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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067677/the-microbiome-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#1
Yudong Yin, Peter Hountras, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discovery of a normal lung microbiome requires reassessment of our concepts of HAP/VAP pathogenesis and has important implications for clinical diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in the microbiome of dental plaque are associated with increased risk of HAP/VAP. A transition to a lung microbiome enriched with gut flora is found in ARDS with an increased inflammatory response in patients with this change in microbial flora. A characteristic microbiome pattern of higher amounts of bacterial DNA, lower community diversity, and greater relative abundance of a single species characterize pneumonia and occasionally identify bacteria not found in culture...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#2
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057179/biomarqueurs-pr%C3%A3-dictifs-de-r%C3%A3-ponse-aux-traitements-bloquant-les-voies-de-costimulation-inhibitrices
#3
Franck Pagès, Clémence Granier, Amos Kirilovsky, Carine Elsissy, Eric Tartour
Immunotherapies targeting co-inhibitory receptors recently open a new promising approach of cancer treatment. Indeed, an objective clinical response was observed after treatment by anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 in many indications but the treatment still failed in 70 to 80 % of cases treated. Given the adverse effects and the high cost of these therapies, there is a need for the development of biomarkers. This review focus on potential predictive biomarkers. In peripheral blood, high level of Il-2 soluble receptor at baseline and absence of ICOS+ CD4-T lymphocytes induction may be associated with the absence of clinical response for melanoma patients treated by ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4)...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045458/bacteria-isolated-from-lung-modulate-asthma-susceptibility-in-mice
#4
Aude Remot, Delphyne Descamps, Marie-Louise Noordine, Abdelhak Boukadiri, Elliot Mathieu, Véronique Robert, Sabine Riffault, Bart Lambrecht, Philippe Langella, Hamida Hammad, Muriel Thomas
Asthma is a chronic, non-curable, multifactorial disease with increasing incidence in industrial countries. This study evaluates the direct contribution of lung microbial components in allergic asthma in mice. Germ-Free and Specific-Pathogen-Free mice display similar susceptibilities to House Dust Mice-induced allergic asthma, indicating that the absence of bacteria confers no protection or increased risk to aeroallergens. In early life, allergic asthma changes the pattern of lung microbiota, and lung bacteria reciprocally modulate aeroallergen responsiveness...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005424/the-lung-microbiome-and-airway-disease
#5
Susan V Lynch
A growing body of literature has demonstrated relationships between the composition of the airway microbiota (mixed-species communities of microbes that exist in the respiratory tract) and critical features of immune response and pulmonary function. These studies provide evidence that airway inflammatory status and capacity for repair are coassociated with specific taxonomic features of the airway microbiome. Although directionality has yet to be established, the fact that microbes are known drivers of inflammation and tissue damage suggests that in the context of chronic inflammatory airway disease, the composition and, more importantly, the function, of the pulmonary microbiome represent critical factors in defining airway disease outcomes...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995056/ralstonia-mannitolilytica-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-new-predictor-of-worse-outcomes
#6
I Coman, L Bilodeau, A Lavoie, M Carricart, F Tremblay, J E Zlosnik, Y Berthiaume
BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis are subject to repeated respiratory tract infections, with recent increasing isolation of unusual pathogens. Ralstonia species have lately been isolated at our institution, an organism historically frequently misidentified as Burkholderia or Pseudomonas. The prevalence of Ralstonia spp. in cystic fibrosis populations has yet to be determined, along with its clinical implications. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Seven patients out of the 301 followed at our cystic fibrosis clinic have had Ralstonia strains identified in their respiratory tract...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987594/characterization-of-microbiome-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-patients-with-lung-cancer-comparing-with-benign-mass-like-lesions
#7
Sang Hoon Lee, Ji Yeon Sung, Dongeun Yong, Jongsik Chun, Song Yee Kim, Joo Han Song, Kyung Soo Chung, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Moo Suk Park
OBJECTIVES: Disruption in the stability of respiratory microbiota is known to be associated with many chronic respiratory diseases. However, only few studies have examined microbiomes in lung cancer. Therefore, we characterized and compared the microbiomes of patients with lung cancer and those with benign mass-like lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bronchoalveolar fluid was collected prospectively to evaluate lung masses in patients who had undergone bronchoscopies from May to September 2015...
December 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965663/alteration-in-the-gut-microbiota-provokes-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#8
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Sajid Nadeem, Shikha Negi, Girish Nair, Javed N Agrewala
The microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the lungs, liver, and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930727/airway-microbiota-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-clinically-well-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Theresa A Laguna, Brandie D Wagner, Cynthia B Williams, Mark J Stevens, Charles E Robertson, Cole W Welchlin, Catherine E Moen, Edith T Zemanick, Jonathan K Harris
BACKGROUND: Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics. METHODS: BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP) culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925857/analysis-of-the-intestinal-microbial-community-and-inferred-functional-capacities-during-the-host-response-to-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#10
Derrick R Samuelson, Tysheena P Charles, Nicholas M de la Rua, Christopher M Taylor, Eugene E Blanchard, Meng Luo, Judd E Shellito, David A Welsh
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we evaluated the intestinal microbial communities associated with the development of experimental Pneumocystis pneumonia, as there is growing evidence that the intestinal microbiota is critical for host defense against fungal pathogens. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with live Pneumocystis murina (P. murina) via intratracheal inoculation and sacrificed 7 and 14 days postinfection for microbiota analysis...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925791/reemergence-of-lower-airway-microbiota-in-lung-transplant-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Saad A Syed, Fiona J Whelan, Barbara Waddell, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins, Michael G Surette
RATIONALE: Chronic lung infections are a hallmark of cystic fibrosis; they are responsible for progressive airway destruction and ultimately lead to respiratory death or the requirement for life-saving bilateral lung transplant. Furthermore, recurrent isolation of airway pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the allograft after transplant is associated with adverse outcomes, including bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and acute infections. Little information exists on the impact of bilateral lung transplant on the lower-airway microbiota...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919253/cystic-fibrosis-lung-environment-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#12
Anjali Y Bhagirath, Yanqi Li, Deepti Somayajula, Maryam Dadashi, Sara Badr, Kangmin Duan
BACKGROUND: The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are highly complex, subject to various environmental conditions as well as a distinct microbiota. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as one of the most important pulmonary pathogens and the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. A multifarious interplay between the host, pathogens, microbiota, and the environment shapes the course of the disease. There have been several excellent reviews detailing CF pathology, Pseudomonas and the role of environment in CF but only a few reviews connect these entities with regards to influence on the overall course of the disease...
