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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427967/mechanisms-underlying-hiv-associated-non-infectious-lung-disease
#1
REVIEW
Rachel M Presti, Sonia C Flores, Brent E Palmer, Jeffrey J Atkinson, Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Andrew P Fontenot, Jesse Roman, John F McDyer, Homer L Twigg
Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of cART. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggest that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage which predisposes PLWH to these conditions...
April 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#2
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408748/the-microbiome-of-the-lung-and-its-extracellular-vesicles-in-nonsmokers-healthy-smokers-and-copd-patients
#3
Hyun Jung Kim, You-Sun Kim, Kang-Hyun Kim, Jun-Pyo Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim, Sunmi Yun, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Sei Won Lee
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, and bacterial infection plays a role in its pathogenesis. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs), which may induce more immune dysfunction and inflammation than the bacteria themselves. We hypothesized that the microbiome of lung EVs might have distinct characteristics depending on the presence of COPD and smoking status. We analyzed and compared the microbiomes of 13 nonsmokers with normal spirometry, 13 smokers with normal spirometry (healthy smokers) and 13 patients with COPD by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of surgical lung tissue and lung EVs...
April 14, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404649/the-microbiome-in-respiratory-medicine-current-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Rosa Faner, Oriol Sibila, Alvar Agustí, Eric Bernasconi, James D Chalmers, Gary B Huffnagle, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Philip L Molyneaux, Roger Paredes, Vicente Pérez Brocal, Julia Ponomarenko, Sanjay Sethi, Jordi Dorca, Eduard Monsó
The healthy lung has previously been considered to be a sterile organ because standard microbiological culture techniques consistently yield negative results. However, culture-independent techniques report that large numbers of microorganisms coexist in the lung. There are many unknown aspects in the field, but available reports show that the lower respiratory tract microbiota: 1) is similar in healthy subjects to the oropharyngeal microbiota and dominated by members of the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla; 2) shows changes in smokers and well-defined differences in chronic respiratory diseases, although the temporal and spatial kinetics of these changes are only partially known; and 3) shows relatively abundant non-cultivable bacteria in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, with specific patterns for each disease...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403451/the-lung-microbiome-key-to-respiratory-ills
#5
Jeff Lyon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367508/alterations-of-the-murine-gut-microbiome-in-allergic-airway-disease-are-independent-of-surfactant-protein-d
#7
Kenneth K Barfod, Michael Roggenbuck, Suzan Al-Shuweli, Dalia Fakih, Søren J Sørensen, Grith L Sørensen
BACKGROUND: SP-D is an important host defense lectin in innate immunity and SP-D deficient mice show several abnormal immune effects and are susceptible to allergen-induced airway disease. At the same time, host microbiome interactions play an important role in the development of allergic airway disease, and alterations to gut microbiota have been linked to airway disease through the gut-lung axis. Currently, it is unknown if the genotype (Sftpd-/- or Sftpd+/+) of the standard SP-D mouse model can affect the host microbiota to such an degree that it would overcome the cohousing effect on microbiota and interfere with the interpretation of immunological data from the model...
March 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356374/concordance-between-upper-and-lower-airway-microbiota-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Sabine M P J Prevaes, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Karin M de Winter-de Groot, Hettie M Janssens, Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders, Mei Ling J N Chu, Harm A Tiddens, Mireille van Westreenen, Cornelis K van der Ent, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Debby Bogaert
Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples are commonly used to direct therapy for lower respiratory tract infections in non-expectorating infants with cystic fibrosis (CF).We aimed to investigate the concordance between the bacterial community compositions of 25 sets of nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 17 infants with CF aged ∼5 months (n=13) and ∼12 months (n=12) using conventional culturing and 16S-rRNA sequencing.Clustering analyses demonstrated that BAL microbiota profiles were in general characterised by a mixture of oral and nasopharyngeal bacteria, including commensals like Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella and Rothia spp...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342288/the-role-of-acute-and-chronic-respiratory-colonization-and-infections-in-the-pathogenesis-of-copd
#9
REVIEW
Janice M Leung, Pei Yee Tiew, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Kurtis F Budden, Valerie Fei Lee Yong, Sangeeta S Thomas, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro, Sanjay H Chotirmall
COPD is a major global concern, increasingly so in the context of ageing populations. The role of infections in disease pathogenesis and progression is known to be important, yet the mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. While COPD pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are strongly associated with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), the clinical relevance of these pathogens in stable COPD patients remains unclear. Immune responses in stable and colonized COPD patients are comparable to those detected in AECOPD, supporting a role for chronic colonization in COPD pathogenesis through perpetuation of deleterious immune responses...
March 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321543/understanding-the-lung-abscess-microbiome-outcomes-of-percutaneous-lung-parenchymal-abscess-drainage-with-microbiologic-correlation
#10
Christopher Duncan, Gregory J Nadolski, Terence Gade, Stephen Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed...
