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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331755/sphingosine-1-phosphate-protects-human-ovarian-follicles-from-apoptosis-in-vitro
#1
Yilmaz Guzel, Gamze Bildik, Ozgur Oktem
OBJECTIVE(S): We aimed to analyze if anti-apoptotic agent sphingosine-1-phosphate offers protection against in vitro follicle atresia during culture of human ovarian cortical samples. STUDY DESIGN: A translational research study of ex-vivo and in-vitro models of human ovarian tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ovarian cortical tissue fragments (1 × 0.5 cm) were obtained from young patients (n = 15 mean age ± SD: 29.4 ± 2.5) undergoing laparoscopic excision of benign ovarian cysts...
January 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330421/premature-recruitment-of-oocyte-pool-and-increased-mtor-activity-in-fmr1-knockout-mice-and-reversal-of-phenotype-with-rapamycin
#2
E Mok-Lin, M Ascano, A Serganov, Z Rosenwaks, T Tuschl, Z Williams
While mutations in the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene are associated with varying reproductive outcomes in females, the effects of a complete lack of FMR1 expression are not known. Here, we studied the ovarian and reproductive phenotypes in an Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model and the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Breeding, histologic and mTOR signaling data were obtained at multiple time points in KO and wild type (WT) mice fed a control or rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) diet...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329412/lhx8-ablation-leads-to-massive-autophagy-of-mouse-oocytes-associated-with-dna-damage
#3
Emanuele Pelosi, Laura D'Ignazio, Marc Michel, Melissa Beyer, Kassimier Thompson, Antonino Forabosco, David Schlessinger
Following proliferation of oogonia in mammals, great numbers of germ cells are discarded, primarily by apoptosis, while the remainder form primordial follicles (the ovarian reserve) that determine fertility and reproductive lifespan. More massive, rapid, and essentially total loss of oocytes, however, occurs when the transcription factor Lhx8 is ablated-though the cause and mechanism of germ cell loss from the Lhx8-/- ovaries has been unknown. We found that Lhx8-/- ovaries maintain the same number of germ cells throughout embryonic development; rapid decrease in the pool of oocytes starts shortly before birth...
January 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317212/folliculogenic-factors-in-photoregressed-ovaries-differences-in-mrna-expression-in-early-compared-to-late-follicle-development
#4
Alexander K Salomon, Kathleen Leon, Melissa M Campbell, Kelly A Young
The early stages of ovarian folliculogenesis generally progress independent of gonadotropins, whereas later stages require signaling initiated by FSH. In Siberian hamsters, cycles of folliculogenesis are mediated by changes in photoperiod which depress the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis. Reduced gonadotropins lead to decreases in mature follicle development and ovulation; however, early stages of folliculogenesis have not been explored in regressed ovaries. We hypothesized that intraovarian factors that contribute predominantly to later stages of folliculogenesis would react to changes in photoperiod, whereas factors contributing to earlier stages would not change...
January 6, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315373/female-offspring-from-chronic-hyperandrogenemic-dams-exhibit-delayed-puberty-and-impaired-ovarian-reserve
#5
Zhiqiang Wang, Mingjie Shen, Ping Xue, Sara A DiVall, James Segars, Sheng Wu
Female offspring of many species exposed to high doses of androgens in utero experience endocrine dysfunction during adulthood. The phenotype of offspring from females with pre-pregnancy hyperandrogenemia and impaired ovulation, however, has not been examined. We developed a mouse model of hyperandrogenemia by implanting a low dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT) pellet 15 days before conception. The serum DHT levels in dams treated with the pellet were 1.7 to 2 fold higher (p<0.005) than levels in dams without DHT...
January 5, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305399/edc-impact-is-exposure-during-pregnancy-to-acetaminophen-paracetamol-disrupting-female-reproductive-development
#6
Frederic Schrøder Arendrup, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Bernard Jégou, David Møbjerg Kristensen
Concern has been raised over chemical induced disruption of ovarigenesis during fetal life resulting in long-lasting consequences only manifesting themselves much later during adulthood. A growing body of evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to the mild analgesic acetaminophen/paracetamol can cause such a scenario. In this Review, we therefore discuss three recent reports that collectively indicating that prenatal exposure in a window around 13.5 days post coitum in both rats and mouse can result in reduced female reproductive health...
