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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761483/epithelial-barrier-dysfunctions-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-skin-gut-lung-model-linking-microbiome-alteration-and-immune-dysregulation
#1
REVIEW
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756133/biology-of-teeth-and-implants-host-factors-pathology-regeneration-and-the-role-of-stem-cells
#2
F-Michael Eggert, Liran Levin
In chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved directly in the lesions within the tissues of the patient. Absence of a periodontal ligament around implants does not prevent a biologic process similar to that of periodontitis from affecting osseointegration. Our first focus is on factors in the biology of individuals that are responsible for the susceptibility of such individuals to chronic periodontitis and to peri-implantitis. Genetic factors are of significant importance in susceptibility to these diseases...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755982/clinical-genetics-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#3
REVIEW
Chad A Newton, Philip L Molyneaux, Justin M Oldham
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of diffuse parenchymal lung processes with overlapping clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features. Among the most common and deadly ILDs are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). As the name implies, the cause of IPF remains elusive, but a variety of genetic and infectious risk factors have been identified. CHP results from chronic inhalation of an organic antigen, usually of avian or mold origin, and may occur in patients with a genetic predisposition...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751492/aluminum-adjuvant-containing-vaccines-in-the-context-of-the-hygiene-hypothesis-a-risk-factor-for-eosinophilia-and-allergy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-subpopulation
#4
REVIEW
Todd D Terhune, Richard C Deth
There are similarities between the immune response following immunization with aluminum adjuvants and the immune response elicited by some helminthic parasites, including stimulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophilia. Immunization with aluminum adjuvants, as with helminth infection, induces a Th2 type cell mediated immune response, including eosinophilia, but does not induce an environment conducive to the induction of regulatory mechanisms. Helminths play a role in what is known as the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that decreased exposure to microbes during a critical time in early life has resulted in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and atopic disorders over the past few decades, especially in Western countries...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744361/the-role-of-the-immune-response-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiectasis
#5
REVIEW
Paul T King
Bronchiectasis is a prevalent respiratory condition characterised by permanent and abnormal dilation of the lung airways (bronchi). There are a large variety of causative factors that have been identified for bronchiectasis; all of these compromise the function of the immune response to fight infection. A triggering factor may lead to the establishment of chronic infection in the lower respiratory tract. The bacteria responsible for the lower respiratory tract infection are usually found as commensals in the upper respiratory tract microbiome...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725395/the-association-between-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-urethane-induced-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma
#6
Zenghua Deng, Zhihui Li, Changqing Sun, Hui Xie, Zhengang Chen, Jinbo Liu, Hui Wang, Chenggang Zhang, Guangshun Wang
Lung cancer is amongst the most common types of cancer throughout the world. The overall 5-year survival rate is ~17%. A number of studies have demonstrated that the microbiome existing within the host may affect the level of inflammation, and consequently contribute to the carcinogenesis of certain types of cancer. To investigate the role of inflammation and the microbiome in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer, an intervention study involving mice, including a control group (C; n=5), a urethane-induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma group (U; n=5) and a prebiotics intervention group (P; n=5) was carried out...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692778/new-players-in-immunity-to-tuberculosis-the-host-microbiome-lung-epithelium-and-innate-immune-cells
#7
REVIEW
Nancy Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, Babita Agrawal
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670460/towards-targeting-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-cystic-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Matteo Puccetti, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Vasileios Oikonomou, Antonella De Luca, Giorgia Renga, Monica Borghi, Marilena Pariano, Claudia Stincardini, Lucia Scaringi, Stefano Giovagnoli, Maurizio Ricci, Luigina Romani, Teresa Zelante
Tryptophan (trp) metabolism is an important regulatory component of gut mucosal homeostasis and the microbiome. Metabolic pathways targeting the trp can lead to a myriad of metabolites, of both host and microbial origins, some of which act as endogenous low-affinity ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a cytosolic, ligand-operated transcription factor that is involved in many biological processes, including development, cellular differentiation and proliferation, xenobiotic metabolism, and the immune response...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662547/pd-l1-expression-testing-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Cristina Teixidó, Noelia Vilariño, Roxana Reyes, Noemí Reguart
In recent years, immunotherapy has revolutionized and changed the standard of care in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, fundamentally those that act by blocking the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have emerged as novel treatment strategies in NSCLC, demonstrating undoubted superiority over chemotherapy in terms of efficacy. Several of these immune checkpoint modulators have recently gained regulatory approval for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, such as nivolumab, atezolizumab and pembrolizumab in first-line (only the latter) and second-line settings, and more recently, durvalumab as maintenance after chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#10
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627041/obesity-and-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Anne E Dixon, Erick Forno
Obesity is a vast public health problem and both a major risk factor and disease modifier for asthma in children and adults. Obese subjects have increased asthma risk, and obese asthmatic patients have more symptoms, more frequent and severe exacerbations, reduced response to several asthma medications, and decreased quality of life. Obese asthma is a complex syndrome, including different phenotypes of disease that are just beginning to be understood. We examine the epidemiology and characteristics of this syndrome in children and adults, as well as the changes in lung function seen in each age group...
April 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579771/the-human-respiratory-microbiome-implications-and-impact
#12
Alicia B Mitchell, Allan R Glanville
Once considered a sterile site below the larynx, the tracheobronchial tree and parenchyma of the lungs are now known to harbor a rich diversity of microbial species including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea. Many of these organisms, particularly the viruses which comprise the human respiratory virome, have not been identified, so their true role is unknown. It seems logical to conclude that a "healthy" respiratory microbiome exists which may be modified in disease states and perhaps by therapies such as antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral treatments...
