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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331098/recombinant-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-generating-ebola-virus-like-particles
#1
Marc Schweneker, Andrea S Laimbacher, Gert Zimmer, Susanne Wagner, Elisabeth M Schraner, Michael Wolferstätter, Marieken Klingenberg, Ulrike Dirmeier, Robin Steigerwald, Henning Lauterbach, Hubertus Hochrein, Paul Chaplin, Mark Suter, Jürgen Hausmann
There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines to treat or protect against the severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). Ebola virus-like particles (EBOV-VLPs) consisting of the matrix protein VP40, the glycoprotein (GP) and the nucleoprotein (NP) are highly immunogenic and protective in non-human primates against Ebola virus disease (EVD). We have constructed a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-Bavarian Nordic(®) (MVA-BN(®)) recombinant co-expressing VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV Mayinga and the nucleoprotein (NP) of Taï Forest virus (TAFV) (MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP) to launch non-infectious EBOV-VLPs as a second vaccine modality in the MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP-vaccinated organism...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331094/herpes-simplex-virus-ge-gi-and-us9-promote-both-envelopment-and-sorting-of-virus-particles-in-the-cytoplasm-of-neurons-two-processes-that-precede-anterograde-transport-in-axons
#2
Grayson DuRaine, Todd W Wisner, Paul Howard, David C Johnson
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) anterograde transport in neuronal axons is vital, allowing spread from latently-infected ganglia to epithelial tissues where viral progeny are produced in numbers allowing spread to other hosts. HSV membrane proteins gE/gI and US9 initiate the process of anterograde axonal transport ensuring that virus particles are transported from the cytoplasm into the most proximal segments of axons. These proteins do not appear to be important once HSV is inside axons. Previously we described HSV double mutants lacking both gE and US9 that failed to transport virus particles into axons...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331091/ebolaviruses-associated-with-differential-pathogenicity-induce-distinct-host-responses-in-human-macrophages
#3
Judith Olejnik, Adriana Forero, Laure R Deflubé, Adam J Hume, Whitney A Manhart, Andrew Nishida, Andrea Marzi, Michael G Katze, Hideki Ebihara, Angela L Rasmussen, Elke Mühlberger
Ebola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) are members of the Ebolavirus genus which greatly differ in their pathogenicity. While EBOV causes a severe disease in humans characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response and elevated cytokine and chemokine production, there are no reported disease-associated human cases of RESTV infection, suggesting that RESTV is non-pathogenic for humans. The underlying mechanisms determining the pathogenicity of different ebolavirus species are not yet known. In this study we dissect the host response to EBOV and RESTV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330747/m-protein-is-sufficient-for-assembly-and-release-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-like-particles
#4
Qiuxia Wang, Changbo Ou, Yongxi Dou, Lei Chen, Xuelian Meng, Xingyou Liu, Yan Yu, Jinqing Jiang, Jinyou Ma, Zhidong Zhang, Jianhe Hu, Xuepeng Cai
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), belonging to paramyxoviruses, has six structure proteins (such as matrix protein (M), nucleocapsid proteins (N), fusion protein (F) and hemagglutinin protein (H)) and could cause high morbidity and mortality in sheep and goats. Although a vaccine strain of PPRV has been rescued and co-expression of M and N could yield PPRV-like particles, the roles of structure proteins in virion assembly and release have not been investigated in detail. In this study, plasmids carrying PPRV cDNA sequences encoding the N, M, H, and F proteins were expressed in Vero cells...
March 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328521/human-papillomavirus-first-and-second-generation-vaccines-current-status-and-future-directions
#5
Somayeh Pouyanfard, Martin Müller
It has been more than 10 years that the first prophylactic papillomavirus vaccine became available, although distribution has been mainly limited to the more affluent countries. The first two vaccines have been a great success, hundreds of millions of women and a much smaller number of men have been vaccinated ever since. In a few countries with high vaccination coverage, in particular Australia but also parts of Great Britain and others, clinical impact of vaccination programs is already visible and there are indications for herd immunity as well...
