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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534888/hepatitis-a-outbreaks-in-european-homosexual-men
#1
Pablo Barreiro, Vicente Soriano
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a small RNA, non-enveloped agent predominantly transmitted via the fecal/oral route through person-to-person contact or contaminated food and water. The mean incubation period is 28 days (range: 15-50). Acute hepatitis A is always self-limited and very rarely fatal. Moreover, it never progresses to chronicity. Acutely infected persons are most likely to transmit HAV before the onset of jaundice, when viral particle concentration in stool is highest.
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534452/the-recurrent-domestication-of-viruses-major-evolutionary-transitions-in-parasitic-wasps
#2
Jérémy Gauthier, Jean-Michel Drezen, Elisabeth A Herniou
Several lineages of endoparasitoid wasps, which develop inside the body of other insects, have domesticated viruses, used as delivery tools of essential virulence factors for the successful development of their progeny. Virus domestications are major evolutionary transitions in highly diverse parasitoid wasps. Much progress has recently been made to characterize the nature of these ancestrally captured endogenous viruses that have evolved within the wasp genomes. Virus domestication from different viral families occurred at least three times in parasitoid wasps...
May 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532796/oral-vaccination-through-voluntary-consumption-of-the-convict-grouper-epinephelus-septemfasciatus-with-yeast-producing-the-capsid-protein-of-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus
#3
Seo Young Cho, Hyoung Jin Kim, Nguyen Thi Lan, Hyun-Ja Han, Deok-Chan Lee, Jee Youn Hwang, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Bo Kyu Kang, Sang Yoon Han, Hyoungjoon Moon, Hyun Ah Kang, Hong-Jin Kim
Nervous necrosis viruses (NNV) cause serious economic losses in marine fish cultivation. The red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) is the most common species of NNV worldwide. There have been many efforts to develop prophylactic NNV vaccines, and various types of vaccine candidate have been suggested. However, most were designed as injectable vaccines, which are not suitable for large-scale vaccination and cause too much stress to the fish. Oral vaccination through voluntary feeding is an ideal way to provide protective immunity to fish...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532268/allergen-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis-current-use-and-future-trends
#4
Ludger Klimek, Oliver Pfaar, Jean Bousquet, Gabriela Senti, Thomas Kündig
Type-1 allergies are among the most chronic common diseases of humans. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causative and disease-modifying treatment option besides allergen avoidance. Severe systemic adverse allergic reactions may be induced by every AIT treatment. Different approaches have been used to provide safer AIT preparations to lower or even totally overcome this risk. Areas covered: A structured literature recherche in Medline and Pubmed under inclusion of national and international guidelines and Cochrane meta-analyses has been performed aiming at reviewing clinical use of such approaches in AIT...
May 23, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531167/a-role-for-the-host-dna-damage-response-in-hepatitis-b-virus-cccdna-formation-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Sabrina Schreiner, Michael Nassal
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection puts more than 250 million people at a greatly increased risk to develop end-stage liver disease. Like all hepadnaviruses, HBV replicates via protein-primed reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA, yielding an unusually structured, viral polymerase-linked relaxed-circular (RC) DNA as genome in infectious particles. Upon infection, RC-DNA is converted into nuclear covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. Associating with cellular proteins into an episomal minichromosome, cccDNA acts as template for new viral RNAs, ensuring formation of progeny virions...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530650/multi-virion-infectious-units-arise-from-free-viral-particles-in-an-enveloped-virus
#6
José M Cuevas, María Durán-Moreno, Rafael Sanjuán
Many animal viruses are enveloped in a lipid bilayer taken up from cellular membranes. Because viral surface proteins bind to these membranes to initiate infection, we hypothesized that free virions may also be capable of interacting with the envelopes of other virions extracellularly. Here, we demonstrate this hypothesis in the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic negative-strand RNA virus composed of an internal ribonucleocapsid, a matrix protein and an external envelope(1). Using microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugation and flow cytometry, we show that free viral particles can spontaneously aggregate into multi-virion infectious units...
