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lung microbiota

Aran Singanayagam, Andrew I Ritchie, Sebastian L Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Xiaozhou Fan, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Jing Wu, Brandilyn A Peters, Eric J Jacobs, Susan M Gapstur, Mark P Purdue, Christian C Abnet, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, George Miller, Jacques Ravel, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
OBJECTIVE: A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study. DESIGN: We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial...
October 14, 2016: Gut
Jianguo Li, Chunyan Hao, Lili Ren, Yan Xiao, Jianwei Wang, Xuemei Qin
The major therapeutic strategy used to treat exacerbated cystic fibrosis (CF) is antibiotic treatment. As this approach easily generates antibiotic-resistant strains of opportunistic bacteria, optimized antibiotic therapies are required to effectively control chronic and recurrent bacterial infections in CF patients. A promising future for the proper use of antibiotics is the management of lung microbiota. However, the impact of antibiotic treatments on CF microbiota and vice versa is not fully understood. This study analyzed 718 sputum samples from 18 previous studies to identify differences between CF and uninfected lung microbiota and to evaluate the effects of antibiotic treatments on exacerbated CF microbiota...
2016: PloS One
Daniel V Christophersen, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Maria H G Andersen, Shea P Connell, Kenneth K Barfod, Morten B Thomsen, Mark R Miller, Rodger Duffin, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ulla Vogel, Håkan Wallin, Steffen Loft, Martin Roursgaard, Peter Møller
Exposure to high aspect ratio nanomaterials, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may be associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis, pulmonary disease, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular and pulmonary health effects of 10 weeks of repeated oral or pulmonary exposures to MWCNTs (4 or 40μg each week) in Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a Western-type diet. Intratracheal instillation of MWCNTs was associated with oxidative damage to DNA in lung tissue and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma, whereas the exposure only caused a modest pulmonary inflammation in terms of increased numbers of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
October 7, 2016: Toxicology
Dragana Stanley, Linda J Mason, Kate E Mackin, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Dena Lyras, Monica D Prakash, Kulmira Nurgali, Andres Venegas, Michael D Hill, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Bacterial infection is highly prevalent in patients who have had a stroke. Despite the potential contribution of micro-aspiration in post-stroke pneumonia, we found that the majority of the microorganisms detected in the patients who developed infections after having a stroke were common commensal bacteria that normally reside in the intestinal tracts. In a mouse model of ischemic stroke, post-stroke infection was only observed in mice that were born and raised in specific-pathogen-free facilities; this was not seen in mice that were born and raised in germ-free facilities...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
Kurtis F Budden, Shaan L Gellatly, David L A Wood, Matthew A Cooper, Mark Morrison, Philip Hugenholtz, Philip M Hansbro
The microbiota is vital for the development of the immune system and homeostasis. Changes in microbial composition and function, termed dysbiosis, in the respiratory tract and the gut have recently been linked to alterations in immune responses and to disease development in the lungs. In this Opinion article, we review the microbial species that are usually found in healthy gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, their dysbiosis in disease and interactions with the gut-lung axis. Although the gut-lung axis is only beginning to be understood, emerging evidence indicates that there is potential for manipulation of the gut microbiota in the treatment of lung diseases...