March 20, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319121/growth-altering-microbial-interactions-are-responsive-to-chemical-context
#11
Angela Liu, Anne M Archer, Matthew B Biggs, Jason A Papin
Microbial interactions are ubiquitous in nature, and are equally as relevant to human wellbeing as the identities of the interacting microbes. However, microbial interactions are difficult to measure and characterize. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that they are not fixed, but dependent on environmental context. We present a novel workflow for inferring microbial interactions that integrates semi-automated image analysis with a colony stamping mechanism, with the overall effect of improving throughput and reproducibility of colony interaction assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#12
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316330/the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-gatekeeper-to-respiratory-health
#13
REVIEW
Wing Ho Man, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Debby Bogaert
The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293926/prenatal-maternal-distress-and-allergic-diseases-in-offspring-review-of-evidence-and-possible-pathways
#14
REVIEW
Dong In Suh, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Eun Lee, Song I Yang, Soo Jong Hong
Recent studies have suggested a close association between prenatal maternal distress and allergic diseases in the offspring. We selected relevant birth-cohort or national registry studies using a keyword search of the PubMed database and summarized current evidence on the impact of prenatal maternal distress on the development of offspring's allergic diseases. Moreover, we postulated possible pathways linking prenatal distress and allergic diseases based on relevant human and animal studies. Both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased oxidative stress may cause structural (altered brain/lung development) and functional (skewed immune development) changes, which may predispose the fetus to developing allergic diseases during childhood...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279152/the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
D G Burke, F Fouhy, M J Harrison, M C Rea, P D Cotter, O O'Sullivan, C Stanton, C Hill, F Shanahan, B J Plant, R P Ross
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the function of a number of organs, principally the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent antibiotic exposure, undoubtedly disrupts the gut microbiota. To analyse the effects of CF and its management on the microbiome, we compared the gut microbiota of 43 individuals with CF during a period of stability, to that of 69 non-CF controls using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
March 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278278/dynamic-changes-of-the-respiratory-microbiota-and-its-relationship-to-fecal-and-blood-microbiota-in-healthy-young-cats
#16
Aida I Vientós-Plotts, Aaron C Ericsson, Hansjorg Rindt, Megan E Grobman, Amber Graham, Kaitlin Bishop, Leah A Cohn, Carol R Reinero
Advances in the field of metagenomics using culture-independent methods of microbial identification have allowed characterization of rich and diverse communities of bacteria in the lungs of healthy humans, mice, dogs, sheep and pigs. These data challenge the long held belief that the lungs are sterile and microbial colonization is synonymous with pathology. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate differences in the composition of airway microbiota in health versus disease suggesting respiratory dysbiosis occurs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259058/community-analysis-of-dental-plaque-and-endotracheal-tube-biofilms-from-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#17
Poala J Marino, Matt P Wise, Ann Smith, Julian R Marchesi, Marcello P Riggio, Michael A O Lewis, David W Williams
PURPOSE: Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, and it has been reported that dental plaque provides a reservoir of respiratory pathogens that may aspirate to the lungs and endotracheal tube (ETT) biofilms. For the first time, metataxonomics was used to simultaneously characterize the microbiome of dental plaque, ETTs, and non-directed bronchial lavages (NBLs) in mechanically ventilated patients to determine similarities in respective microbial communities and therefore likely associations...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253277/longitudinal-sampling-of-the-lung-microbiota-in-individuals-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Fiona J Whelan, Alya A Heirali, Laura Rossi, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins, Michael G Surette
Cystic fibrosis (CF) manifests in the lungs resulting in chronic microbial infection. Most morbidity and mortality in CF is due to cycles of pulmonary exacerbations-episodes of acute inflammation in response to the lung microbiome-which are difficult to prevent and treat because their cause is not well understood. We hypothesized that longitudinal analyses of the bacterial component of the CF lung microbiome may elucidate causative agents within this community for pulmonary exacerbations. In this study, 6 participants were sampled thrice-weekly for up to one year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252578/the-human-microbiome-and-understanding-the-16s-rrna-gene-in-translational-nursing-science
#19
Nancy J Ames, Alexandra Ranucci, Brad Moriyama, Gwenyth R Wallen
BACKGROUND: As more is understood regarding the human microbiome, it is increasingly important for nurse scientists and healthcare practitioners to analyze these microbial communities and their role in health and disease. 16S rRNA sequencing is a key methodology in identifying these bacterial populations that has recently transitioned from use primarily in research to having increased utility in clinical settings. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to (a) describe 16S rRNA sequencing and its role in answering research questions important to nursing science; (b) provide an overview of the oral, lung, and gut microbiomes and relevant research; and (c) identify future implications for microbiome research and 16S sequencing in translational nursing science...
March 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196961/bacterial-topography-of-the-healthy-human-lower-respiratory-tract
#20
Robert P Dickson, John R Erb-Downward, Christine M Freeman, Lisa McCloskey, Nicole R Falkowski, Gary B Huffnagle, Jeffrey L Curtis
Although culture-independent techniques have refuted lung sterility in health, controversy about contamination during bronchoscope passage through the upper respiratory tract (URT) has impeded research progress. We sought to establish whether bronchoscopic sampling accurately reflects the lung microbiome in health and to distinguish between two proposed routes of authentic microbial immigration, (i) dispersion along contiguous respiratory mucosa and (ii) subclinical microaspiration. During bronchoscopy of eight adult volunteers without lung disease, we performed seven protected specimen brushings (PSB) and bilateral bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) per subject...
February 14, 2017: MBio
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