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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423989/outbreaks-of-bovine-herpesvirus-2-infections-in-calves-causing-ear-and-facial-skin-lesions
#1
Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe, Robert B Moeller, Beate M Crossley, Patricia C Blanchard
We describe 3 outbreaks of superficial dermatitis caused by bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) in dairy breed calves. Clinically, all of the affected calves were 12-26 d of age, had alopecia and crusts on the face and ears, and were non-pruritic and afebrile. Affected animals recovered spontaneously without any treatment within 2-4 wk after onset of clinical signs based on 1 herd with follow up. Histologic examination of all skin crust or tissue samples identified neutrophilic inflammation, mild hyperkeratosis, multinucleate syncytial cells, and intranuclear inclusion bodies in the syncytial cells...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422791/intrastructural-help-improving-the-hiv-1-envelope-antibody-response-induced-by-virus-like-particle-vaccines
#2
Vladimir Temchura, Klaus Überla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of IgG Fc-effector functions for the efficacy of HIV vaccines is increasingly recognized. Although different types of vaccines were shown to induce antibodies with different Fc-activities, there is no clear strategy how to raise antibody responses with a desired pattern of Fc-effector functions. Given the central role of T-helper cells in regulating the germinal center reaction and the differentiation of B cells in an antigen-specific manner, the review will discuss whether T-helper cells directed against non-HIV envelope (Env) antigens could be harnessed to improve the HIV-Env antibody response...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422790/particle-based-delivery-of-the-hiv-envelope-protein
#3
Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major focus in HIV vaccine research is the development of suitable antigens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses targeting HIV's envelope protein (Env). Delivery of Env in a repetitive manner on particle-based carriers allows higher avidity interactions and is therefore expected to efficiently engage B cells, thus leading to affinity maturation that results in superior antibody responses characterized by improved breadth, potency, and durability. This review summarizes current work that is evaluating diverse types of such particulate carriers for Env delivery...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422178/enhancing-protective-immunity-to-malaria-with-a-highly-immunogenic-virus-like-particle-vaccine
#4
Katharine A Collins, Rebecca Snaith, Matthew G Cottingham, Sarah C Gilbert, Adrian V S Hill
The leading malaria vaccine in development is the circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based particle vaccine, RTS,S, which targets the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It induces modest levels of protective efficacy, thought to be mediated primarily by CSP-specific antibodies. We aimed to enhance vaccine efficacy by generating a more immunogenic CSP-based particle vaccine and therefore developed a next-generation RTS,S-like vaccine, called R21. The major improvement is that in contrast to RTS,S, R21 particles are formed from a single CSP-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fusion protein, and this leads to a vaccine composed of a much higher proportion of CSP than in RTS,S...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419472/hepatic-expression-of-oncogenes-bmi1-and-dkk1-is-up-regulated-in-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigen-transgenic-mice-and-can-be-induced-by-treatment-with-hbv-particles-or-lipopolysaccharides-in-vitro
#5
Rui Zhang, Catherine I Real, Chao Liu, Hideo A Baba, Guido Gerken, Mengji Lu, Ruth Broering
Previous studies have shown that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops more frequently in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-transgenic mice (Alb/HBs) than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, the mechanism of this HCC model has not been well documented. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) signaling probably links innate immunity and HCC progression. The current study was designed to investigate the role of innate immunity in hepatocarcinogenesis in Alb/HBs mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver specimens from Alb/HBs mice (16 per group) showed that the oncogenes Bmi1 (16/16, 100%) and Dkk1 (13/16, 81...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417968/rational-development-of-a-protective-p-vivax-vaccine-evaluated-with-transgenic-rodent-parasite-challenge-models
#6
