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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905200/development-of-a-stable-lung-microbiome-in-healthy-neonatal-mice
#1
Matea Kostric, Katrin Milger, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Marion Engel, Gisle Vestergaard, Michael Schloter, Anne Schöler
The lower respiratory tract has been previously considered sterile in a healthy state, but advances in culture-independent techniques for microbial identification and characterization have revealed that the lung harbors a diverse microbiome. Although research on the lung microbiome is increasing and important questions were already addressed, longitudinal studies aiming to describe developmental stages of the microbial communities from the early neonatal period to adulthood are lacking. Thus, little is known about the early-life development of the lung microbiome and the impact of external factors during these stages...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893867/mechanistic-insight-into-the-function-of-the-microbiome-in-lung-diseases
#2
Niki D J Ubags, Benjamin J Marsland
The lung harbours a diverse array of microbes whose dynamic composition is influenced by both host and environmental factors. Thus far, most studies have described the microbial composition of healthy or diseased lungs and provided an overview of the differences between topographical locations within the respiratory tract. However, insight into the functional mechanisms underlying host-microbe interactions and how they might drive lung health and disease are limited. This review provides an overview of the current mechanistic understanding of the microbiome, crosstalk between tissue compartments, and its involvement in respiratory diseases...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875147/protected-sampling-is-preferable-in-bronchoscopic-studies-of-the-airway-microbiome
#3
Rune Grønseth, Christine Drengenes, Harald G Wiker, Solveig Tangedal, Yaxin Xue, Gunnar Reksten Husebø, Øistein Svanes, Sverre Lehmann, Marit Aardal, Tuyen Hoang, Tharmini Kalananthan, Einar Marius Hjellestad Martinsen, Elise Orvedal Leiten, Marianne Aanerud, Eli Nordeide, Ingvild Haaland, Inge Jonassen, Per Bakke, Tomas Eagan
The aim was to evaluate susceptibility of oropharyngeal contamination with various bronchoscopic sampling techniques. 67 patients with obstructive lung disease and 58 control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with small-volume lavage (SVL) through the working channel, protected bronchoalveolar lavage (PBAL) and bilateral protected specimen brush (PSB) sampling. Subjects also provided an oral wash (OW) sample, and negative control samples were gathered for each bronchoscopy procedure. DNA encoding bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA was sequenced and bioinformatically processed to cluster into operational taxonomic units (OTU), assign taxonomy and obtain measures of diversity...
July 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869358/the-role-of-respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-microbiome-in-the-development-of-asthma-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Evelien R van Meel, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Klaus Bønnelykke, Johan C de Jongste, Liesbeth Duijts
Asthma is a common disease in childhood, and might predispose for chronic obstructive respiratory morbidity in adolescence and adulthood. Various early-life risk factors might influence the risk of wheezing, asthma, and lower lung function in childhood. Cohort studies demonstrated that lower respiratory tract infections in the first years of life are associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma, while the association with lung function is less clear. Additionally, the gut and airway microbiome might influence the risk of wheezing and asthma...
September 4, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860145/the-respiratory-tract-microbial-biogeography-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#5
Derrick R Samuelson, Ellen L Burnham, Vincent J Maffei, R William Vandivier, Eugene E Blanchard, Judd E Shellito, Meng Luo, Christopher M Taylor, David A Welsh
RATIONALE: Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are at an increased risk of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Data of the lung microbiome in the setting of AUDs are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the microbial biogeography of the upper and lower respiratory tract in individuals with AUDs compared to non-AUD subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gargle, protected bronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected during research bronchoscopies...
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859314/the-role-of-multispecies-social-interactions-in-shaping-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pathogenicity-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung
#6
Siobhán O'Brien, Joanne L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, it is now recognised that a diverse microbial community exists in the airways comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. This rich soup of microorganisms provides ample opportunity for interspecies interactions, particularly when considering secreted compounds. Here, we discuss how P. aeruginosa-secreted products can have community-wide effects, with the potential to ultimately shape microbial community dynamics within the lung...
August 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856733/a-bacteriophages-journey-through-the-human-body
#7
REVIEW
Jeremy J Barr
The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages...