April 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566072/behaviour-during-transportation-predicts-stress-response-and-lower-airway-contamination-in-horses
#13
Barbara Padalino, Sharanne L Raidal, Peter Knight, Pietro Celi, Leo Jeffcott, Gary Muscatello
This study aimed to document the effects of an eight hour journey on behavioural, clinical, haematological, environmental and respiratory parameters, and to identify possible associations between factors. Twelve horses underwent clinical examination, respiratory endoscopy with tracheal wash (TW) aspiration, and collection of venous and arterial blood before (BJ) and after the journey (AJ). TW were submitted for conventional quantitative bacteriological evaluation and genetic microbiome analyses. Behaviour was assessed in stables prior to transportation and throughout the journey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556537/translating-lung-microbiome-profiles-into-the-next-generation-diagnostic-gold-standard-for-pneumonia-a-clinical-investigator-s-perspective
#14
Georgios D Kitsios
Severe bacterial pneumonia is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality, yet current diagnostic approaches rely on identification of causative pathogens by cultures, which require extended incubation periods and often fail to detect relevant pathogens. Consequently, patients are prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics in a "one-size-fits-all" manner, which may be inappropriate for their individual needs and promote antibiotic resistance. My research focuses on leveraging next-generation sequencing of microbial DNA directly from patient samples for the development of new, culture-independent definitions of pneumonia...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540404/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolation-in-patients-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-retrospective-study
#15
Hong Wang, Xiao-Bin Ji, Bei Mao, Cheng-Wei Li, Hai-Wen Lu, Jin-Fu Xu
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) occupies an important niche in the pathogenic microbiome of bronchiectasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of P. aeruginosa in Chinese adult patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This retrospective and follow-up study enrolled 1188 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012. The patients' clinical data including anthropometry, clinical symptoms, serum biomarkers, radiographic manifestations and lung function indices were reviewed...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533677/the-lung-microbiota-of-healthy-mice-are-highly-variable-cluster-by-environment-and-reflect-variation-in-baseline-lung-innate-immunity
#16
Robert P Dickson, John R Erb-Downward, Nicole R Falkowski, Ellen M Hunter, Shanna L Ashley, Gary B Huffnagle
RATIONALE: The "gut-lung axis" is commonly invoked to explain the microbiome's influence on lung inflammation. Yet the lungs harbor their own microbiome which is altered in respiratory disease. The relative influence of gut and lung bacteria on lung inflammation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if baseline lung immune tone reflects local (lung-lung) or remote (gut-lung) microbe-host interactions. METHODS: We compared lung, tongue, and cecal bacteria in forty healthy, genetically-identical 10-week old mice using 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518088/short-term-dynamics-of-the-sputum-microbiome-among-copd-patients
#17
Rohita Sinha, Lisa A Weissenburger-Moser, Jennifer L Clarke, Lynette M Smith, Art J Heires, Debra J Romberger, Tricia D LeVan
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. The complexity of the lung microbial community in COPD patients has been highlighted in recent years. Evidence suggests that transplantation, medications, age, and disease severity influence microbial community membership. However, the dynamics of the lung microbiome in stable COPD patients remain poorly understood. In this study, we completed a longitudinal 16S ribosomal RNA survey of the lung microbiome on replicate sputum samples collected from 4 former smokers with COPD (Stage 2) within a 2-day time period...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515570/factors-affecting-the-immunity-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-from-epigenetics-to-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Wendy Fonseca, Nicholas W Lukacs, Catherine Ptaschinski
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen that infects virtually all children by 2 years of age and is the leading cause of hospitalization of infants worldwide. While most children experience mild symptoms, some children progress to severe lower respiratory tract infection. Those children with severe disease have a much higher risk of developing childhood wheezing later in life. Many risk factors are known to result in exacerbated disease, including premature birth and early age of RSV infection, when the immune system is relatively immature...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515035/exosomal-microrna-predicts-and-protects-against-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-extremely-premature-infants
#19
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Nelida Olave, Colm Travers, Gabriel Rezonzew, Kalsang Dolma, Alexandra Simpson, Brian Halloran, Zubair Aghai, Pragnya Das, Nirmal Sharma, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Derek Russell, Tomasz Szul, Nengjun Yi, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Premature infants are at high risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by chronic inflammation and inhibition of lung development, which we have recently identified as being modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and alterations in the airway microbiome. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs may regulate cell differentiation and tissue and organ development. We discovered that tracheal aspirates from infants with severe BPD had increased numbers of, but smaller, exosomes compared with term controls...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486761/impaired-diversity-of-the-lung-microbiome-predicts-progression-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#20
Youhei Takahashi, Atsushi Saito, Hirofumi Chiba, Koji Kuronuma, Kimiyuki Ikeda, Tomofumi Kobayashi, Shigeru Ariki, Motoko Takahashi, Yasushi Sasaki, Hiroki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most frequent and severe form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Although IPF has not been thought to be associated with bacterial communities, recent papers reported the possible role of microbiome composition in IPF. The roles of microbiomes in respiratory functions and as clinical biomarkers for IPF remain unknown. In this study, we aim to identify the relationship between the microbial environment in the lung and clinical findings...
February 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
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