Ahmed M Salman, Eduardo Montoya-Díaz, Heather West, Amar Lall, Erwan Atcheson, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Jai Ramesar, Karolis Bauza, Katharine A Collins, Florian Brod, Fernando Reis, Leontios Pappas, Lilia González-Cerón, Chris J Janse, Adrian V S Hill, Shahid M Khan, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
Development of a protective and broadly-acting vaccine against the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, will be a major step towards malaria elimination. However, a P. vivax vaccine has remained elusive by the scarcity of pre-clinical models to test protective efficacy and support further clinical trials. In this study, we report the development of a highly protective CSP-based P. vivax vaccine, a virus-like particle (VLP) known as Rv21, able to provide 100% sterile protection against a stringent sporozoite challenge in rodent models to malaria, where IgG2a antibodies were associated with protection in absence of detectable PvCSP-specific T cell responses...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416599/characterization-of-t-dependent-and-t-independent-b-cell-responses-to-a-virus-like-particle
#7
Wenhua Liao, Zhaolin Hua, Can Liu, Lin Lin, Rui Chen, Baidong Hou
Natural pathogens, such as viruses, often induce T-dependent and T-independent Ab responses. However, the activation and differentiation of Ag-specific B cells under these conditions had not been examined in detail. In this study, we used bacterial phage Qβ-derived virus-like particles (Qβ-VLPs) as an immunogen to examine the T-independent and T-dependent phases of the response in mice. Using Qβ-specific cell labeling and enrichment methods developed in this study, we were able to characterize the rare Ag-specific B cells in detail...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413500/enhancement-of-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-response-to-hpv16-l1-derived-peptides-subsequent-to-vaccination-with-prophylactic-bivalent-hpv-l1-virus-like-particle-vaccine-in-healthy-females
#8
Masato Yokomine, Satoko Matsueda, Kouichiro Kawano, Tetsuro Sasada, Akimasa Fukui, Takuto Yamashita, Nobukazu Komatsu, Shigeki Shichijo, Kazuto Tasaki, Ken Matsukuma, Kyogo Itoh, Toshiharu Kamura, Kimio Ushijima
Currently prophylactic HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are employed with great success for the prevention of HPV infection. However, limited information is available regarding the immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 L1 subsequent to HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination, primarily due to the lack of widely used assays for immune monitoring. The aim of the present study was to identify HPV16 L1-derived B and T cell epitopes for monitoring the immune responses after HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination in healthy females...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408118/a-novel-combined-vaccine-based-on-monochimeric-vlp-co-displaying-multiple-conserved-epitopes-against-enterovirus-71-and-varicella-zoster-virus
#9
Yangtao Wu, Rui Zhu, Longfa Xu, Yongchao Li, Shuxuan Li, Hai Yu, Shaowei Li, Hua Zhu, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
Chicken pox and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are two major infectious diseases that mainly affect infants and children, causing significant morbidity annually. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71), respectively, are the principal epidemic pathogens causing these two diseases. To investigate the possibility of developing a novel combined vaccine to prevent chicken pox and HFMD, we constructed three chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) (termed HBc-V/1/2, HBc-2/V/1 and HBc-1/2/V) based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) carrier that display epitopes derived from VZV-gE, EV71-VP1, and EV71-VP2 in a varied tandem manner...
April 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407442/rotavirus-capsid-vp6-tubular-and-spherical-nanostructures-act-as-local-adjuvants-when-co-delivered-with-norovirus-vlps
#10
Maria Malm, Suvi Heinimäki, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
A subunit protein vaccine candidate based on norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) and rotavirus (RV) VP6 protein against acute childhood gastroenteritis has been recently proposed. RV VP6 forms different oligomeric nanostructures, including tubes and spheres when expressed in vitro, which are highly immunogenic in different animal models. We have recently shown that recombinant VP6 nanotubes have an adjuvant effect on immunogenicity of NoV VLPs in mice. In this study, we investigated if the adjuvant effect is dependent on a VP6 dose or different VP6 structural assemblies...
