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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938488/ovarian-aging-in-women-with-brca-germline-mutations
#1
Wayne Lin, Shiny Titus, Fred Moy, Elizabeth S Ginsburg, Kutluk Oktay
Context: Recent clinical and laboratory studies suggested that women with BRCA mutations have lower ovarian reserve and their primordial follicle oocytes may be more prone to DNA damage but the direct proof is lacking. Objective: To determine whether women with germline BRCA mutations have reduced primordial follicle reserve and increased oocyte DNA damage. Design: A laboratory comparative study of ovarian tissue obtained from the risk-reducing salpingo- oophorectomy (RRSO) samples of unaffected BRCA mutation carrier (BMC) women vs...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930606/association-between-ovarian-endometrioma-and-ovarian-reserve
#2
Michio Kitajima, Khaleque Newaz Khan, Ayumi Harada, Ken Taniguchi, Tsuneo Inoue, Masanori Kaneuchi, Kiyonori Miura, Hideaki Masuzaki
Endometrioma is one of the main pathologies of endometriosis, though its pathogenesis still remains enigmatic. Ovarian reserve is defined as the number and quality of the follicles left in the ovary at any given time. The cause of infertility in women with endometriosis is multifactorial. Diminished ovarian reserve is major concern in women with endometriosis-associated infertility. Cystectomy for endometriomas could negatively impact on post-operative ovarian reserve. Some women had surgery for endometriomas suffer from poor ovarian response, which directly affects treatment results...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903906/the-roles-of-fanconi-anemia-genes-in-the-regulation-of-follicle-development
#3
Yan He, Meng-Nv Xie, Li Yu, Zhen Ren, Fang Zhu, Chun Fu
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive autosomal or X-linked genetic disease caused by the mutations of the FA genes. The FA genes are involved in the homologous recombination repair processes of damaged interstrand crosslinks in DNA. Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is commonly observed in female FA patients and in mice of experimental FA models with serious deficiency of germ cells, suggesting that FA genes could play an important role(s) in follicle development in mammals. Studies have showed that FA genes play significant functions in promoting the proliferation of primordial germ cell, maintaining normal meiosis of the oocytes, participating in the gonadotropin regulation of oocytes and granular cell growth, and other aspects of regulation of follicular development...
June 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881413/low-expression-of-sema6c-accelerates-the-primordial-follicle-activation-in-the-neonatal-mouse-ovary
#4
Su Zhou, Wei Yan, Wei Shen, Jing Cheng, Yueyue Xi, Suzhen Yuan, Fangfang Fu, Ting Ding, Aiyue Luo, Shixuan Wang
The primordial follicle assembly, activation and the subsequent development are critical processes for female reproduction. A limited number of primordial follicles are activated to enter the growing follicle pool each wave, and the primordial follicle pool progressively diminishes over a woman's life-time. The number of remaining primordial follicles represents the ovarian reserve. Identification and functional investigation of the factors involved in follicular initial recruitment will be of great significance to the understanding of the female reproduction process and ovarian ageing...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854595/dormancy-and-activation-of-human-oocytes-from-primordial-and-primary-follicles-molecular-clues-to-oocyte-regulation
#5
E H Ernst, M L Grøndahl, S Grund, K Hardy, A Heuck, L Sunde, S Franks, C Y Andersen, P Villesen, K Lykke-Hartmann
STUDY QUESTION: Do specific transcriptome dynamics in human oocytes from primordial and primary follicles identify novel pathways in oocyte activation? SUMMARY ANSWER: The transcriptomic profiles in oocytes from primordial and primary follicles, respectively, revealed several new canonical pathways as putative mediators of oocyte dormancy and activation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cellular signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT and AKT/mTOR as well as TGF-β and IGF signaling are known to regulate the primordial-to-primary transition in mammalian follicle development...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846463/determination-of-follicular-localization-in-human-ovarian-cortex-for-vitrification
#6
Takayuki Haino, Wataru Tarumi, Kazuhiro Kawamura, Tohru Harada, Kouhei Sugimoto, Aikou Okamoto, Masahiro Ikegami, Nao Suzuki
PURPOSE: To determine the optimal follicle localization for ovarian vitrification in adolescent and young adult (AYA)-aged (between 15 and 39 years of age) patients with cancer or primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). METHODS: In total, ovaries from 24 women were included in our study. These include women who received ovariectomy for fertility preservation before gonadotoxic treatments for cancer (n = 4), or for the treatment of POI by the in vitro activation method (n = 8), and other women and infants (0-3 years of age) whose ovaries were autopsied (n = 12)...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844959/reversal-of-aberrant-pi3k-akt-signaling-by-salubrinal-in-a-galt-deficient-mouse-model
#7
B Balakrishnan, C Nicholas, A Siddiqi, W Chen, E Bales, M Feng, J Johnson, K Lai
Classic Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deleterious mutations in the GALT gene, which encodes galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase enzyme (GALT: EC 2.7.7.12). Recent studies of primary skin fibroblasts isolated from the GalT-deficient mice demonstrated a slower growth rate, a higher level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and down-regulation of the Phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. In this study, we compared the expression levels of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in normal and GalT-deficient mouse tissues...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841213/complete-in-vitro-oogenesis-retrospects-and-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Wang, Wei Ge, Jing-Cai Liu, Francesca Gioia Klinger, Paul W Dyce, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen
Precise control of mammalian oogenesis has been a traditional focus of reproductive and developmental biology research. Recently, new reports have introduced the possibility of obtaining functional gametes derived in vitro from stem cells. The potential to produce functional gametes from stem cells has exciting applications for regenerative medicine though still remains challenging. In mammalian females ovulation and fertilization is a privilege reserved for a small number of oocytes. In reality the vast majority of oocytes formed from primordial germ cells (PGCs) will undergo apoptosis, or other forms of cell death...
