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primordial follicles

Lijun Ding, Guijun Yan, Bin Wang, Lu Xu, Yan Gu, Tong Ru, Xiaoying Cui, Lei Lei, Jingyu Liu, Xiaoqiang Sheng, Bin Wang, Chunxue Zhang, Yanjun Yang, Ruiwei Jiang, Jianjun Zhou, Na Kong, Feifei Lu, Huaijun Zhou, Yannan Zhao, Bing Chen, Yali Hu, Jianwu Dai, Haixiang Sun
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a refractory disease for clinical treatment with the goal of restoring fertility. In this study, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on a collagen scaffold (collagen/UC-MSCs) can activate primordial follicles in vitro via phosphorylation of FOXO3a and FOXO1. Transplantation of collagen/UC-MSCs to the ovaries of POF patients rescued overall ovarian function, evidenced by elevated estradiol concentrations, improved follicular development, and increased number of antral follicles...
March 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan
Primordial germ cells migrate to the fetal gonads and proliferate during gestation to generate a fixed complement of primordial follicles, the so-called ovarian reserve. Primordial follicles comprise an oocyte arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis, surrounded by a layer of pregranulosa cells. Activation of primordial follicles to grow beyond this arrested stage is of particular interest because, once activated, they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms involved in growth, selection, maturation, and ultimately, ovulation or atresia...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Chia-Hong Chou, Mei-Jou Chen
Ovarian follicular cell undergoes extensive proliferation and differentiation during the period that the follicle evolved from the primordial state to its ovulatory phase and then corpus luteum status. During this process, different and various levels of steroid hormones in follicular fluid, or obtained from circulation and adjacent cells as granulosa and theca cells, or from environment and diet will all affect the process of follicular growth and development. Differential steroid hormones might have differential effects on ovarian folliculogenesis via the effect on granulosa cell growth and follicular fluid formation that involves cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis within the follicle...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Michael W Pankhurst, Rebecca L Kelley, Rachel L Sanders, Savana R Woodcock, Dorothy E Oorschot, Nicola J Batchelor
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an ovarian regulator that affects folliculogenesis. AMH inhibits the developmental activation of the dormant primordial follicles and the oocyte within. In more mature follicles, AMH reduces granulosa cell sensitivity to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). We examined the effects of AMH overexpression on the stages of ovarian folliculogenesis, and the development of embryos, with a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human AMH in central nervous system neurons under the control of the mouse Thy1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
D P Berry, A O'Brien, J O'Donovan, N McHugh, E Wall, S Randles, K McDermott, R E O'Connor, M A Patil, J Ho, A Kennedy, N Byrne, D C Purfield
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform...
March 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Natalia Pascuali, Leopoldina Scotti, Mariana Di Pietro, Gonzalo Oubiña, Diana Bas, María May, Antonio Gómez Muñoz, Patricia S Cuasnicú, Débora J Cohen, Marta Tesone, Dalhia Abramovich, Fernanda Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Is ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) an ovarian protective agent during alkylating chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Local administration of C1P drastically reduces ovarian damage induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) via protection of follicular reserve, restoration of hormone levels, inhibition of apoptosis and improvement of stromal vasculature, while protecting fertility, oocyte quality and uterine morphology. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cancer-directed therapies cause accelerated loss of ovarian reserve and lead to premature ovarian failure (POF)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Kylie Beck, Jaswant Singh, Mohammad Arshud Dar, Muhammad Anzar
BACKGROUND: A suitable culture system is important for follicle growth in adult bovine ovarian tissue. This study aimed to assess the avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for short-term culture of adult bovine ovarian tissues compared with a traditional in vitro culture system. METHODS: Ovarian cortical tissues (1-2 mm3 ), collected from slaughtered adult cows, were randomly assigned to control, CAM or in vitro culture groups. In the control group, ovarian tissues were fixed with paraformaldehyde without culture...
March 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
E H Ernst, S Franks, K Hardy, P Villesen, K Lykke-Hartmann
STUDY QUESTION: Can novel genetic candidates involved in follicle dormancy, activation and integrity be identified from transcriptomic profiles of isolated granulosa cells from human primordial and primary follicles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The granulosa cell compartment of the human primordial and primary follicle was extensively enriched in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signalling, and several other putative signalling pathways that may also be mediators of follicle growth and development were identified...