April 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406951/protection-induced-by-virus-like-particles-containing-toxoplasma-gondii-microneme-protein-8-against-highly-virulent-rh-strain-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#11
Su-Hwa Lee, Ah-Ra Kim, Dong-Hun Lee, Ilaria Rubino, Hyo-Jick Choi, Fu-Shi Quan
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) microneme protein 8 (MIC8) represents a novel, functional distinct invasion factor. In this study, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) targeting Toxoplasma gondii MIC8 for the first time, and investigated the protection against highly virulent RH strain of T. gondii in a mouse model. We found that VLP vaccination induced Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgG1 antibody responses in the sera. Upon challenge infection with RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites, vaccinated mice showed a significant increase of both IgG antibodies in sera and IgA antibodies in feces compared to those before challenge, and a rapid expansion of both germinal center B cell (B220+, GL7+) and T cell (CD4+, CD8+) populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404899/balb-c-mice-immunized-with-a-combination-of-virus-like-particles-incorporating-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-kshv-envelope-glycoproteins-gpk8-1-gb-and-gh-gl-induced-comparable-serum-neutralizing-antibody-activity-to-uv-inactivated-kshv
#12
Anne K Barasa, Peng Ye, Meredith Phelps, Ganapathiram T Arivudainambi, Timelia Tison, Javier Gordon Ogembo
Infection with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is estimated to account for over 44,000 new cases of Kaposi sarcoma annually, with 84% occurring in Africa, where the virus is endemic. To date, there is no prophylactic vaccine against KSHV. KSHV gpK8.1, gB, and gH/gL glycoproteins, implicated in the virus entry into host cells, are attractive vaccine targets for eliciting potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against virus infection. We incorporated gpK8.1, gB, or gH/gL on the surface of virus-like particles (VLPs) and characterized these VLPs for their composition, size, and functionality...
February 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403874/intranasal-immunization-of-pigs-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-like-particles-plus-2-3-cgamp-vaccigrade%C3%A2-adjuvant-exacerbates-viremia-after-virus-challenge
#13
Alexandria Van Noort, April Nelsen, Angela E Pillatzki, Diego G Diel, Feng Li, Eric Nelson, Xiuqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows and acute respiratory disease in young pigs. It is a leading infectious agent of swine respiratory complex, which has significant negative economic impact on the swine industry. Commercial markets currently offer both live attenuated and killed vaccines; however, increasing controversy exists about their efficacy providing complete protection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) possess many desirable features of a potent vaccine candidate and have been proven to be highly immunogenic and protective against virus infections...
April 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403327/internal-control-for-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-on-ms2-bacteriophage-for-rna-viruses-diagnostics
#14
Miriam Ribas Zambenedetti, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Andreia Cristine Dallabona, Alejandro Correa Dominguez, Celina de Oliveira Poersch, Stenio Perdigão Fragoso, Marco Aurélio Krieger
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is routinely used to detect viral infections. In Brazil, it is mandatory the use of nucleic acid tests to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus in blood banks because of the immunological window. The use of an internal control (IC) is necessary to differentiate the true negative results from those consequent from a failure in some step of the nucleic acid test. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was the construction of virus-modified particles, based on MS2 bacteriophage, to be used as IC for the diagnosis of RNA viruses...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403145/the-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase-inhibitor-apilimod-blocks-filoviral-entry-and-infection
#15
Elizabeth A Nelson, Julie Dyall, Thomas Hoenen, Alyson B Barnes, Huanying Zhou, Janie Y Liang, Julia Michelotti, William H Dewey, Lisa Evans DeWald, Richard S Bennett, Patrick J Morris, Rajarshi Guha, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Crystal McKnight, Yu-Chi Chen, Xin Xu, Amy Wang, Emma Hughes, Scott Martin, Craig Thomas, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Gene G Olinger, Judith M White
Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is a lipid kinase involved in endosome maturation that emerged from a haploid genetic screen as being required for Ebola virus (EBOV) infection. Here we analyzed the effects of apilimod, a PIKfyve inhibitor that was reported to be well tolerated in humans in phase 2 clinical trials, for its effects on entry and infection of EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV). We first found that apilimod blocks infections by EBOV and MARV in Huh 7, Vero E6 and primary human macrophage cells, with notable potency in the macrophages (IC50, 10 nM)...