May 22, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#7
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524069/helical-plant-viral-nanoparticles-bioinspired-synthesis-of-nanomaterials-and-nanostructures
#8
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Viral nanotechnology is revolutionizing the biomimetic and bioinspired synthesis of novel nanomaterials. Bottom-up nanofabrication by self-assembly of individual molecular components of elongated viral nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) has resulted in the production of superior materials and structures in the nano(bio)technological fields. Viral capsids are attractive materials, because of their symmetry, monodispersity, and polyvalency. Helical VNPs/VLPs are unique prefabricated nanoscaffolds with large surface area to volume ratios and high aspect ratios, and enable the construction of exquisite supramolecular nanostructures...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522842/cryo-electron-microscopy-structure-of-the-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-nodavirus-capsid-at-7-angstroms-resolution
#9
Kok Lian Ho, Chare Li Kueh, Poay Ling Beh, Wen Siang Tan, David Bhella
White tail disease in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii causes significant economic losses in shrimp farms and hatcheries and poses a threat to food-security in many developing countries. Outbreaks of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), the causative agent of white tail disease (WTD) are associated with up to 100% mortality rates. There are no interventions available to treat or prevent MrNV disease however. Here we show the structure of MrNV virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by recombinant expression of the capsid protein, using cryogenic electron microscopy...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522392/low-molecular-weight-mannogalactofucans-prevent-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infection-via-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#10
Woo Jung Kim, Ji Won Choi, Won Jong Jang, Young-Sun Kang, Chang Won Lee, Andriy Synytsya, Yong Il Park
Low-molecular-weight mannogalactofucans (LMMGFs, <4000g/mol) were prepared by the enzymatic degradation of Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll galactofucan (MF) and evaluated or their antiviral activities and underlying action mechanisms against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of LMMGFs and MF were 2.64 and 2.42μg/mL, respectively. LMMGFs inhibited the viral entry on the host cell surface and also exhibited inhibitory activity directly against viral particles, as observed in a virucidal assay...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515133/development-of-a-novel-virus-like-particle-vaccine-platform-that-mimics-immature-form-of-alphavirus
#11
Akane Urakami, Atsuko Sakurai, Momoko Ishikawa, Moh Lan Yap, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Yasunari Haseda, Taiki Aoshi, Fidel P Zavala, Michael G Rossmann, Sachiko Kuno, Ryuji Ueno, Wataru Akahata
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are non-infectious multiprotein structures that are engineered to self-assemble from viral structural proteins. Here, we developed a novel VLP-based vaccine platform utilizing VLPs from the Chikungunya virus. We identified two regions within the envelope protein, a structural component of Chikungunya, where foreign antigens can be inserted without compromising VLP structure. Our VLP displays 480 copious copies of an inserted antigen on the VLP surface in a highly symmetric manner, thus capable of inducing strong immune responses against any inserted antigen...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514685/virus-like-particles-identify-an-hiv-v1v2-apex-binding-neutralizing-antibody-that-lacks-a-protruding-loop
#12
Evan M Cale, Jason Gorman, Nathan A Radakovich, Ema T Crooks, Keiko Osawa, Tommy Tong, Jiaqi Li, Raju Nagarajan, Gabriel Ozorowski, David R Ambrozak, Mangai Asokan, Robert T Bailer, Anthony K Bennici, Xuejun Chen, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Aliaksandr Druz, Yu Feng, M Gordon Joyce, Mark K Louder, Sijy O'Dell, Courtney Oliver, Marie Pancera, Mark Connors, Thomas J Hope, Thomas B Kepler, Richard T Wyatt, Andrew B Ward, Ivelin S Georgiev, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, James M Binley
Most HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies isolated to date exhibit unusual characteristics that complicate their elicitation. Neutralizing antibodies that target the V1V2 apex of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer feature unusually long protruding loops, which enable them to penetrate the HIV-1 glycan shield. As antibodies with loops of requisite length are created through uncommon recombination events, an alternative mode of apex binding has been sought. Here, we isolated a lineage of Env apex-directed neutralizing antibodies, N90-VRC38...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514082/universal-label-free-in-process-quantification-of-influenza-virus-like-particles
#13
Sofia B Carvalho, Mafalda G Moleirinho, David Wheatley, John Welsh, René Gantier, Paula M Alves, Cristina Peixoto, Manuel J T Carrondo
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are becoming established as vaccines, in particular for influenza pandemics, increasing the interest in the development of VLPs manufacturing bioprocess. However, for complex VLPs, the analytical tools used for quantification are not yet able to keep up with the bioprocess progress. Currently, quantification for Influenza relies on traditional methods: hemagglutination assay or Single Radial Immunodiffusion. These analytical technologies are time-consuming, cumbersome, and not supportive of efficient downstream process development and monitoring...
May 17, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512572/experimental-strategies-for-imaging-bioparticles-with-femtosecond-hard-x-ray-pulses
#14
Benedikt J Daurer, Kenta Okamoto, Johan Bielecki, Filipe R N C Maia, Kerstin Mühlig, M Marvin Seibert, Max F Hantke, Carl Nettelblad, W Henry Benner, Martin Svenda, Nicuşor Tîmneanu, Tomas Ekeberg, N Duane Loh, Alberto Pietrini, Alessandro Zani, Asawari D Rath, Daniel Westphal, Richard A Kirian, Salah Awel, Max O Wiedorn, Gijs van der Schot, Gunilla H Carlsson, Dirk Hasse, Jonas A Sellberg, Anton Barty, Jakob Andreasson, Sébastien Boutet, Garth Williams, Jason Koglin, Inger Andersson, Janos Hajdu, Daniel S D Larsson
This study explores the capabilities of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source to image small biological samples. The weak signal from small samples puts a significant demand on the experiment. Aerosolized Omono River virus particles of ∼40 nm in diameter were injected into the submicrometre X-ray focus at a reduced pressure. Diffraction patterns were recorded on two area detectors. The statistical nature of the measurements from many individual particles provided information about the intensity profile of the X-ray beam, phase variations in the wavefront and the size distribution of the injected particles...
