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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541315/therapeutic-t-cell-engineering
#1
Michel Sadelain, Isabelle Rivière, Stanley Riddell
Genetically engineered T cells are powerful new medicines, offering hope for curative responses in patients with cancer. Chimaeric antigen receptors (CARs) are a class of synthetic receptors that reprogram lymphocyte specificity and function. CARs targeting CD19 have demonstrated remarkable potency in B cell malignancies. Engineered T cells are applicable in principle to many cancers, pending further progress to identify suitable target antigens, overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironments, reduce toxicities, and prevent antigen escape...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456379/chimeric-antigen-receptors-a-cell-and-gene-therapy-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Isabelle Rivière, Michel Sadelain
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic receptors that reprogram T lymphocytes to target chosen antigens. The targeting of CD19, a cell surface molecule expressed in the vast majority of leukemias and lymphomas, has been successfully translated in the clinic, earning CAR therapy a special distinction in the selection of "cancer immunotherapy" by Science as the breakthrough of the year in 2013. CD19 CAR therapy is predicated on advances in genetic engineering, T cell biology, tumor immunology, synthetic biology, target identification, cell manufacturing sciences, and regulatory compliance-the central tenets of CAR therapy...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225754/targeting-a-car-to-the-trac-locus-with-crispr-cas9-enhances-tumour-rejection
#3
Justin Eyquem, Jorge Mansilla-Soto, Theodoros Giavridis, Sjoukje J C van der Stegen, Mohamad Hamieh, Kristen M Cunanan, Ashlesha Odak, Mithat Gönen, Michel Sadelain
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic receptors that redirect and reprogram T cells to mediate tumour rejection. The most successful CARs used to date are those targeting CD19 (ref. 2), which offer the prospect of complete remission in patients with chemorefractory or relapsed B-cell malignancies. CARs are typically transduced into the T cells of a patient using γ-retroviral vectors or other randomly integrating vectors, which may result in clonal expansion, oncogenic transformation, variegated transgene expression and transcriptional silencing...
March 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067900/donor-cd19-car-t-cells-exert-potent-graft-versus-lymphoma-activity-with-diminished-graft-versus-host-activity
#4
Arnab Ghosh, Melody Smith, Scott E James, Marco L Davila, Enrico Velardi, Kimon V Argyropoulos, Gertrude Gunset, Fabiana Perna, Fabiana M Kreines, Emily R Levy, Sophie Lieberman, Hillary V Jay, Andrea Z Tuckett, Johannes L Zakrzewski, Lisa Tan, Lauren F Young, Kate Takvorian, Jarrod A Dudakov, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Ana Carolina F Motta, George F Murphy, Chen Liu, Andrea Schietinger, Michel Sadelain, Marcel R M van den Brink
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments to the success of allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells. CD19 is an attractive CAR target, which is expressed in most B cell malignancies, as well as in healthy B cells. Clinical trials using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable promise in various B cell malignancies...
