Leodante da Costa, Mallar M Chakravarty, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor, Benjamin T Dunkley
Concussion induces transient, and oftentimes chronic, lingering impairment to mental functioning, which must be driven by some underlying neurobiological perturbation - however, the physical changes related to sequelae are difficult to detect. Previous imaging studies on concussion have focused on alterations to cortical anatomy, but few have examined the cerebrum, subcortex, and cerebellum. Here, we present an analysis of these structures in a single cohort (all males, 21 patients, 22 controls) using MRI and diagnosed with a single-concussive episode in the acute and sub-acute stages of injury...
April 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427989/egocentric-and-allocentric-visuospatial-working-memory-in-premotor-huntington-s-disease-a-double-dissociation-with-caudate-and-hippocampal-volumes
#17
Katherine L Possin, Hosung Kim, Michael D Geschwind, Tacie Moskowitz, Erica T Johnson, Sharon J Sha, Alexandra Apple, Duan Xu, Bruce L Miller, Steven Finkbeiner, Christopher P Hess, Joel H Kramer
Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422667/modeling-and-analysis-of-beta-oscillations-in-the-basal-ganglia
#18
Chen Liu, Jiang Wang, Huiyan Li, Chris Fietkiewicz, Kenneth A Loparo
Enhanced beta (12-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia (BG) is a prominent feature of the Parkinsonian state in animal models and in patients with Parkinson's disease. Increased beta oscillations are associated with severe dopaminergic striatal depletion. However, the mechanisms underlying these pathological beta oscillations remain elusive. Inspired by the experimental observation that only subsets of neurons within each nucleus in the BG exhibit oscillatory activities, a computational model of the BG-thalamus neuronal network is proposed, which is characterized by subdivided nuclei within the BG...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422655/validation-of-a-regression-technique-for-segmentation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Mahsa Dadar, Tharick Pascoal, Sarinporn Manitsirikul, Karen Misquitta, Carmela Tartaglia, John Brietner, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Owen Carmichael, Charles DeCarli, D Louis Collins
Segmentation and volumetric quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is essential in assessment and monitoring of the vascular burden in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially when considering their effect on cognition. Manually segmenting WMHs in large cohorts is technically unfeasible due to time and accuracy concerns. Automated tools that can detect WMHs robustly and with high accuracy are needed. Here we present and validate a fully automatic technique for segmentation and volumetric quantification of WMHs in aging and AD...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419573/impella-2-5-initiated-prior-to-unprotected-left-main-pci-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-complicated-by-cardiogenic-shock-improves-early-survival
#20
Perwaiz M Meraj, Rajkumar Doshi, Theodore Schreiber, Brijeshwar Maini, William W O'Neill
OBJECTIVES: To assess post-procedural outcomes when Impella 2.5 percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) support is initiated either prior to or after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) culprit lesion in the context of acute myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock (AMICS). BACKGROUND: Initiation of Impella 2.5 pLVAD prior to PCI is associated with significant survival benefit in the setting of AMICS...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
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