January 5, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304868/further-characterization-of-adult-sheep-ovarian-stem-cells-and-their-involvement-in-neo-oogenesis-and-follicle-assembly
#7
Hiren Patel, Deepa Bhartiya, Seema Parte
BACKGROUND: Stem cells in the ovary comprise of two distinct populations including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and slightly bigger progenitors termed ovarian stem cells (OSCs). They are lodged in ovary surface epithelium (OSE) and are expected to undergo neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle (PF) assembly in adult ovaries. The ovarian stem cells express follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors and are directly activated by FSH resulting in formation of germ cell nests (GCN) in vitro...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297778/chronic-cholestasis-is-associated-with-hypogonadism-and-premature-ovarian-failure-in-adult-rats-cholestasis-causes-ovarian-hypogonadism
#8
Yomna I Mahmoud
Hypogonadism is a well-known complication in males with chronic liver diseases. However, the consequences of chronic hepatopathies on female reproductive capacities have received relatively little attention. The present study evaluates the effect of chronic obstructive jaundice on the ovary of adult cycling rats. Estrous cyclicity was monitored to check the functional status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Ovarian changes were assessed using histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural techniques...
January 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297114/variation-analysis-of-pum1-gene-in-chinese-women-with-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#9
Wei Luo, Hanni Ke, Ran Liu, Yingying Qin, Winifred Mak, Jinlong Ma, Shidou Zhao, Zi-Jiang Chen
Accumulating evidence has indicated that the genes involved in meiosis are highly correlated with ovarian function. Pumilio 1 (PUM1) is a RNA-binding protein which is involved in the meiotic process. It has been reported that the Pum1 knockout female mice displayed subfertility due to the decrease in primordial follicle pool. The aim of our study is to investigate whether variants of the PUM1 gene are responsible for primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in Chinese women. We analyzed coding sequence and untranslated regions of the PUM1 gene in 196 Han Chinese women with non-syndromic POI and 192 controls...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282125/food-restriction-during-pregnancy-and-female-offspring-fertility-adverse-effects-of-reprogrammed-reproductive-lifespan
#10
Abdel Halim Harrath, Abdulkarem Alrezaki, Lamjed Mansour, Saleh H Alwasel, Stefano Palomba
BACKGROUND: Food restriction during pregnancy can influence the health of the offspring during the adulthood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of maternal food restriction (MFR) on the reproductive performance in female rat offspring from the first (FR1) and second (FR2) generations. METHODS: Adult virgin Wistar female rats were given free access to tap water and were fed ad libitum on standard rodent chow, were mated with virgin adult males, and then were randomly divided into two groups: controls (that was fed ad libitum ) and food-restricted group (FR, that was given only 50% of ad libitum food throughout gestation)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259446/observation-of-the-dynamics-of-follicular-development-in-the-ovary
#11
REVIEW
Kouji Komatsu, Satoru Masubuchi
The number of ovulated oocytes is different among mammals but does not vary much within the same species. In order to sustain periodic ovulation, follicular development must be coordinated at the tissue level. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of follicular development is difficult because the ovary has a complicated structure and it takes a long time for primordial follicles to develop into Graafian follicles. Therefore, it is not possible to observe follicular development by conventional experiments. The authors previously developed a new ovarian tissue culture method that enabled the observation of follicular development from the early follicle stage...
January 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259033/vasorin-a-newly-identified-regulator-of-ovarian-folliculogenesis
#12
Nitzan Rimon-Dahari, Lia Heinemann-Yerushalmi, Ron Hadas, Lital Kalich-Philosoph, Dafna Ketter, Nava Nevo, Dalia Galiani, Nava Dekel
Members of the TGF-β superfamily take part in the control of folliculogenesis. Vasorin (Vasn) is a newly identified negative regulator of TGF-β signaling whose possible involvement in ovarian physiology has never been studied. Here, we demonstrate that Vasn is expressed in the ovary by somatic cells of follicles, and that its expression is up-regulated by LH. We established a conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model in which Vasn is deleted specifically in granulosa cells of growing follicles from the secondary stage onwards...
December 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242197/jak-signaling-regulates-germline-cyst-breakdown-and-primordial-follicle-formation-in-mice
#13
Kun Huang, Ye Wang, Tuo Zhang, Meina He, Guanghong Sun, Jia Wen, Hao Yan, Han Cai, Changfu Yong, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
In female mammals, primordial follicles consist of two types of cells, namely, oocytes and pregranulosa cells that surround the oocytes. The size of the primordial follicle pool determines the reproductive ability of female mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms controlling primordial follicle assembly remain unclear. In this study, we show that oocyte-derived Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is vital for germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in vitro JAK2 and JAK3 activity is increased while germline cysts are breaking down...