February 28, 2018: Human Reproduction
V V Yuzhakov, I V Malinova, M V Kiseleva, N K Fomina, L N Bandurko, E V Komarova, L E Sevan'kaeva, I E Ingel', N D Yakovleva, A D Kaprin
The results of a complex morphofunctional study with markers of proliferation (PCNA and Ki-67), angiogenesis (CD31 and CD34), and structural integrity of mesenchymal cells (vimentin) suggest that the pool of primordial follicles was well preserved in vitrified ovarian tissue and that viability of its cellular components can be rapidly restored during incubation at 37°C within 4 h after thawing.
March 5, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Michael J Bertoldo, Kirsty A Walters, William L Ledger, Robert B Gilchrist, Pascal Mermillod, Yann Locatelli
Ovarian tissue is increasingly being collected from cancer patients and cryopreserved for fertility preservation. While the only available option to restore fertility is autologous transplantation, this treatment is not appropriate for all patients due to the risk of reintroducing cancer cells and causing disease recurrence. Harnessing the full reproductive potential of this tissue to restore fertility requires the development of culture systems that support oocyte development from the primordial follicle stage...
February 13, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Soner Celik, Ferda Topal Celikkan, Sinan Ozkavukcu, Alp Can, Ciler Celik-Ozenci
PURPOSE: Even with 86 live births reported globally so far, the mechanism of primordial follicle loss following autotransplantation of the frozen-thawed ovarian tissue needs further evaluation. Pten, Tsc1, p27, and Amh are the inhibitor proteins that play crucial roles in suppressing the transition from the primordial follicle to primary state, maintaining the primordial follicle reserve. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the expression patterns of these proteins change and it may be related to the global primordial follicle loss after autotransplantation of the frozen-thawed ovarian tissue...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Denise Damasceno Guerreiro, Laritza Ferreira de Lima, Gildas Tetaping Mbemya, Carolina Mielgo Maside, André Marrocos Miranda, Kaio César Simiano Tavares, Benner Geraldo Alves, Luciana Rocha Faustino, Johan Smitz, José Ricardo de Figueiredo, Ana Paula Ribeiro Rodrigues
The multidrug resistance proteins ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 are an energy-dependent efflux pump that functions in systemic detoxification processes. Physiologically expressed in a variety of tissues, most abundantly in the liver and intestinal epithelia, placenta, blood-brain barrier and various stem cells, until now, these pumps were not identified in goat ovarian tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze ABCB1, ABCC2, and ABCG2 mRNA and protein expression in goat preantral follicles. Fragments (3 × 3 × 1 mm) from five pairs of ovary (n = 10) obtained from five goat were collected and immediately submitted to qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assay for mRNA detection and identification and localization of the ABC transporters, respectively...
February 27, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Marcel Tuppi, Sebastian Kehrloesser, Daniel W Coutandin, Valerio Rossi, Laura M Luh, Alexander Strubel, Katharina Hötte, Meike Hoffmeister, Birgit Schäfer, Tiago De Oliveira, Florian Greten, Ernst H K Stelzer, Stefan Knapp, Massimo De Felici, Christian Behrends, Francesca Gioia Klinger, Volker Dötsch
The survival rate of cancer patients is steadily increasing, owing to more efficient therapies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) could identify targets for prevention of POI. Loss of the primordial follicle reserve is the most important cause of POI, with the p53 family member p63 being responsible for DNA-damage-induced apoptosis of resting oocytes. Here, we provide the first detailed mechanistic insight into the activation of p63, a process that requires phosphorylation by both the priming kinase CHK2 and the executioner kinase CK1 in mouse primordial follicles...
February 26, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
J L P R Jivago, F Paulini, R C Silva, M S Araujo, A P S Marinho, C M Lucci
The aim of this study was to define the population, morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of bitch preantral follicles (PAFs) and to compare the effects on the morphology of PAF of two cryopreservation techniques - slow freezing (SF) and vitrification (V) - of bitches' ovarian tissue. The average population (number per ovary) of PAFs was 48,541 ± 18,366, where 94.25% were primordial (45,145 ± 16,076). The average diameter of the primordial follicles was 27.5 ± 4.2 μm. The overall percentage of morphologically normal PAFs was 93...
