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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052133/ebv-infection-and-glucose-metabolism-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#1
Jun Zhang, Lin Jia, Chi Man Tsang, Sai Wah Tsao
To establish persistent infection in cells, viruses evolve strategies to alter host cellular pathways to regulate cell proliferation and energy metabolism which support viral infection. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) undergoes both lytic and latent infection to achieve persistent and lifelong infection in human. EBV readily infects human B cells, driving their transformation to proliferative lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), and eventually establishes lifelong latent infection in memory B cells. In contrary, EBV undergoes lytic replication upon infection into normal epithelial cells which is essential for the replication of EBV genome and production of infectious viral particles for transmission through saliva...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048711/rotavirus-virus-like-particles-rv-vlps-vaccines-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Harish Changotra, Avni Vij
Rotaviruses (RVs) cause over 0.2 million deaths annually and are reported to be the foremost cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. Vaccination against RVs is the most successful and unsurpassed strategy to combat infection to date. Although the 2 current vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have dramatically reduced the disease burden, still there is a need for new vaccines. In this context, RV virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) represent potential vaccine candidates as they are noninfectious and effective nonreplicating immunogens that may reduce the risk of side effects related to the conventional vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046400/ribosome-biogenesis-modulates-ty1-copy-number-control-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Hyo Won Ahn, Jessica M Tucker, Joshua A Arribere, David J Garfinkel
Transposons can impact the host genome by altering gene expression and participating in chromosome rearrangements. Therefore, organisms evolved different ways to minimize the level of transposition. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relative S. paradoxus, Ty1 copy number control (CNC) is mediated by the self-encoded restriction factor p22, which is derived from the GAG capsid gene and inhibits virus-like particle (VLP) assembly and function. Based on secondary screens of Ty1 cofactors, we identified LOC1, a RNA localization/ribosome biogenesis gene that affects Ty1 mobility predominantly in strains harboring Ty1 elements...
October 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046351/an-improved-labeling-strategy-enables-automated-detection-of-single-virus-fusion-and-assessment-of-hiv-1-protease-activity-in-single-virions
#4
Chetan Sood, Ashwanth C Francis, Tanay M Desai, Gregory B Melikyan
Enveloped viruses transfer their genomes into host cells by fusing their membrane to that of the cell. To visualize single-virus fusion in living cells, researchers take advantage of HIV-1's proteolytic maturation, which can generate free fluorescent proteins within the viral particle. Co-labeling viruses with a content marker and a fluorescently tagged Vpr (a viral core protein) enables detection of single-virus fusions, but a major limitation of this approach is that not all viral particles incorporate both markers...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046160/construction-and-production-of-hiv-vlp-harboring-mper-v3-for-potential-vaccine-study
#5
Tohidi Fatemeh, Sadat Seyed Mehdi, Bolhassani Azam, Yaghobi Ramin
Vaccine against HIV-1 is not currently available. In present, Virus like particles (VLPs) as effective strategy was used in several vaccine developing. Two conserved sequences; V3 loop of gp120 and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 are dominant sites for vaccine studies. In this study, we used fusion gene of MPER and V3 to product recombinant VLPs and introduced a novel retroviral VLPs harboring high copy of MPER-V3 for HIV-1 vaccine design. The pEGFP-N1 plasmid harboring MPER-V3 sequence with Vpr linker was constructed...
October 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045859/role-of-condensing-particles-in-polymer-confinement-a-model-for-virus-packed-minichromosomes
#6
Sanjin Marion, Carmen San Martín, Antonio Šiber
Confined mixtures of a polymer and nonspecifically binding particles (condensers) are studied as models for viruses containing double-stranded DNA (polymer) and condensing proteins (particles). We explore a model in which all interactions between the packed content (polymer and particles) and its confinement are purely repulsive, with only a short-range attraction between the condensers and polymer to simulate binding. In the range of physical parameters applicable to viruses, the model predicts reduction of pressure in the system effected by the condensers, despite the reduction in free volume...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045818/conformational-plasticity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-enables-rna-induced-formation-of-nucleocapsid-like-particles
#7
Erik D Holmstrom, Daniel Nettels, Benjamin Schuler
Many of the unanswered questions associated with hepatitis C virus assembly are related to the core protein (HCVcp), which forms an oligomeric nucleocapsid encompassing the viral genome. The structural properties of HCVcp have been difficult to quantify, at least in part because it is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). We have used single-molecule FRET techniques to study the conformational dimensions and dynamics of the HCVcp nucleocapsid domain (HCVncd) at various stages during the RNA-induced formation of nucleocapsid-like particles...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044909/recruitment-of-7sl-rna-to-assembling-hiv-1-virus-like-particles
#8
Michelle S Itano, Helene Arnion, Sandra L Wolin, Sanford M Simon
Retroviruses incorporate specific host cell RNAs into virions. In particular, the host noncoding 7SL RNA is highly abundant in all examined retroviruses compared to its cellular levels or relative to common mRNAs such as actin. Using live cell imaging techniques, we have determined that the 7SL RNA does not arrive with the HIV-1 RNA genome. Instead, it is recruited contemporaneous with assembly of the protein HIV-1 Gag at the plasma membrane. Further, we demonstrate that complexes of 7SL RNA and Gag can be immunoprecipitated from both cytosolic and plasma membrane fractions...