October 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Inge Kepert, Juliano Fonseca, Constanze Müller, Katrin Milger, Kerstin Hochwind, Matea Kostric, Maria Fedoseeva, Caspar Ohnmacht, Stefan Dehmel, Petra Nathan, Sabine Bartel, Oliver Eickelberg, Michael Schloter, Anton Hartmann, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann
BACKGROUND: Chronic immune diseases (CIDs), such as asthma, are highly prevalent. Currently available pharmaceuticals improve symptoms, but cannot cure the disease. This prompted demands for alternatives to pharmaceuticals such as probiotics for prevention of allergic disease. However, clinical trials have given inconsistent results. This is at least partly explained by the highly complex crosstalk among probiotic bacteria, the host´s microbiota, and immune cells. The identification of a bioactive substance from probiotic bacteria could circumvent this difficulty...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Robert P Dickson, Benjamin H Singer, Michael W Newstead, Nicole R Falkowski, John R Erb-Downward, Theodore J Standiford, Gary B Huffnagle
Sepsis and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are major causes of mortality without targeted therapies. Although many experimental and clinical observations have implicated gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of these diseases, culture-based studies have failed to demonstrate translocation of bacteria to the lungs in critically ill patients. Here, we report culture-independent evidence that the lung microbiome is enriched with gut bacteria both in a murine model of sepsis and in humans with established ARDS...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Yan Hua Kong, Qi Shi, Na Han, Ling Zhang, Yuan Yuan Zhang, Tong Xin Gao, Chen Chen, You Lin Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether recuperating lung decoction (RLD) can modulate the composition of gut microbiota in rats during asthma treatment. METHODS: Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly and equally into control group, model group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, RLD medium-dose group, and RLD high-dose group. The asthma model was established in all groups, except for the control group. The rats in the DEX and RLD groups were treated orally with DEX and RLD, respectively...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
James T Rosenbaum, Mark J Asquith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The microbiome is the term that describes the microbial ecosystem that cohabits an organism such as humans. The microbiome has been implicated in a long list of immune-mediated diseases which include rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and even gout. The mechanisms to account for this effect are multiple. The clinical implications from observations on the microbiome and disease are broad. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing number of microbiota constituents such as Prevotella copri, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Collinsella have been correlated or causally related to rheumatic disease...
October 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Matthias Hauptmann, Ulrich E Schaible
An increasing body of evidence indicates the relevance of microbiota for pulmonary health and disease. Independent investigations recently demonstrated that the lung harbors a resident microbiota. Therefore, it is intriguing that a lung microbiota can shape pulmonary immunity and epithelial barrier functions. Here, we discuss the ways how the composition of the microbial community in the lung may influence pulmonary health and vice versa, factors that determine community composition. Prominent microbiota at other body sites such as the intestinal one may also contribute to pulmonary health and disease...
September 17, 2016: FEBS Letters
Bo-Young Hong, Nancy Paula Maulén, Alexander J Adami, Hector Granados, María Elvira Balcells, Jorge Cervantes
The critical role of commensal microbiota in the human body has been increasingly recognized, and our understanding of its implications in human health and disease has expanded rapidly. The lower respiratory tract contains diverse communities of microbes known as lung microbiota, which are present in healthy individuals and in individuals with respiratory diseases. The dysbiosis of the airway microbiota in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may play a role in the pathophysiological processes associated with TB disease...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Emma M de Koff, Karin M de Winter – de Groot, Debby Bogaert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is punctuated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and recurrent pulmonary exacerbations, and is the major determinant of a patient's life expectancy. With the advent of novel deep-sequencing techniques, polymicrobial bacterial assemblages rather than single pathogens seem to be responsible for the deterioration of pulmonary function. This review summarizes recent insights into the development of the CF respiratory tract microbiome, with its determinants and its relations to clinical parameters...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Leopoldo N Segal, Jose C Clemente, Jun-Chieh J Tsay, Sergei B Koralov, Brian C Keller, Benjamin G Wu, Yonghua Li, Nan Shen, Elodie Ghedin, Alison Morris, Phillip Diaz, Laurence Huang, William R Wikoff, Carles Ubeda, Alejandro Artacho, William N Rom, Daniel H Sterman, Ronald G Collman, Martin J Blaser, Michael D Weiden