August 25, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836412/comparison-of-allotransplantation-of-fresh-and-vitrified-mouse-ovaries-to-the-testicular-tissue-under-influence-of-the-static-magnetic-field
#9
Vida Sadat Kazemein Jasemi, Firooz Samadi, Hussein Eimani, Saeed Hasani, Rouhollah Fathi, Abdolhossein Shahverdi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) during transplantation of the ovarian tissue into the testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, ovaries of 6- to 8-week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were randomly divided into four groups: i. Fresh ovaries were immediately transplanted into the testicular tissue (FOT group), ii. Fresh ovaries were exposed to the SMF for 10 minutes and then transplanted into the testicular tissue (FOT+ group), iii...
October 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826600/fmr1-and-akt-mtor-signalling-pathways-potential-functional-interactions-controlling-folliculogenesis-in-human-granulosa-cells
#10
Julia Rehnitz, Diego D Alcoba, Ilma S Brum, Katrin Hinderhofer, Berthe Youness, Thomas Strowitzki, Peter H Vogt
Granulosa cells (GCs) play a major role in folliculogenesis and are crucial for oocyte maturation and growth. In these cells, the mTOR/AKT signalling pathway regulates early folliculogenesis by maintaining the dormancy of primordial follicles, while FSH induces their further differentiation and maturation. Because changes in number of CGG triplets in FMR1 exon 1 (below or beyond normal values of 26-34 triplets) affect ovarian reserve and pre-mutations containing >54 CGG triplets represent a known risk factor for premature ovarian insufficiency/failure, we investigated in the human GC model (COV434) how FMR1/FMRP and mTOR/AKT are expressed and potentially interact during GC proliferation...
August 4, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819292/vitrification-versus-slow-freezing-for-human-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-anlaysis
#11
Qingquan Shi, Yidong Xie, Yan Wang, Shangwei Li
Vitrification is a well-accepted procedure for cryopreservation of gametes and embryos. Less is known, however, about its performance in preserving ovarian tissue, for which slow freezing is the current convention. Increasing interest is being focused on vitrification, but there are as yet no standard protocols for its use with ovarian tissue. In part, this is because of the variety of cell types and complex nature of ovarian tissue. We performed a meta-analysis of 14 studies that compared vitrification with slow freezing for cryopreservation of ovarian tissue...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814333/rapamycin-prevents-cyclophosphamide-induced-over-activation-of-primordial-follicle-pool-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-vivo
#12
Linyan Zhou, Yanqiu Xie, Song Li, Yihua Liang, Qi Qiu, Haiyan Lin, Qingxue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Primordial follicular depletion has thought to be a common adverse effect of chemotherapy especially for female of reproductive age. The study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of rapamycin on the primordial follicles and its potential mechanism for patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: 8-week old BALB/c female mice were randomly assigned into four groups (control; rapamycin; cyclophosphamide; and rapamycin combined with cyclophosphamide). Hematoxylin staining, immunohistochemical, TUNEL, western blotting and ELISA were employed to assess inter-group differences using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814191/maternal-overweight-disrupts-the-sexual-maturation-of-the-offspring
#13
Rocío A Galarza, Eric A Rhon Calderón, Analía E Cortez, Alicia G Faletti
The aims of the present work were to study the effect of maternal overweight and obesity on the ovarian reserve, follicular development, and ovulation of the offspring and to assess whether this maternal condition alters oocyte integrity. To this end, female offspring from rats fed standard (OSD) or cafeteria (OCD) diet were used. Body weight, vaginal opening, and estrous cycle were recorded and ovaries were obtained on the day of the second estrus. In addition, ovarian weight, ovulation rate (measured by the number of oocytes within oviducts), follicular development (determined by histology), and oocyte integrity were examined...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811567/engineered-endothelium-provides-angiogenic-and-paracrine-stimulus-to-grafted-human-ovarian-tissue
#14
Limor Man, Laura Park, Richard Bodine, Michael Ginsberg, Nikica Zaninovic, Omar Alexander Man, Glenn Schattman, Zev Rosenwaks, Daylon James
Despite major advances in tissue cryopreservation and auto-transplantation, reperfusion ischemia and hypoxia have been reported as major obstacles to successful recovery of the follicular pool within grafted ovarian tissue. We demonstrate a benefit to follicular survival and function in human ovarian tissue that is co-transplanted with exogenous endothelial cells (ExEC). ExECs were capable of forming functionally perfused vessels at the host/graft interface and increased both viability and follicular volume in ExEC-assisted grafts with resumption of antral follicle development in long-term grafts...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801138/cadmium-exposure-in-newborn-rats-ovary-induces-developmental-disorders-of-primordial-follicles-and-the-differential-expression-of-scf-c-kit-gene