October 16, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021819/hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17-and-its-variants-promote-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-aggressiveness
#9
Francesca Caccuri, Francesca Giordano, Ines Barone, Pietro Mazzuca, Cinzia Giagulli, Sebastiano Andò, Arnaldo Caruso, Stefania Marsico
BACKGROUND: The introduction of cART has changed the morbidity and mortality patterns affecting HIV-infected (HIV(+)) individuals. The risk of breast cancer in HIV(+) patients has now approached the general population risk. However, breast cancer has a more aggressive clinical course and poorer outcome in HIV(+) patients than in general population, without correlation with the CD4 or virus particles count. These findings suggest a likely influence of HIV-1 proteins on breast cancer aggressiveness and progression...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021793/intracellular-crosslinking-of-filoviral-nucleoproteins-with-xintrabodies-restricts-viral-packaging
#10
Tamarand Lee Darling, Laura Jo Sherwood, Andrew Hayhurst
Viruses assemble large macromolecular repeat structures that become part of the infectious particles or virions. Ribonucleocapsids (RNCs) of negative strand RNA viruses are a prime example where repetition of nucleoprotein (NP) along the genome creates a core polymeric helical scaffold that accommodates other nucleocapsid proteins including viral polymerase. The RNCs are transported through the cytosol for packaging into virions through association with viral matrix proteins at cell membranes. We hypothesized that RNC would be ideal targets for crosslinkers engineered to promote aberrant protein-protein interactions, thereby blocking their orderly transport and packaging...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021394/hiv-1-gp120-protein-and-mvagp140-boost-immunogens-increase-immunogenicity-of-a-dna-mva-hiv-1-vaccine
#11
Xiaoying Shen, Rahul Basu, Sheetal Sawant, David Beaumont, Sue Fen Kwa, Celia LaBranche, Kelly E Seaton, Nicole L Yates, David C Montefiori, Guido Ferrari, Linda S Wyatt, Bernard Moss, S Munir Alam, Barton F Haynes, Georgia D Tomaras, Harriet L Robinson
An important goal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine design is identification of strategies that elicit effective antiviral humoral immunity. One novel approach comprises priming with DNA and boosting with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 Env on virus like particles. Here we evaluated whether the addition of a gp120 protein in alum or MVA expressed secreted gp140 (MVAgp140) could improve immunogenicity of a DNA prime - MVA boost vaccine. Five rhesus macaques per group received two DNA primes at weeks 0 and 8 followed by three MVA boosts (with or without additional protein or MVAgp140) at weeks 18, 26 and 40...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021303/a-single-intramuscular-dose-of-a-plant-made-virus-like-particle-vaccine-elicits-a-balanced-humoral-and-cellular-response-and-protects-young-and-aged-mice-from-influenza-h1n1-challenge-despite-a-modest-absent-humoral-response
#12
Breanna Hodgins, Karen K Yam, Kaitlin Winter, Stephane Pillet, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward
Background: Virus-like-particle (VLP) influenza vaccines can be given intramuscularly (IM) or intranasally (IN) and may have advantages over split-virion formulations in the elderly. We tested a plant-made VLP vaccine candidate bearing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) delivered either IM or IN in young and aged mice. Methods: Young adult (5-8 weeks) and aged (16-20 months) female BALB/c mice received a single 3μg dose based on HA (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) content of a plant-made H1-VLP (IM or IN), split-virion vaccine (IM) or left naïve...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020058/hiv-transmitted-founder-vaccines-elicit-autologous-tier-2-neutralizing-antibodies-for-the-cd4-binding-site
#13
Nathanael P McCurley, Arban Domi, Rahul Basu, Kevin O Saunders, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Barton F Haynes, Harriet L Robinson
Here we report the construction, antigenicity and initial immunogenicity testing of DNA and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines expressing virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying sequential clade C Envelopes (Envs) that co-evolved with the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) in HIV-infected individual CH0505. The VLP-displayed Envs showed reactivity for conformational epitopes displayed on the receptor-binding form of Env. Two inoculations of the DNA-T/F vaccine, followed by 3 inoculations of the MVA-T/F vaccine and a final inoculation of the MVA-T/F plus a gp120-T/F protein vaccine elicited nAb to the T/F virus in 2 of 4 rhesus macaques (ID50 of ~175 and ~30)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017849/production-of-hiv-virus-like-particles-by-transient-transfection-of-cap-t-cells-at-bioreactor-scale-avoiding-medium-replacement
#14
Sonia Gutiérrez-Granados, Queralt Farràs, Kerstin Hein, Javier Fuenmayor, Pablo Félez, Mercedes Segura, Francesc Gòdia