May 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512091/conformational-flexibility-in-the-immunoglobulin-like-domain-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2
#15
Ieva Vasiliauskaite, Ania Owsianka, Patrick England, Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Sarah Cole, Dorothea Bankwitz, Steven K H Foung, Thomas Pietschmann, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Felix A Rey, Arvind H Patel, Thomas Krey
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. Its structure features a central immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich that contributes to the binding site for the cellular receptor CD81. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to a β-strand of this Ig-like domain forms an α-helix in complex with the anti-E2 antibody DAO5, demonstrating an inside-out flip of hydrophobic residues and a secondary structure change in the composite CD81 binding site...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506891/viral-mechanisms-for-docking-and-delivering-at-nuclear-pore-complexes
#16
REVIEW
Justin W Flatt, Urs F Greber
Some viruses possess the remarkable ability to transport their genomes across nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) for replication inside the host cell's intact nuclear compartment. Viral mechanisms for crossing the restrictive NPC passageway are highly complex and astonishingly diverse, requiring in each case stepwise interaction between incoming virus particles and components of the nuclear transport machinery. Exactly how a large viral genome loaded with accessory proteins is able to pass through the relatively narrow central channel of the NPC without causing catastrophic structural damage is not yet fully understood...
May 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506635/cryoem-structure-of-an-influenza-virus-receptor-binding-site-antibody-antigen-interface
#17
Yuhang Liu, Junhua Pan, Simon Jenni, Donald D Raymond, Tim Caradonna, Khoi T Do, Aaron G Schmidt, Stephen C Harrison, Nikolaus Grigorieff
Structure-based vaccine design depends on extensive structural analyses of antigen-antibody complexes. Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) can circumvent some of the problems of x-ray crystallography as a pipeline for obtaining the required structures. We have examined the potential of single-particle cryoEM for determining the structure of influenza-virus hemagglutinin (HA):single-chain Fv (scFv) complexes, by studying a complex we failed to crystallize in pursuing an extended project of the human immune response to influenza vaccines...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506209/peptides-mimicking-viral-proteins-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-were-profiled-by-the-spectrum-of-mouse-anti-pcv2-antibodies
#18
Ling-Chu Hung, Cheng-Yao Yang, Ivan-Chen Cheng
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of specific peptides, and seeking the potential candidate of PCV2 peptide-based vaccine. It's initiating from peptides reacting with PCV2-infected pig sera and peptide-immunized mouse sera. RESULTS: The data showed that the sera from PCV2-infected pigs could react with the N-terminal (C1), middle region (C2), and C-terminal peptide (C3) of PCV2 capsid protein (CP), ORF3 protein (N1), ORF6 protein (N2) and ORF9 protein (N3)...
May 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506036/influenza-m1-virus-like-particles-consisting-of-toxoplasma-gondii-rhoptry-protein-4
#19
Su-Hwa Lee, Dong-Hun Lee, Ying Piao, Eun-Kyung Moon, Fu-Shi Quan
Toxoplasma gondii infections occur throughout the world, and efforts are needed to develop various vaccine candidates expressing recombinant protein antigens. In this study, influenza matrix protein (M1) virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of T. gondii rhoptry antigen 4 (ROP4 protein) were generated using baculovirus (rBV) expression system. Recombinant ROP4 protein with influenza M1 were cloned and expressed in rBV. SF9 insect cells were coinfected with recombinant rBVs expressing T. gondii ROP4 and influenza M1...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502594/early-evidence-for-a-virus-like-agent-infecting-the-pest-snail-theba-pisana-gastropoda-pulmonata-in-southern-italy
#20
Gionata De Vico, Rosarita Tatè, Nicola Maio, Andrea Costantino, Vincenzo Guida, Grazia Villari, Francesca Carella
The Mediterranean land snail Theba pisana (Mollusca: Helicidae) is an introduced agricultural pest in many countries around the world, including Australia, Israel, USA and South Africa. In addition, this snail is an intermediate host of parasites of importance in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, a natural population of T. pisana snails on the Domitian coast of Italy was surveyed following a mass mortality event. By light microscopy, 30% of the collected individuals showed in the calcium cells of the digestive gland the presence of hypertrophied nuclei containing eosinophilic to weakly basophilic inclusion bodies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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