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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931041/lactobacillus-paracasei-feeding-improves-immune-control-of-influenza-infection-in-mice
#1
Nouria Belkacem, Nicolas Serafini, Richard Wheeler, Muriel Derrien, Lilia Boucinha, Aurélie Couesnon, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, James P Di Santo, Muhamed-Kkeir Taha, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard
Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrating tissue homeostasis and immunity in the intestine. Probiotics represent an interesting source of immune modulators and several clinical studies have addressed the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against respiratory infections. Therefore, we have investigated the mechanisms of protection conferred by L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#2
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905200/development-of-a-stable-lung-microbiome-in-healthy-neonatal-mice
#3
Matea Kostric, Katrin Milger, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Marion Engel, Gisle Vestergaard, Michael Schloter, Anne Schöler
The lower respiratory tract has been previously considered sterile in a healthy state, but advances in culture-independent techniques for microbial identification and characterization have revealed that the lung harbors a diverse microbiome. Although research on the lung microbiome is increasing and important questions were already addressed, longitudinal studies aiming to describe developmental stages of the microbial communities from the early neonatal period to adulthood are lacking. Thus, little is known about the early-life development of the lung microbiome and the impact of external factors during these stages...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904972/evaluation-of-the-bacterial-diversity-in-the-human-tongue-coating-based-on-genus-specific-primers-for-16s-rrna-sequencing
#4
Beili Sun, Dongrui Zhou, Jing Tu, Zuhong Lu
The characteristics of tongue coating are very important symbols for disease diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory. As a habitat of oral microbiota, bacteria on the tongue dorsum have been proved to be the cause of many oral diseases. The high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have been widely applied in the analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We developed a methodology based on genus-specific multiprimer amplification and ligation-based sequencing for microbiota analysis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895246/influence-of-indigenous-microbiota-on-experimental-toxoplasmosis-in-conventional-and-germ-free-mice
#5
Bruna B Nascimento, Christiane T Cartelle, Maria de L Noviello, Breno V Pinheiro, Ricardo W de Almeida Vitor, Danielle da G Souza, Simone de Vasconcelos Generoso, Valbert N Cardoso, Flaviano Dos S Martins, Jacques R Nicoli, Rosa M E Arantes
Toxoplasmosis represents one of the most common zoonosis worldwide. Its agent, Toxoplasma gondii, causes a severe innate pro-inflammatory response. The indigenous intestinal microbiota promotes host animal homoeostasis and may protect the host against pathogens. Germ-free (GF) animals provide an important tool for the study of interactions between host and microbiota. In this study, we assessed the role of indigenous microorganisms in disease development utilizing a murine toxoplasmosis model, which includes conventional (CV) and GF NIH Swiss mice...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878760/respiratory-commensal-bacteria-corynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum-improves-resistance-of-infant-mice-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-superinfection
#6
Paulraj Kanmani, Patricia Clua, Maria G Vizoso-Pinto, Cecilia Rodriguez, Susana Alvarez, Vyacheslav Melnikov, Hideki Takahashi, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878025/gallbladder-derived-surfactant-protein-d-regulates-gut-commensal-bacteria-for-maintaining-intestinal-homeostasis
#7
Hana Sarashina-Kida, Hideo Negishi, Junko Nishio, Wataru Suda, Yuki Nakajima, Mika Yasui-Kato, Keiko Iwaisako, Sujin Kang, Nobuyasu Endo, Hideyuki Yanai, Masataka Asagiri, Hiroshi Kida, Masahira Hattori, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Tadatsugu Taniguchi
The commensal microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract is essential in maintaining homeostasis. Indeed, dysregulation in the repertoire of microbiota can result in the development of intestinal immune-inflammatory diseases. Further, this immune regulation by gut microbiota is important systemically, impacting health and disease of organ systems beyond the local environment of the gut. What has not been explored is how distant organs might in turn shape the microbiota via microbe-targeted molecules. Here, we provide evidence that surfactant protein D (SP-D) synthesized in the gallbladder and delivered into intestinal lumen binds selectively to species of gut commensal bacteria...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875147/protected-sampling-is-preferable-in-bronchoscopic-studies-of-the-airway-microbiome
#8
Rune Grønseth, Christine Drengenes, Harald G Wiker, Solveig Tangedal, Yaxin Xue, Gunnar Reksten Husebø, Øistein Svanes, Sverre Lehmann, Marit Aardal, Tuyen Hoang, Tharmini Kalananthan, Einar Marius Hjellestad Martinsen, Elise Orvedal Leiten, Marianne Aanerud, Eli Nordeide, Ingvild Haaland, Inge Jonassen, Per Bakke, Tomas Eagan
The aim was to evaluate susceptibility of oropharyngeal contamination with various bronchoscopic sampling techniques. 67 patients with obstructive lung disease and 58 control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with small-volume lavage (SVL) through the working channel, protected bronchoalveolar lavage (PBAL) and bilateral protected specimen brush (PSB) sampling. Subjects also provided an oral wash (OW) sample, and negative control samples were gathered for each bronchoscopy procedure. DNA encoding bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA was sequenced and bioinformatically processed to cluster into operational taxonomic units (OTU), assign taxonomy and obtain measures of diversity...
July 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860145/the-respiratory-tract-microbial-biogeography-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Derrick R Samuelson, Ellen L Burnham, Vincent J Maffei, R William Vandivier, Eugene E Blanchard, Judd E Shellito, Meng Luo, Christopher M Taylor, David A Welsh
RATIONALE: Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are at an increased risk of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Data of the lung microbiome in the setting of AUDs are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the microbial biogeography of the upper and lower respiratory tract in individuals with AUDs compared to non-AUD subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gargle, protected bronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected during research bronchoscopies...