February 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898090/lips-a3s-a-human-genomic-site-for-robust-expression-of-inserted-transgenes
#5
Andriana G Kotini, Michel Sadelain, Eirini P Papapetrou
Transgenesis of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can enable and empower a variety of studies in stem cell research, including lineage tracing and functional genetics studies. While in recent years much progress has been made in the development of tools for gene targeting, little attention has been given to the identification of sites in the human genome where transgenes can be inserted and reliably expressed. In order to find human genomic sites capable of supporting long-term and high-level transgene expression in hPSCs, we performed a lentiviral screen in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760047/targeted-antibody-mediated-depletion-of-murine-cd19-car-t-cells-permanently-reverses-b-cell-aplasia
#6
Paulina J Paszkiewicz, Simon P Fräßle, Shivani Srivastava, Daniel Sommermeyer, Michael Hudecek, Ingo Drexler, Michel Sadelain, Lingfeng Liu, Michael C Jensen, Stanley R Riddell, Dirk H Busch
The adoptive transfer of T cells that have been genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is effective for treating human B cell malignancies. However, the persistence of functional CD19 CAR T cells causes sustained depletion of endogenous CD19+ B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia. Thus, there is a need for a mechanism to ablate transferred T cells after tumor eradication is complete to allow recovery of normal B cells. Previously, we developed a truncated version of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt) that is coexpressed with the CAR on the T cell surface...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27675589/radiation-sensitizes-tumor-cells-to-car-t-cell-immunotherapy
#7
C J DeSelm, M Hamieh, M Sadelain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454297/human-car-t-cells-with-cell-intrinsic-pd-1-checkpoint-blockade-resist-tumor-mediated-inhibition
#8
Leonid Cherkassky, Aurore Morello, Jonathan Villena-Vargas, Yang Feng, Dimiter S Dimitrov, David R Jones, Michel Sadelain, Prasad S Adusumilli
Following immune attack, solid tumors upregulate coinhibitory ligands that bind to inhibitory receptors on T cells. This adaptive resistance compromises the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies, which redirect T cells to solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether programmed death-1-mediated (PD-1-mediated) T cell exhaustion affects mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells and explored cell-intrinsic strategies to overcome inhibition of CAR T cells. Using an orthotopic mouse model of pleural mesothelioma, we determined that relatively high doses of both CD28- and 4-1BB-based second-generation CAR T cells achieved tumor eradication...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372731/chimeric-antigen-receptors-driving-immunology-towards-synthetic-biology
#9
REVIEW
Michel Sadelain
The advent of second generation chimeric antigen receptors and the CD19 paradigm have ushered a new therapeutic modality in oncology. In contrast to earlier forms of adoptive cell therapy, which were based on the isolation and expansion of naturally occurring T cells, CAR therapy is based on the design and manufacture of engineered T cells with optimized properties. A new armamentarium, comprising not only CARs but also chimeric costimulatory receptors, chimeric cytokine receptors, inhibitory receptors and synthetic Notch receptors, expressed in naïve, central memory or stem cell-like memory T cells, is being developed for clinical use in a wide range of cancers...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262700/biology-and-clinical-application-of-car-t-cells-for-b-cell-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Marco L Davila, Michel Sadelain
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have generated broad interest in oncology following a series of dramatic clinical successes in patients with chemorefractory B cell malignancies. CAR therapy now appears to be on the cusp of regulatory approval as a cell-based immunotherapy. We review here the T cell biology and cell engineering research that led to the development of second generation CARs, the selection of CD19 as a CAR target, and the preclinical studies in animal models that laid the foundation for clinical trials targeting CD19+ malignancies...
July 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252092/tales-of-antigen-evasion-from-car-therapy
#11
COMMENT
Michel Sadelain
Both T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors and tumor-specific antibodies can successfully target some malignancies, but antigen escape can lead to relapse. Two articles in this issue of Cancer Immunology Research explore what effective countermeasures may prevent it. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 473-473. ©2016 AACRSee articles by Zah et al., p. 498, and Rufener et al., p. 509.
June 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227483/soluble-and-membrane-bound-interleukin-il-15-r%C3%AE-il-15-complexes-mediate-proliferation-of-high-avidity-central-memory-cd8-t-cells-for-adoptive-immunotherapy-of-cancer-and-infections
#12
A N Hasan, A Selvakumar, E Shabrova, X-R Liu, F Afridi, G Heller, I Riviere, M Sadelain, B Dupont, R J O'Reilly
The lack of persistence of infused T cells is a principal limitation of adoptive immunotherapy in man. Interleukin (IL)-15 can sustain memory T cell expansion when presented in complex with IL-15Rα (15Rα/15). We developed a novel in-vitro system for generation of stable 15Rα/15 complexes. Immunologically quantifiable amounts of IL-15 were obtained when both IL-15Rα and IL-15 genes were co-transduced in NIH 3T3 fibroblast-based artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing human leucocyte antigen (HLA) A:0201, β2 microglobulin, CD80, CD58 and CD54 [A2-artificial antigen presenting cell (AAPC)] and a murine pro-B cell line (Baf-3) (A2-AAPC(15Rα/15) and Baf-3(15Rα/15) )...