Microaspiration is a common phenomenon in healthy subjects, but its frequency is increased in chronic inflammatory airway diseases, and its role in inflammatory and immune phenotypes is unclear. We have previously demonstrated that acellular bronchoalveolar lavage samples from half of the healthy people examined are enriched with oral taxa (here called pneumotypeSPT) and this finding is associated with increased numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage. Here, we have characterized the inflammatory phenotype using a multi-omic approach...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Hiroshi Mukae, Shingo Noguchi, Keisuke Naito, Toshinori Kawanami, Kei Yamasaki, Kazumasa Fukuda, Kentaro Akata, Yuichi Fukuda, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Noriho Sakamoto, Hatsumi Taniguchi, Kazuhiro Yatera
BACKGROUND: Appropriate antibiotic use reduces the mortality of patients with lung abscess; however, 40-60% of the bacterial etiologies in these patients have remained unknown with the culture methods. Obligate anaerobes and the Streptococcus anginosus group are common pathogens in lung abscess, but a precise evaluation of these bacteria by ordinary culture methods seems to be difficult due to upper respiratory tract contamination. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the microbiota of lung abscess by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) using the molecular method in comparison to culture methods...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Jeffrey M Flynn, David Niccum, Jordan M Dunitz, Ryan C Hunter
Chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are composed of complex microbial communities that incite persistent inflammation and airway damage. Despite the high density of bacteria that colonize the lower airways, nutrient sources that sustain bacterial growth in vivo, and how those nutrients are derived, are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the possibility that mucins serve as an important carbon reservoir for the CF lung microbiota. While Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to efficiently utilize mucins in isolation, we found that anaerobic, mucin-fermenting bacteria could stimulate the robust growth of CF pathogens when provided intact mucins as a sole carbon source...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Elodie Ehrmann, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Thierry Fosse
INTRODUCTION: Capnocytophaga genus was recently known to highly contribute to the beta-lactam (BL) and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance gene reservoir in the oral microbiota (BL: blaCSP-1 and blaCfxA; MLS: erm(F) and erm(C)). But fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance remains uncommon in literature, without available data on resistance mechanisms. CASE REPORT: For the first time, a case of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was described in a 78-year-old immunocompetent patient due to a multidrug-resistant Capnocytophaga gingivalis isolate with significant microbiological finding...
August 13, 2016: Anaerobe
Eef Boets, Sara V Gomand, Lise Deroover, Tom Preston, Karen Vermeulen, Vicky De Preter, Henrike Hamer, Guy Van den Mooter, Luc De Vuyst, Christophe M Courtin, Pieter Annaert, Jan A Delcour, Kristin A Verbeke
The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate, propionate and butyrate are bacterial metabolites that mediate the interaction between diet, the microbiota and the host. In this study, the systemic availability of SCFAs and their incorporation into biologically relevant molecules was quantified. Known amounts of (13) C-labelled acetate, propionate and butyrate were introduced in the colon of 12 healthy subjects using colon delivery capsules and plasma levels of (13) C-SCFAs and of (13) C-glucose, (13) C-cholesterol and (13) C-fatty acids were measured...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Kensuke Shima, Jonas Coopmeiners, Simon Graspeuntner, Klaus Dalhoff, Jan Rupp
Community-acquired pneumonia is caused by intra- and extracellular bacteria, some of which are also linked to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is highly sensitive to micro-environmental conditions that control both pathogen growth and host immune responses. Availability of nutrients, as well as changes in oxygen, pH and interferon-γ (IFNγ) levels have been shown to directly influence chlamydial life cycle and clearance...
August 10, 2016: FEBS Letters
Steven L Taylor, Richard J Woodman, Alice Ch Chen, Lucy D Burr, David L Gordon, Michael A McGuckin, Steve Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether FUT2 (secretor) genotype affects disease severity and airway infection in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. PARTICIPANTS: Induced sputum samples were obtained from 112 adult patients with high-resolution CT scan-proven bronchiectasis and at least two exacerbations in the previous year, as part of an unrelated randomised control trial. OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of null FUT2 polymorphisms were determined by gene sequencing and verified by endobronchial biopsy histochemical staining...
August 8, 2016: Thorax
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