April 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402024/marburg-virus-like-particles-produced-in-insect-cells-induce-neutralizing-antibodies-in-rhesus-macaques
#16
Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Chong Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Qi Wang, Hualei Wang, Gary Wong, Ying Xie, Haijun Wang, Zengguo Cao, Na Feng, Hang Chi, Tiecheng Wang, Yuwei Gao, Junjie Shan, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Marburg virus (MARV), which is one of the most virulent agents in the world, causes lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) with a mortality rate of up to 90%. Currently, there is no effective treatment or approved vaccine for MARV for human use to control disease outbreak and spread. Virus-like particles (VLPs), which are morphologically identical to the native infectious virus particle, are efficacious as vaccines against many viruses, including human papilloma virus (HPV), porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 and hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398876/citrus-leprosis-virus-n-a-new-dichorhavirus-causing-citrus-leprosis-disease
#17
Pedro Ramos-Gonzalez, Camila Chabi-Jesus, Orlene Guerra-Peraza, Aline D Tassi, Elliot Kitajima, Ricardo Harakava, Renato B Salaroli, Juliana Freitas-Astua
Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local-necrotic and -chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches and fruits and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in non-commercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013-2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397863/structure-of-the-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-spike-within-the-virion-envelope-at-11%C3%A2-%C3%A3-resolution
#18
Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth
We present the structure of the surface Ebola virus (EBOV) trimeric glycoprotein (GP) spike at 11 Å resolution, in situ within the viral plasma membrane of purified virus particles. GP functions in cellular attachment, endosomal entry, and membrane fusion to initiate infection, and is a key therapeutic target. Nevertheless, only about half of the GP molecule has yet been solved to atomic resolution, excluding the mucin-like and transmembrane domains, and some of the glycans. Fitting of the atomic resolution X-ray data from expressed, truncated deletion constructs within our 11 Å structure of the entire molecule demonstrates the relationship between the GP1-GP2 domains, the mucin-like and transmembrane domains, and the bilaminar lipid envelope...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396209/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-virus-like-particles-and-recombinant-fiber-proteins-in-broiler-breeder-vaccination-against-fowl-adenovirus-fadv-8b
#19
Ashish Gupta, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Lisanework E Ayalew, Shelly Popowich, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Kalhari Goonewardene, Thushari Gunawardana, Ruwani Karunarathna, Davor Ojkic, Suresh K Tikoo, Philip Willson, Susantha Gomis
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is an economically important diseases in broiler chicken industry. Several serotypes of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) can cause IBH, among them, serotype FAdV-8b is associated with the majority of the IBH cases in Canada. Here, we evaluated FAdV-8b virus-like particles (VLPs) and recombinant FAdV-8b fiber proteins (expressed in E. coli) as potential broiler-breeder vaccines against IBH. For assessing the immunogenicity of vaccines, we investigated both humoral and cellular immunity. The humoral immune response was evaluated by determining total IgY and virus-neutralizing antibody in serum at 14, 28, 35 and 60days post-immunization (dpi)...
April 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389100/plant-made-virus-like-particle-vaccines-bearing-the-hemagglutinin-of-either-seasonal-h1-or-avian-h5-influenza-have-distinct-patterns-of-interaction-with-human-immune-cells-in-vitro
#20
Hilary E Hendin, Stéphane Pillet, Amanda N Lara, Cheng-Ying Wu, Nathalie Charland, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward
INTRODUCTION: The recent emergence of avian influenza strains has fuelled concern about pandemic preparedness since vaccines targeting these viruses are often poorly immunogenic. Weak antibody responses to vaccines have been seen across multiple platforms including plant-made VLPs. To better understand these differences, we compared the in vitro responses of human immune cells exposed to plant-made virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines targeting H1N1 (H1-VLP) and H5N1 (H5-VLP). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy adults were stimulated ex vivo with 2-5µg/mL VLPs bearing the hemagglutinin (HA) of either H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) or H5N1 (A/Indonesia/5/05)...
April 4, 2017: Vaccine
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