December 5, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919249/-the-microbiome-and-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Ashley Sullivan, Eoin Hunt, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of microbial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique microbiota with apparent, reproducible differences present between healthy and diseased lungs...
December 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905542/defining-an-olfactory-receptor-function-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#14
William H Aisenberg, Jessie Huang, Wanqu Zhu, Premraj Rajkumar, Randy Cruz, Lakshmi Santhanam, Niranjana Natarajan, Hwan Mee Yong, Breann De Santiago, Jung Jin Oh, A-Rum Yoon, Reynold A Panettieri, Oliver Homann, John K Sullivan, Stephen B Liggett, Jennifer L Pluznick, Steven S An
Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#15
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902422/microbiota-dysbiosis-a-new-piece-in-the-understanding-of-the-carcinogenesis-puzzle
#16
Valeria García-Castillo, Enrique Sanhueza, Eileen McNerney, Sergio A Onate, Apolinaria García
Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cells in a host and it is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in its development, and the involvement of microbial communities has also recently been recognized. The close relationship that characterizes the colonization by human commensal communities involves health risks, particularly when the homeostasis is disturbed. It has been hypothesized that this process may lead to cancer by modulating the inflammatory response of the host, by the production of carcinogenic metabolic products or by the production of toxins, which disrupt the cell cycle...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895174/human-lung-fibroblasts-present-bacterial-antigens-to-autologous-lung-th-cells
#17
Andrew J Hutton, Marta E Polak, C Mirella Spalluto, Joshua C Wallington, Chris Pickard, Karl J Staples, Jane A Warner, Tom M A Wilkinson
Lung fibroblasts are key structural cells that reside in the submucosa where they are in contact with large numbers of CD4(+) Th cells. During severe viral infection and chronic inflammation, the submucosa is susceptible to bacterial invasion by lung microbiota such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Given their proximity in tissue, we hypothesized that human lung fibroblasts play an important role in modulating Th cell responses to NTHi. We demonstrate that fibroblasts express the critical CD4(+) T cell Ag-presentation molecule HLA-DR within the human lung, and that this expression can be recapitulated in vitro in response to IFN-γ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872615/microbial-communities-of-conducting-and-respiratory-zones-of-lung-transplanted-patients
#18
Marie Beaume, Vladimir Lazarevic, Thilo Köhler, Nadia Gaïa, Oriol Manuel, John-David Aubert, Loïc Baerlocher, Laurent Farinelli, Paola Gasche, Jacques Schrenzel, Christian van Delden
Background: Lung transplantation (LT) is a recognized treatment for end-stage pulmonary disease. Bacteria from the recipient nasopharynx seed the new lungs leading to infections and allograft damage. Understanding the characteristics and topological variations of the microbiota may be important to apprehend the pathophysiology of allograft dysfunction. Objectives: To examine the characteristics and relationship of bacterial compositions between conducting and respiratory zones of the allograft. Methods: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on bronchial aspirates (BAs) and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) collected in pairs in 19 patients at several time-points post-LT...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868161/neutrophil-plasticity-enables-the-development-of-pathological-microenvironments-implications-for-cystic-fibrosis-airway-disease
#19
REVIEW
Camilla Margaroli, Rabindra Tirouvanziam
INTRODUCTION: The pathological course of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, features an aberrant innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. In cystic fibrosis, neutrophil burden and activity of neutrophil elastase in the extracellular fluid have been identified as strong predictors of lung disease severity. REVIEW: Although neutrophils are generally considered to be rigid, pre-programmed effector leukocytes, recent studies suggest extensive plasticity in how neutrophil functions unfold upon recruitment to peripheral tissues, and how they choose their ultimate fate...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855721/the-lung-microbiota-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-autoimmunity
#20
Jose U Scher, Vijay Joshua, Alejandro Artacho, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Johan Öckinger, Susanna Kullberg, Magnus Sköld, Anders Eklund, Johan Grunewald, Jose C Clemente, Carles Ubeda, Leopoldo N Segal, Anca I Catrina
BACKGROUND: Airway abnormalities and lung tissue citrullination are found in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and individuals at-risk for disease development. This suggests the possibility that the lung could be a site of autoimmunity generation in RA, perhaps in response to microbiota changes. We therefore sought to test whether the RA lung microbiome contains distinct taxonomic features associated with local and/or systemic autoimmunity. METHODS: 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing was utilized to compare the bacterial community composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) in patients with early, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD)-naïve RA, patients with lung sarcoidosis, and healthy control subjects...
November 17, 2016: Microbiome
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