December 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184264/effects-of-subacute-administration-of-co-trimoxazole-and-folic-acid-on-ovarian-tissue-in-adult-female-rats
#14
Arezoo Saberi, Ehsan Salarkia, Zohreh Safi, Gholamreza Sepehri
Background: Previous studies have reported the antifertility activities of sulfonamides. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of co-trimoxazole and its co-administration with folic acid on ovarian tissue in female rats. Methods: A total of 54 rats were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=6). Group I served as the control and group II (vehicle) received saline. Other groups, III to IX, received co-trimoxazole (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg; i.p.), folic acid (1 mg/kg; i...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179058/laparoscopic-ovarian-biopsy-pick-up-method-for-goats
#15
Fabiana A S Brandão, Benner G Alves, Kele A Alves, Samara S Souza, Yago P Silva, Vicente J F Freitas, Dárcio I A Teixeira, Eduardo L Gastal
Biopsy pick-up (BPU) has been considered a safe method to harvest ovarian fragments from live animals. However, no studies have been reported on the use of BPU to collect in vivo ovarian tissue in goats. The goals of this study were: (i) to test different biopsy needle sizes to collect ovarian tissue in situ using the BPU method (Experiment 1), and (ii) to study ovarian tissue features such as preantral follicle density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density in ovarian fragments obtained in vivo through a laparoscopic BPU method (Experiment 2)...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175649/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-genetic-and-environmental-effects
#16
REVIEW
Seyedeh Zahra Shahrokhi, Faranak Kazerouni, Firouzeh Ghaffari
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a homodimeric glycoprotein produced by granulosa cells of growing ovarian follicles. AMH appears to have an inhibitory effect on both primordial follicle recruitment and responsiveness of growing follicles to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone is considered to be a reliable marker of ovarian reserve; therefore, it is crucial to determine which factors influence AMH levels for prognostic and diagnostic purposes. In this review we intend to discuss the effect of genetic and environmental factors which may lead to AMH interindividual variability...
November 23, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154909/effects-of-vitrification-and-transplantation-on-follicular-development-and-expression-of-ephrinb1-and-pdgfa-in-mouse-ovaries
#17
Erkan Gumus, Celal Kaloglu, Ismail Sari, Meral Yilmaz, Ali Cetin
The aim of this study was to assess the follicular development and the patterns of EphrinB1 and PDGFA immunostaining in vitrified mouse ovarian tissue (OT) with and without transplantation. Histological evaluation was performed on fresh and vitrified OTs, whether transplanted or not. RT-PCR was performed on fresh and vitrified ovarian samples (OSs) and vitrified OS graft. Vitrification alone did not significantly reduce the normal primordial, primary, and secondary follicles except antral ones (p > 0.05)...
November 15, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138526/stimulation-of-primordial-follicle-assembly-by-estradiol-17%C3%AE-requires-the-action-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-bmp2
#18
Prabuddha Chakraborty, Shyamal K Roy
Primordial follicle (PF) pool determines the availability of follicles for ovulation in all mammals. Premature depletion of the PF reserve leads to subfertility or infertility. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) promotes PF formation by facilitating oocyte and granulosa cell development. Estradiol-17β (E2) upregulates PF formation in developing hamster ovaries. However, if BMP2 mediates E2 effect is not known. We hypothesize that E2 facilitates the effect of BMP2 on somatic to granulosa cell transition. BMP2 and E2 together significantly upregulated the percentage of PFs in hamster fetal ovaries in vitro compared with either of the treatments alone...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137549/the-impact-of-a-long-acting-oral-sphingosine-1-phosphate-analogue-on-ovarian-aging-in-a-rat-model
#19
Sezcan Mumusoglu, Volkan Turan, Hasan Uckan, Aysegul Suzer, Lale Karakoc Sokmensuer, Gurkan Bozdag
In animal studies, intravenous continuous infusion or peritoneal injection of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to decrease chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced apoptosis on primordial follicles. Although a long-acting oral form of an S1P analogue (FTY720, fingolimod) has been recently developed and utilized in women with multiple sclerosis, there are no data exploring its ability to avoid spontaneous follicle apoptosis. Thirty 10-month-old female rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups to investigate whether fingolimod would be able to decrease the spontaneous ovarian follicle apoptosis ratio...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130738/ethylene-glycol-and-dimethyl-sulfoxide-combination-reduces-cryoinjuries-and-apoptotic-gene-expression-in-vitrified-laying-hen-ovary
#20
Reihane Nateghi, AliReza Alizadeh, Yousef Jafari Ahangari, Rouhollah Fathi, Amir Akhlaghi
Successful cryopreservation of avian gonads is important not only for avian breeding but is also crucial for preservation of species, especially of endangered birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification by several cryoprotectants on the ovarian tissues of laying hens. Ovarian tissues were randomly divided into six groups: control (nonvitrified: C), dehydrated using ethylene glycol (EG), dehydrated with propylene glycol (PROH), dehydrated using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and two combined groups, EG+DMSO and EG+PROH...
November 13, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
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