February 23, 2018: Cryobiology
Richard M Schultz, Paula Stein, Petr Svoboda
The oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET) arguably initiates with formation of a primordial follicle and culminates with reprogramming of gene expression during the course of zygotic genome activation. This transition results in converting a highly differentiated cell, i.e. oocyte, to undifferentiated cells, i.e. initial blastomeres of a preimplantation embryo. A plethora of changes occur during the OET and include, but are not limited to, changes in transcription, chromatin structure, and protein synthesis; accumulation of macromolecules and organelles that will comprise the oocyte's maternal contribution to the early embryo; sequential acquisition of meiotic and developmental competence to name but a few...
February 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Katarzyna Knapczyk-Stwora, Malgorzata Grzesiak, Renata E Ciereszko, Elzbieta Czaja, Marek Koziorowski, Maria Slomczynska
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of androgen and estrogen agonists or antagonists on the follicle formation, ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as plasma steroid concentration in neonatal pigs. Piglets were injected with testosterone propionate (TP, 20 mg/kg bw), flutamide (FLU, 50 mg/kg bw), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP, 100 mg/kg bw), ICI 182,780 (ICI, 400 μg/kg bw), methoxychlor (MXC, 100 mg/kg bw) or corn oil (CTR, controls) between postnatal Days 1 and 10 (n = 4/group). Heart blood was collected and ovaries were excised from the 11-day-old piglets...
February 10, 2018: Theriogenology
Amanda Kallen, Alex J Polotsky, Joshua Johnson
Even with the benefit of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), many women are unable to conceive and deliver healthy offspring. One common cause of infertility is the inability to produce eggs capable of contributing to live birth. This can occur despite standard-of-care treatment to maximize the recovery of eggs from growing ovarian follicles. Dormant primordial follicles in the human ovary are a 'reserve ' that can be exploited clinically to overcome this problem. We discuss how controlling primordial follicle growth activation (PFGA) can produce increased numbers of high-quality eggs available for fertility treatment(s)...
March 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Zhengjie Yan, Youjin Dai, Heling Fu, Yuan Zheng, Dan Bao, Yuan Yin, Qin Chen, Xiaowei Nie, Qingting Hao, Daorong Hou, Yugui Cui
This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against D-galactose (D-gal)-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) in mice. A mouse POF model was induced by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (200 daily for 42 days. Mice in the curcumin group received both D-gal treatment and intraperitoneal injection of curcumin (100 for 42 days. Ovarian function, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated. The P, E2 and SOD levels were higher, and the FSH, LH and MDA levels were significantly lower in the curcumin group than in the D-gal group...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Riccardo Talevi, Sam Sudhakaran, Vincenza Barbato, Anna Merolla, Sabrina Braun, Maddalena Di Nardo, Valentina Costanzo, Raffaele Ferraro, Nicola Iannantuoni, Gerardo Catapano, Roberto Gualtieri
Transplantation of ovarian tissue for the preservation of fertility in oncological patients is becoming an accepted clinical practice. However, the risk of re-introducing tumour cells at transplantation has stirred an increased interest for complete in vitro folliculogenesis. This has not yet been achieved in humans possibly for the lack of knowledge on the environmental milieu that orchestrates folliculogenesis in vivo. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxygen availability on follicle health and growth during in vitro culture of ovarian tissue strips...
2018: PloS One
P U Díaz, F Rey, N C Gareis, U S Notaro, V Matiller, E M Belotti, A F Stassi, N R Salvetti, H H Ortega
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a homodimeric glycoprotein expressed exclusively in the gonads. This hormone is an important regulator of the early growth of follicles through inhibitory effects on the recruitment of primordial follicles into the pool of growing follicles and on granulosa cell proliferation. Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important disorder affecting the fertility of dairy cattle. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of AMH in granulosa cells and AMH secretion into follicular fluid in pre-ovulatory follicles from control cows, animals with spontaneously arising COD and during the development of the disease, at 5, 10 and 15 days of follicular persistence...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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