#15
Wenchang Zhang, Tingting Wu, Chenyun Zhang, Lingfeng Luo, Meimei Xie, Huiling Huang
Since the 1990s, the rising problem that gonad reproductive toxicity on adult female after exposing to cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted high attention at home and abroad,and was systematically studied. Our research focuses on a further problem is that early cadmium exposure (during birth to before puberty) impact on development and function of ovarian cells and its possible mechanism. Our research focuses on the changes of ovarian cells growth and development after the newborn rat ovaries with cadmium exposure in vitro, and different expression of ovarian cells development-related factors, SCF/c-kit and changes of their DNA methylation status...
August 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796235/development-of-fertile-mouse-oocytes-from-mitotic-germ-cells-in-vitro
#16
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Mammalian fetal ovaries contain numerous primordial germ cells (PGCs), although few mature oocytes are obtained from females, owing to apoptosis and follicle atresia. The regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis/folliculogenesis remain unknown. Development of methods for obtaining mature oocytes from PGCs in fetal ovaries in vitro could contribute to clarifying these mechanisms. The failure of follicle assembly has been found to be the most challenging aspect in conventional culture conditions. Recently, we established novel culture conditions that enable successful follicle assembly, sustaining interactions between the oocyte and somatic cells, and, in turn, promoting oocyte growth and maturation...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791295/fertility-preservation-in-endometriosis-patients-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-is-a-reliable-marker-of-the-ovarian-follicle-density
#17
Elisabetta Garavaglia, Cinzia Sala, Gianluca Taccagni, Michela Traglia, Caterina Barbieri, Stefano Ferrari, Massimo Candiani, Paola Panina-Bordignon, Daniela Toniolo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the ovarian reserve via measurement of follicular density and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in endometriosis patients participating to a clinical program of cortical ovarian cryopreservation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of serum AMH levels and prospective investigation of ovarian follicle number. SETTING: University Hospital. PATIENTS: Two hundred and two women with endometriosis and 400 controls...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771225/the-ovarian-reserve-is-depleted-during-puberty-in-a-hormonally-driven-process-dependent-on-the-pro-apoptotic-protein-bmf
#18
Seng H Liew, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Andreas Strasser, Jock K Findlay, Karla J Hutt
In females, germ cells are maintained in ovarian structures called primordial follicles. The number of primordial follicles in the ovarian reserve is a critical determinant of the length of the fertile lifespan. Despite this significance, knowledge of the precise physiological mechanisms that regulate primordial follicle number is lacking. In this study we show that a wave of primordial follicle depletion occurs during the transition to adulthood in mice. We demonstrate that this sudden and dramatic loss of primordial follicles is hormonally triggered and identify the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF), as essential for this process, implicating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway as a key mechanism...
August 3, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767739/follicle-development-in-grafted-mouse-ovaries-after-vitrification-processes-under-static-magnetic-field
#19
V K Jasmi, F Samadi, H Eimani, S Hasani, R Fathi, A Shahverdi
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cryopreservation has emerged as an important method of fertility preservation. Magnetic field enhanced cryopreservation has been considered in recent times as a promising type of ovarian cryopreservation but the effectiveness of the process is still not clear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of applying 1-mT SMF (static magnetic field) on the vitrification of ovarian tissue and the follow-up investigation of the morphology and functions of vitrified- warmed ovarian tissue after transplantation...
May 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756496/cryopreservation-of-human-ovarian-tissue-using-the-silver-closed-vitrification-system
#20
Zhun Xiao, Yaoyao Zhang, Wei Fan
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a hand-made silver container for the cryopreservation of human ovarian cortex. METHODS: Human ovarian cortex tissues were vitrified using an open vitrification system (OVS) of needle immersed vitrification (NIV) and two closed vitrification systems (CVS) of a plastic vial (plastic CVS) and a silver container (silver CVS). Outcomes of vitrification were evaluated morphologically and histologically by in vitro culture and xenotransplantation...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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