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856733/a-bacteriophages-journey-through-the-human-body
#10
REVIEW
Jeremy J Barr
The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages...
September 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836573/stress-and-stability-applying-the-anna-karenina-principle-to-animal-microbiomes
#11
Jesse R Zaneveld, Ryan McMinds, Rebecca Vega Thurber
All animals studied to date are associated with symbiotic communities of microorganisms. These animal microbiotas often play important roles in normal physiological function and susceptibility to disease; predicting their responses to perturbation represents an essential challenge for microbiology. Most studies of microbiome dynamics test for patterns in which perturbation shifts animal microbiomes from a healthy to a dysbiotic stable state. Here, we consider a complementary alternative: that the microbiological changes induced by many perturbations are stochastic, and therefore lead to transitions from stable to unstable community states...
August 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826586/16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-reveals-site-specific-signatures-of-the-upper-and-lower-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#12
Sarah K Lucas, Robert Yang, Jordan M Dunitz, Holly C Boyer, Ryan C Hunter
BACKGROUND: Metastasis of upper airway microbiota may have significant implications in the development of chronic lung disease. Here, we compare bacterial communities of matched sinus and lung mucus samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects undergoing endoscopic surgery for treatment of chronic sinusitis. METHODS: Mucus from one maxillary sinus and expectorated sputum were collected from twelve patients. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was then performed on sample pairs to compare the structure and function of CF airway microbiota...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822617/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-select-human-cancers-evidence-of-association-and-causality
#13
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Jada C Domingue, Cynthia L Sears
The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815937/the-airway-microbiota-in-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#14
Katherine B Frayman, David S Armstrong, Keith Grimwood, Sarath C Ranganathan
Infection plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Over the past two decades, the application of molecular and extended culture-based techniques to microbial analysis has changed our understanding of the lungs in both health and disease. CF lung disease is a polymicrobial disorder, with obligate and facultative anaerobes recovered alongside traditional pathogens in varying proportions, with some differences observed to correlate with disease stage. While healthy lungs are not sterile, differences between the lower airway microbiota of individuals with CF and disease-controls are already apparent in childhood...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812256/the-potential-for-emerging-microbiome-mediated-therapeutics-in-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Ayse Bilge Ozturk, Benjamin Arthur Turturice, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma...
August 10, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810929/the-impact-of-age-and-gut-microbiota-on-th17-and-tfh-cells-in-k-bxn-autoimmune-arthritis
#16
Fei Teng, Krysta M Felix, C Pierce Bradley, Debdut Naskar, Heqing Ma, Walid A Raslan, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu
BACKGROUND: Age is an important risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which often develops in middle age. However, how age-associated changes in immunity impact RA is poorly understood. Gut microbiota are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA, but the effects of microbiota in older subjects remain mostly unknown. METHODS: We used segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), a gut commensal species with immunomodulatory effects, and K/BxN mice, a T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic model, to study the effect of age and microbiota on autoimmune arthritis...
August 15, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776643/contributions-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-lung-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy P McAleer, Jay K Kolls
The intestine is a critical site of immune cell development that not only controls intestinal immunity but extra-intestinal immunity as well. Recent findings have highlighted important roles for gut microbiota in shaping lung inflammation. Here, we discuss interactions between the microbiota and immune system including T cells, protective effects of microbiota on lung infections, the role of diet in shaping the composition of gut microbiota and susceptibility to asthma, epidemiologic evidence implicating antibiotic use and microbiota in asthma and clinical trials investigating probiotics as potential treatments for atopy and asthma...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774928/the-microbial-metabolite-desaminotyrosine-protects-from-influenza-through-type-i-interferon
#18
Ashley L Steed, George P Christophi, Gerard E Kaiko, Lulu Sun, Victoria M Goodwin, Umang Jain, Ekaterina Esaulova, Maxim N Artyomov, David J Morales, Michael J Holtzman, Adrianus C M Boon, Deborah J Lenschow, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
The microbiota is known to modulate the host response to influenza infection through as-yet-unclear mechanisms. We hypothesized that components of the microbiota exert effects through type I interferon (IFN), a hypothesis supported by analysis of influenza in a gain-of-function genetic mouse model. Here we show that a microbially associated metabolite, desaminotyrosine (DAT), protects from influenza through augmentation of type I IFN signaling and diminution of lung immunopathology. A specific human-associated gut microbe, Clostridium orbiscindens, produced DAT and rescued antibiotic-treated influenza-infected mice...
August 4, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760940/report-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-working-group-on-the-role-of-microbiota-in-blood-pressure-regulation-current-status-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Mohan K Raizada, Bina Joe, Nathan S Bryan, Eugene B Chang, Floyd E Dewhirst, Gary G Borisy, Zorina S Galis, Wendy Henderson, Pedro A Jose, Christian J Ketchum, Johanna W Lampe, Carl J Pepine, Jennifer L Pluznick, Dominic Raj, Douglas R Seals, Rachel A Gioscia-Ryan, W H Wilson Tang, Young S Oh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758937/a-different-microbiome-gene-repertoire-in-the-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-severe-lung-disease
#20
Giovanni Bacci, Alessio Mengoni, Ersilia Fiscarelli, Nicola Segata, Giovanni Taccetti, Daniela Dolce, Patrizia Paganin, Patrizia Morelli, Vanessa Tuccio, Alessandra De Alessandri, Vincenzina Lucidi, Annamaria Bevivino
In recent years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was employed to decipher the structure and composition of the microbiota of the airways in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, little is still known about the overall gene functions harbored by the resident microbial populations and which specific genes are associated with various stages of CF lung disease. In the present study, we aimed to identify the microbial gene repertoire of CF microbiota in twelve patients with severe and normal/mild lung disease by performing sputum shotgun metagenome sequencing...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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