September 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836573/stress-and-stability-applying-the-anna-karenina-principle-to-animal-microbiomes
#8
Jesse R Zaneveld, Ryan McMinds, Rebecca Vega Thurber
All animals studied to date are associated with symbiotic communities of microorganisms. These animal microbiotas often play important roles in normal physiological function and susceptibility to disease; predicting their responses to perturbation represents an essential challenge for microbiology. Most studies of microbiome dynamics test for patterns in which perturbation shifts animal microbiomes from a healthy to a dysbiotic stable state. Here, we consider a complementary alternative: that the microbiological changes induced by many perturbations are stochastic, and therefore lead to transitions from stable to unstable community states...
August 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829833/differences-of-lung-microbiome-in-patients-with-clinically-stable-and-exacerbated-bronchiectasis
#9
Min Kwang Byun, Joon Chang, Hyung Jung Kim, Seok Hoon Jeong
BACKGROUND: Molecular-based diagnostic techniques can compensate for the inherent limitations of culture-based microbiology and provide a more comprehensive description of an entire community of bacteria at a particular anatomical site. Using culture-independent DNA-based molecular techniques, the aim of the present study was to characterize, differentiate, and compare the composition of lower airway bacterial microbiome between clinically stable and acutely infected patients with bronchiectasis experiencing exacerbation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812256/the-potential-for-emerging-microbiome-mediated-therapeutics-in-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Ayse Bilge Ozturk, Benjamin Arthur Turturice, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma...
August 10, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802277/microbiome-in-lung-explants-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-case-control-study-in-patients-with-end-stage-fibrosis
#11
Georgios D Kitsios, Mauricio Rojas, Daniel J Kass, Adam Fitch, John C Sembrat, Shulin Qin, Kristen L Veraldi, Kevin F Gibson, Kathleen Lindell, Joseph M Pilewski, Barbara Methe, Kelvin Li, John McDyer, Bryan J McVerry, Alison Morris
The microbiome has been proposed to play a role in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) based on bronchoalveolar lavage analyses, but the microbiome of lung tissue in IPF has not been explored. In a case-control study of lung explants analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we could not reliably detect bacterial DNA in basilar tissue samples from patients with either chronic or acute exacerbations of IPF, in contrast to control candidate-donor lungs or cystic fibrosis explants. Thus, our data do not indicate microbiome alterations in regions of IPF lung with advanced fibrosis...
August 11, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776643/contributions-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-lung-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Jeremy P McAleer, Jay K Kolls
The intestine is a critical site of immune cell development that not only controls intestinal immunity but extra-intestinal immunity as well. Recent findings have highlighted important roles for gut microbiota in shaping lung inflammation. Here, we discuss interactions between the microbiota and immune system including T cells, protective effects of microbiota on lung infections, the role of diet in shaping the composition of gut microbiota and susceptibility to asthma, epidemiologic evidence implicating antibiotic use and microbiota in asthma and clinical trials investigating probiotics as potential treatments for atopy and asthma...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765980/the-aboveground-vegetation-type-and-underground-soil-property-mediate-the-divergence-of-soil-microbiomes-and-the-biological-interactions
#13
Shu-Hong Wu, Bing-Hong Huang, Chia-Lung Huang, Gang Li, Pei-Chun Liao
The composition of the soil microbiome is influenced by environmental (abiotic) variables and biological interactions (biotic factors). To determine whether the aboveground vegetation and soil physicochemical properties were the main determinant of beta-diversity and biological interaction of soil microbial community, we sampled soils from the temperate coniferous forest and grassland. Clustering of operational taxonomic units was conducted using 16S rRNA gene. We found that the microbial composition of the rhizospheres, in which root exudates influence the microbial environment, show lower alpha-diversity than that of nonroot soils...