November 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021486/cell-and-gene-therapy-for-the-beta-thalassemias-advances-and-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Jorge Mansilla-Soto, Isabelle Riviere, Farid Boulad, Michel Sadelain
The beta-thalassemias are inherited anemias caused by mutations that severely reduce or abolish expression of the beta-globin gene. Like sickle cell disease, a related beta-globin gene disorder, they are ideal candidates for performing a genetic correction in patient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The most advanced approach utilizes complex lentiviral vectors encoding the human β-globin gene, as first reported by May et al. in 2000. Considerable progress toward the clinical implementation of this approach has been made in the past five years, based on effective CD34+ cell mobilization and improved lentiviral vector manufacturing...
April 2016: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971630/combinatorial-antigen-targeting-ideal-t-cell-sensing-and-anti-tumor-response
#14
COMMENT
Maria Themeli, Michel Sadelain
T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are a formidable platform for the study and application of synthetic biology approaches to study customized and flexible control of cellular functions. Recent reports in the journal Cell provide a new twist on combinatorial antigen targeting, profiting from the singular cleavage and signaling of the Notch receptor to conditionally express CARs.
April 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26952914/a-new-induction-to-the-gene-and-cell-therapy-hall-of-fame-genome-editing
#15
EDITORIAL
Michel Sadelain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836371/escape-mutations-ganciclovir-resistance-and-teratoma-formation-in-human-ipscs-expressing-an-hsvtk-suicide-gene
#16
Andriana G Kotini, Elisa de Stanchina, Maria Themeli, Michel Sadelain, Eirini P Papapetrou
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy. However, a major concern is the risk of tumor formation by residual undifferentiated cells contaminating the hPSC-derived cell product. Suicide genes could safeguard against such adverse events by enabling elimination of cells gone astray, but the efficacy of this approach has not yet been thoroughly tested. Here, we engineered a lentivirally encoded herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) with expression restricted to undifferentiated hPSCs through regulation by the let7 family of miRNAs...
February 2, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503962/mesothelin-targeted-cars-driving-t-cells-to-solid-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Aurore Morello, Michel Sadelain, Prasad S Adusumilli
UNLABELLED: Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are synthetic receptors that target T cells to cell-surface antigens and augment T-cell function and persistence. Mesothelin is a cell-surface antigen implicated in tumor invasion, which is highly expressed in mesothelioma and lung, pancreas, breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Its low-level expression in mesothelia, however, commands thoughtful therapeutic interventions. Encouragingly, recent clinical trials evaluating active immunization or immunoconjugates in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma or mesothelioma have shown responses without toxicity...
February 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26461090/structural-design-of-engineered-costimulation-determines-tumor-rejection-kinetics-and-persistence-of-car-t-cells
#18
Zeguo Zhao, Maud Condomines, Sjoukje J C van der Stegen, Fabiana Perna, Christopher C Kloss, Gertrude Gunset, Jason Plotkin, Michel Sadelain
T cell engineering is a powerful means to rapidly generate anti-tumor T cells. The costimulatory properties of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) determine the overall potency of adoptively transferred T cells. Using an in vivo "stress test" to challenge CD19-targeted T cells, we studied the functionality and persistence imparted by seven different CAR structures providing CD28 and/or 4-1BB costimulation. One configuration, which uses two signaling domains (CD28 and CD3ζ) and the 4-1BB ligand, provided the highest therapeutic efficacy, showing balanced tumoricidal function and increased T cell persistence accompanied by an elevated CD8/CD4 ratio and decreased exhaustion...
October 12, 2015: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26325036/car-therapy-the-cd19-paradigm
#19
REVIEW
Michel Sadelain
Twenty-five years after its inception, the genetic engineering of T cells is now a therapeutic modality pursued at an increasing number of medical centers. This immunotherapeutic strategy is predicated on gene transfer technology to instruct T lymphocytes to recognize and reject tumor cells. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic receptors that mediate antigen recognition, T cell activation, and - in the case of second-generation CARs - costimulation to augment T cell functionality and persistence...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227250/asgct-and-jsgt-joint-position-statement-on-human-genomic-editing
#20
Theodore Friedmann, Erica C Jonlin, Nancy M P King, Bruce E Torbett, Nelson A Wivel, Yasufumi Kaneda, Michel Sadelain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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