March 22, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325899/complete-genomic-and-ultrastructural-analysis-of-a-nam-dinh-virus-isolated-from-culex-pipiens-quinquefasciatus-in-china
#6
Jianming Zhou, Yujuan Jin, Yingjian Chen, Jingmei Li, Qiwen Zhang, Xianqing Xie, Liping Gan, Qu Liu
The Nam Dinh virus (NDiV) was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus in Shenzhen, China, for the first time, in 2011. In this study, we characterized the ultrastructure of NDiV, determined its complete genome sequence and made comparisons with other known nidoviruses. Electron microscopic observation revealed that the NDiV strain isolated in China produced viral nucleocapsid-like particles and vesicles in host cells. The extracellular virions were enveloped and were spherical with short spikes. The complete genome sequence of the newly isolated NDiV was submitted to the GenBank database (GenBank accession number KF522691)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323402/single-particle-observation-of-sv40-vp1-polyanion-induced-assembly-shows-that-substrate-size-and-structure-modulate-capsid-geometry
#7
Chenglei Li, Andrew R Kneller, Stephen C Jacobson, Adam Zlotnick
Simian virus 40 capsid protein (VP1) is a unique system for studying substrate-dependent assembly of a nanoparticle. Here, we investigate a simplest case of this system where twelve VP1 pentamers and a single polyanion, e.g. RNA, form a T=1 particle. To test the roles of polyanion substrate length and structure during assembly, we characterized the assembly products with size exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, and single-particle resistive-pulse sensing. We found that a 500 nt RNA has the optimal length and structure for assembly of uniform T=1 particles...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322871/recurrent-emergence-of-structural-variants-of-ltr-retrotransposon-csrn1-evolving-novel-expression-strategy-and-their-selective-expansion-in-a-carcinogenic-liver-fluke-clonorchis-sinensis
#8
Seon-Hee Kim, Yoon Kong, Young-An Bae
Autonomous retrotransposons, in which replication and transcription are coupled, encode the essential gag and pol genes as a fusion or separate overlapping form(s) that are expressed in single transcripts regulated by a common upstream promoter. The element-specific expression strategies have driven development of relevant translational recoding mechanisms including ribosomal frameshifting to satisfy the protein stoichiometry critical for the assembly of infectious virus-like particles. Retrotransposons with different recoding strategies exhibit a mosaic distribution pattern across the diverse families of reverse transcribing elements, even though their respective distributions are substantially skewed towards certain family groups...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321220/adjusted-particle-size-eliminates-the-need-of-linkage-of-antigen-and-adjuvants-for-appropriated-t-cell-responses-in-virus-like-particle-based-vaccines
#9
Ariane C Gomes, Anna Flace, Philippe Saudan, Franziska Zabel, Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Aadil El Turabi, Vania Manolova, Martin F Bachmann
Since the discovery of the first virus-like particle (VLP) derived from hepatitis B virus in 1980 (1), the field has expanded substantially. Besides successful use of VLPs as safe autologous virus-targeting vaccines, the powerful immunogenicity of VLPs has been also harnessed to generate immune response against heterologous and even self-antigens (2-4). Linking adjuvants to VLPs displaying heterologous antigen ensures simultaneous delivery of all vaccine components to the same antigen-presenting cells. As a consequence, antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, will process and present the antigen displayed on VLPs while receiving costimulatory signals by the VLP-incorporated adjuvant...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320287/subcellular-localization-and-detection-of-tobacco-mosaic-virus-orf6-protein-by-immunoelectron-microscopy
#10
T N Erokhina, E A Lazareva, K R Richert-Pöggeler, E V Sheval, A G Solovyev, S Y Morozov
Members of the genus Tobamovirus represent one of the best-characterized groups of plant positive, single stranded RNA viruses. Previous studies have shown that genomes of some tobamoviruses contain not only genes coding for coat protein, movement protein, and the cistron coding for different domains of RNA-polymerase, but also a gene, named ORF6, coding for a poorly conserved small protein. The amino acid sequences of ORF6 proteins encoded by different tobamoviruses are highly divergent. The potential role of ORF6 proteins in replication of tobamoviruses still needs to be elucidated...
January 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318765/in-vivo-electroporation-in-dna-vlp-prime-boost-preferentially-enhances-hiv-1-envelope-specific-igg2a-neutralizing-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#11
Xun Huang, Qianqian Zhu, Xiaoxing Huang, Lifei Yang, Yufeng Song, Ping Zhu, Paul Zhou
Although in vivo electroporation (EP) has been utilized to improve immunogenicity in DNA vaccines alone or in prime-boost regimens with both proteins and viral-vectors, no studies on in vivo EP in DNA-VLP prime-boost regimens against HIV-1 have been reported. Previously we developed stably transfected Drosophila S2 clones to produce HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLP) and demonstrated that priming mice twice with DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 gp120 and gag and boosting twice with HIV-1 VLP (i.e. DDVV immunization) elicited both envelope-specific antibody and envelope and gag-specific CD8 T cell responses...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317453/ebola-virus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-threat-to-humans-lessons-learnt-and-preparedness-plans-an-update-on-its-40-year-s-journey
#12
Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Swati Sachan, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil Kumar Joshi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals with high fatality rates. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. Furthermore, the virus may also get transferred through contaminated biological fluids like breast milk, tears, urine, semen, blood, etc...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300392/generation-and-characterization-of-virus-infection-enhancing-peptide-nanofibrils-functionalized-with-fluorescent-labels
#13
Sascha Rode, Manuel Hayn, Annika Röcker, Stefanie Sieste, Marcus Lamla, Daniel Markx, Christoph Meier, Frank Kirchhoff, Paul Walther, Marcus Fändrich, Tanja Weil, Jan Muench
Retroviral gene transfer is the method of choice for the stable introduction of genetic material into the cellular genome. However, efficient gene transfer is often limited by low transduction rates of the viral vectors. We have recently described a 12-mer peptide, termed EF-C that forms amyloid-like peptide nanofibrils (PNF) strongly increasing viral transduction efficiencies. These nanofibrils are polycationic and bind negatively charged membranes of virions and cells, thereby overcoming charge repulsions and resulting in increased rates of virion attachment and gene transfer...