August 1, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758937/a-different-microbiome-gene-repertoire-in-the-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-severe-lung-disease
#14
Giovanni Bacci, Alessio Mengoni, Ersilia Fiscarelli, Nicola Segata, Giovanni Taccetti, Daniela Dolce, Patrizia Paganin, Patrizia Morelli, Vanessa Tuccio, Alessandra De Alessandri, Vincenzina Lucidi, Annamaria Bevivino
In recent years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was employed to decipher the structure and composition of the microbiota of the airways in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, little is still known about the overall gene functions harbored by the resident microbial populations and which specific genes are associated with various stages of CF lung disease. In the present study, we aimed to identify the microbial gene repertoire of CF microbiota in twelve patients with severe and normal/mild lung disease by performing sputum shotgun metagenome sequencing...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756121/distal-airway-microbiome-is-associated-with-immunoregulatory-myeloid-cell-responses-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#15
Nirmal S Sharma, Keith M Wille, S Athira, Degui Zhi, Kenneth P Hough, Enrique Diaz-Guzman, Kui Zhang, Ranjit Kumar, Sunad Rangarajan, Peter Eipers, Yong Wang, Ritesh K Srivastava, Jose Vicente Rodriguez Dager, Mohammad Athar, Casey Morrow, Charles W Hoopes, David D Chaplin, Victor J Thannickal, Jessy S Deshane
BACKGROUND: Long-term survival of lung transplant recipients (LTRs) is limited by the occurrence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Recent evidence suggests a role for microbiome alterations in the occurrence of BOS, although the precise mechanisms are unclear. In this study we evaluated the relationship between the airway microbiome and distinct subsets of immunoregulatory myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in LTRs. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and simultaneous oral wash and nasal swab samples were collected from adult LTRs...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743263/exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-alters-the-microbial-composition-and-induces-immune-changes-in-rat-lung
#16
Naijian Li, Fang He, Baoling Liao, Yuming Zhou, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter exposure has been shown to increase the risks of respiratory diseases. However, the role of the lung microbiome and the immune response to inhaled particulate matter are largely unexplored. We studied the influence of biomass fuel and motor vehicle exhaust particles on the lung microbiome and pulmonary immunologic homeostasis in rats. METHODS: Fifty-seven Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into clean air (CON), biomass fuel (BMF), and motor vehicle exhaust (MVE) groups...
July 25, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741603/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
REVIEW
Lei Wang, Ke Hao, Ting Yang, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: The development of culture-independent techniques for microbiological analysis shows that bronchial tree is not sterile in either healthy or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individuals. With the advance of sequencing technologies, lung microbiome has become a new frontier for pulmonary disease research, and such advance has led to better understanding of the lung microbiome in COPD. This review aimed to summarize the recent advances in lung microbiome, its relationships with COPD, and the possible mechanisms that microbiome contributed to COPD pathogenesis...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740374/characterization-of-throat-microbial-flora-in-smokers-with-or-without-copd
#18
Wenqi Diao, Ning Shen, Yipeng Du, Ke Qian, Bei He
The study aimed to determine the relationship between throat microbiome and COPD. Sixty-five Chinese males (n=20, smokers without COPD; n=45 smokers with COPD) were included. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated differences of microbiome between COPD and controls, but no difference was observed between COPD patients with differing degrees of lung function or disease severity. Rarefaction analyses suggested that operational taxonomic units (OTUs, species-level) richness decreased in COPD. The dominant taxa between COPD and controls were similar, but the proportions of taxonomic distribution were different...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728934/beyond-bmi-obesity-and-lung-disease
#19
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Benjamin T Suratt, Jason H T Bates, Anne E Dixon
The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in the last 3 decades, and this increase has led to important changes in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of many common diseases. This review article examines the relationship between obesity and lung disease, highlighting some of the major findings that have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to this relationship. Changes in pulmonary function related to fat mass are important, but obesity is much more than simply a state of mass loading, and BMI is only a very indirect measure of metabolic health...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722755/the-potential-of-anti-infectives-and-immunomodulators-as-therapies-for-asthma-and-asthma-exacerbations
#20
Michael R Edwards, Ross P Walton, David J Jackson, Wojciech Feleszko, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Tuomas Jartti, Heidi Makrinoti, Alexandra Nikonova, Igor Shilovskiy, Jurgen Schwarze, Sebastian L Johnston, Musa Khaitov
Asthma is responsible for approximately 25,000 deaths annually in Europe despite available medicines that maintain asthma control and reduce asthma exacerbations. Better treatments are urgently needed for the control of chronic asthma and reduction of asthma exacerbations, the major cause of asthma mortality. Much research spanning >20 years shows a strong association between microorganisms including pathogens in asthma onset, severity and exacerbation, yet with the exception of antibiotics, few treatments are available that specifically target the offending pathogens...
July 19, 2017: Allergy
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