Human-derived CAP-T cell line has been demonstrated to be a powerful platform for high-titer production of HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) by PEI-mediated transient transfection. Scale-up of transfection processes is key to ensure the necessary quantities for pre-clinical and clinical testing. One of the major operational challenges of large-scale transient transfection is the medium replacement step that is often required before transfection. In this work, CAP-T cells were cultured in 1L bioreactor with addition of sodium bicarbonate and surface aeration, which were observed to improve cell state for transfection...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994405/crystallization-and-x-ray-analysis-of-23%C3%A2-nm-virus-like-particles-from-norovirus-chiba-strain
#15
Kazuya Hasegawa, Yuichi Someya, Hideki Shigematsu, Tomomi Kimura-Someya, Nipawan Nuemket, Takashi Kumasaka
Norovirus is a major causative pathogen of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis. Despite the sequence similarity among various strains, noroviruses of different genotypes show different antigenicities and different binding profiles to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). To reveal the relationships between the structure of the capsid and the diversity in antigenicity and the HBGA-binding profile, virus-like particles (VLPs) of the Chiba strain that belongs to genogroup I, genotype 4 were crystallized for X-ray structural analysis...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986850/retrovirus-based-surrogate-systems-for-bsl-2-high-throughput-screening-of-antivirals-targeting-bsl-3-4-hemorrhagic-fever-causing-viruses
#16
Sheli R Radoshitzky, Veronica Soloveva, Dima Gharaibeh, Jens H Kuhn, Sina Bavari
The majority of viruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans are Risk Group 3 or 4 pathogens and, therefore, can only be handled in biosafety level 3 or 4 (BSL-3/4) containment laboratories. The restricted number of such laboratories, the substantial financial requirements to maintain them, and safety concerns for the laboratory workers pose formidable challenges for rapid medical countermeasure discovery and evaluation. BSL-2 surrogate systems are a less challenging, cheap, and fast alternative to the use of live high-consequence viruses for dissecting and targeting individual steps of viral lifecycles with a diminished threat to the laboratory worker...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986838/structure-function-assays-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-polymerase
#17
Marko Zivcec
The recently developed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) reverse genetics systems have paved the way for experiments looking to identify and characterize the roles played by viral and cellular proteins in the CCHFV life cycle. In particular, the development of the noninfectious minigenome and virus-like particle (VLP) systems is a tremendous technological advance, as these systems allow for precisely targeting proteins or nucleic acids and measuring the effects these mutations or treatments have on viral life cycle stages...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986836/hemorrhagic-fever-virus-budding-studies
#18
Ronald N Harty
Independent expression of the VP40 or Z matrix proteins of filoviruses (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) and arenaviruses (Lassa fever and Junín), respectively, gives rise to the production and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) that are morphologically identical to infectious virions. We can detect and quantify VLP production and egress in mammalian cells by transient transfection, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and live cell imaging techniques such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986832/assays-to-assess-arenaviral-glycoprotein-function
#19
Junjie Shao, Xiaoying Liu, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly
Arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus (LASV) and Pichindé virus (PICV), are enveloped viruses with a bi-segmented ambisense RNA genome. The large (L) genomic segment encodes the Z matrix protein and the L RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, whereas the small (S) genomic segment encodes the nucleoprotein (NP) and the glycoprotein precursor complex (GPC). GPC is processed by signal peptidase in the endoplasmic reticulum into the stable signal peptide (SSP) and GP1/GP2, which is further cleaved by the Golgi-resident subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) into the cellular receptor-recognition subunit GP1 and the transmembrane subunit GP2, which helps promote the membrane fusion reaction to allow virus entry into the cell...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986376/differential-ms2-interaction-with-food-contact-surfaces-determined-by-atomic-force-microscopy-and-virus-recovery
#20
J Shim, D S Stewart, A D Nikolov, D T Wasan, R Wang, R Yan, Y C Shieh
Enteric viruses are recognized as a major etiology for U.S. foodborne infections. These viruses are easily transmitted via food contact surfaces. Understanding virus interactions with surfaces may facilitate developing improved means for their removal thus reducing transmission. Using MS2 coliphage as a virus surrogate, the strength of virus adhesion onto common food processing and preparation surfaces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and virus recovery assays...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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