March 16, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297127/a-biocatalytic-nanomaterial-for-the-label-free-detection-of-virus-like-particles
#14
Sabine Sykora, M Rita Correro, Negar Moridi, Gael Belliot, Pierre Pothier, Yves Dudal, Philippe Corvini, Patrick Shahgaldian
The design of nanomaterials that are capable of specific and sensitive biomolecular recognition is an on-going challenge in chemical and biochemical sciences. A number of sophisticated artificial systems have been designed to specifically recognize a variety of targets. However, methods based on natural biomolecular detection systems using antibodies are often superior. Besides greater affinity and selectivity, antibodies can be easily coupled to enzymatic systems that act as signal amplifiers, permitting tremendously low detection limits...
March 15, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294600/histo-blood-group-antigen-presentation-is-critical-for-norovirus-vlp-binding-to-glycosphingolipids-in-model-membranes
#15
Waqas Nasir, Martin Frank, Angelika Kunze, Marta Bally, Francisco Parra, Per-Georg Nyholm, Fredrik Höök, Göran Larson
Virus entry depends on biomolecular recognition at the surface of cell membranes. In case of glycolipid receptors, these events are expected to be influenced by how the glycan epitope close to the membrane is presented to the virus. This presentation of membrane associated glycans is more restricted as compared to glycans in solution, particularly because of orientational constraints imposed on the glycolipid through its lateral interactions with other membrane lipids and proteins. We have developed and employed total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) based binding assay and a scheme for molecular dynamics (MD) membrane simulations to investigate the consequences of various glycan presentation effects...
March 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293244/efficient-transient-expression-of-recombinant-proteins-in-plants-by-the-novel-peff-vector-based-on-the-genome-of-potato-virus-x
#16
Eugenia S Mardanova, Elena A Blokhina, Liudmila M Tsybalova, Hadrien Peyret, George P Lomonossoff, Nikolai V Ravin
Agroinfiltration of plant leaves with binary vectors carrying a gene of interest within a plant viral vector is a rapid and efficient method for protein production in plants. Previously, we constructed a self-replicating vector, pA7248AMV, based on the genetic elements of potato virus X (PVX), and have shown that this vector can be used for the expression of recombinant proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, this vector is almost 18 kb long and therefore not convenient for genetic manipulation. Furthermore, for efficient expression of the target protein it should be co-agroinfiltrated with an additional binary vector expressing a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292984/plaques-formed-by-mutagenized-viral-populations-have-elevated-coinfection-frequencies
#17
Elizabeth R Aguilera, Andrea K Erickson, Palmy R Jesudhasan, Christopher M Robinson, Julie K Pfeiffer
The plaque assay is a common technique used to measure virus concentrations and is based upon the principle that each plaque represents a single infectious unit. As such, the number of plaques is expected to correlate linearly with the virus dilution plated, and each plaque should be formed by a single founder virus. Here, we examined whether more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation. By using genetic and phenotypic assays with genetically marked polioviruses, we found that multiple parental viruses are present in 5 to 7% of plaques, even at an extremely low multiplicity of infection...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292718/latent-murine-leukemia-virus-infection-characterized-by-the-release-of-non-infectious-virions
#18
Stefano Boi, Erik Van Dis, Ethan J Hansen, Kyle Rosenke, Karin E Peterson, Morgan E Ferrell, Leonard H Evans
Clonal cell lines derived from cultures infected with a polytropic MuLV release vastly different levels of infectious virions ranging from undetectable to very high. Low producing clones release an overwhelming proportion of non-infectious virions containing retroviral RNA but deficient in the Env protein. Non-infectious virion production is not due to an inability of the cells to support infectious MuLV production or to an inherent replicative defectiveness of the proviruses. Reinfection of the lowest producing lines with the polytropic or an ecotropic MuLV results in enormous increases in the specific infectivity of the released virions...
March 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291648/combining-stable-insect-cell-lines-with-baculovirus-mediated-expression-for-multi-ha-influenza-vlp-production
#19
Daniela P Sequeira, Ricardo Correia, Manuel J T Carrondo, António Roldão, Ana P Teixeira, Paula M Alves
Safer and broadly protective vaccines are needed to cope with the continuous evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and promising approaches based on the expression of multiple hemagglutinins (HA) in a virus-like particle (VLP) have been proposed. However, expression of multiple genes in the same vector can lead to its instability due to tandem repetition of similar sequences. By combining stable with transient expression systems we can rationally distribute the number of genes to be expressed per platform and thus mitigate this risk...
March 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290554/the-core-protein-of-a-pestivirus-protects-the-incoming-virus-against-ifn-induced-effectors
#20
Christiane Riedel, Benjamin Lamp, Benedikt Hagen, Stanislav Indik, Till Rümenapf
A multitude of viral factors - either inhibiting the induction of the IFN-system or its effectors - have been described to date. However, little is known about the role of structural components of the incoming virus particle in protecting against IFN-induced antiviral factors during or immediately after entry. In this study, we take advantage of the previously reported property of Classical swine fever virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus) to tolerate a deletion of the core protein if a compensatory mutation is present in the NS3-helicase-domain (Vp447∆c)...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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