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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774071/molecular-detection-and-analysis-of-exosomes-using-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-gold-nanorods-and-a-miniaturized-device
#1
Elyahb Allie Kwizera, Ryan O'Connor, Vojtech Vinduska, Melody Williams, Elizabeth R Butch, Scott E Snyder, Xiang Chen, Xiaohua Huang
Exosomes are a potential source of cancer biomarkers. Probing tumor-derived exosomes can offer a potential non-invasive way to diagnose cancer, assess cancer progression, and monitor treatment responses. Novel molecular methods would facilitate exosome analysis and accelerate basic and clinical exosome research. Methods: A standard gold-coated glass microscopy slide was used to develop a miniaturized affinity-based device to capture exosomes in a target-specific manner with the assistance of low-cost 3-D printing technology...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752284/analysis-of-the-thrombotic-and-fibrinolytic-activities-of-tumor-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#2
Ludovic Durrieu, Alamelu Bharadwaj, David M Waisman
Exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) are small extracellular vesicles secreted by tumor cells and are suggested to contribute to the thrombotic events that commonly occur in patients with advanced malignancies. Paradoxically, these vesicles have been reported to also possess fibrinolytic activity. To determine whether thrombotic or fibrinolytic activity is a predominant characteristic of these extracellular vesicles, we prepared exosomes and MVs from 2 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7), a lung cancer cell line (A549), and a leukemia cell line (NB4) and assayed their thrombotic and fibrinolytic activities...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746865/mir-130a-3p-inhibits-migration-and-invasion-by-regulating-rab5b-in-human-breast-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells
#3
Xiangjie Kong, Junfeng Zhang, Jia Li, Jianfeng Shao, Lin Fang
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis by regulating specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, and their roles in BCSCs are becoming more apparent. We try to reveal the mechanism by which specific miRNA plays its function in BCSCs. Herein, we show that miR-130a-3p is down-regulated in human breast cancer tissues and exosomes from circulating blood...
May 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729379/improved-anticancer-properties-of-stem-cells-derived-exosomes-by-prolonged-release-from-pcl-nanofibrous-structure
#4
Zahra Rezaie, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Mahmood Dehghani Ashkezari
Systemic chemotherapy as a routine method for the treatment of cancers has several complications. Localized chemotherapy can significantly increase the treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. Here, mesenchymal stem cells derived microvesicles (MVs) was incorporated into Polycaprolactone nanofibers and then the apoptotic behavior of MCF-7 breast cancer cells was investigated while cultured on MVs-Polycaprolactone by using SEM, MTT and apoptotic gene expression. Results demonstrated that MVs-Polycaprolactone group was shown a great apoptosis induction potential into MCF-7 cells and it can be concluded that MVs-Polycaprolactone has a great promising potential to introduce as an in-situ tumor inhibitor construct rather than chemo-drugs...
May 2, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720111/cancer-derived-exosomes-from-her2-positive-cancer-cells-carry-trastuzumab-emtansine-into-cancer-cells-leading-to-growth-inhibition-and-caspase-activation
#5
Mark Barok, Maija Puhka, Gyorgy Vereb, Janos Szollosi, Jorma Isola, Heikki Joensuu
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that carries a cytotoxic drug (DM1) to HER2-positive cancer. The target of T-DM1 (HER2) is present also on cancer-derived exosomes. We hypothesized that exosome-bound T-DM1 may contribute to the activity of T-DM1. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from the cell culture medium of HER2-positive SKBR-3 and EFM-192A breast cancer cells, HER2-positive SNU-216 gastric cancer cells, and HER2-negative MCF-7 breast cancer cells by serial centrifugations including two ultracentrifugations, and treated with T-DM1...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713834/the-phenotypic-effects-of-exosomes-secreted-from-distinct-cellular-sources-a-comparative-study-based-on-mirna-composition
#6
Scott Ferguson, Sera Kim, Christine Lee, Michael Deci, Juliane Nguyen
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles composed of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Their molecular landscape is diverse, and exosomes derived from different cell types have distinct biological activities. Since exosomes are now being utilized as delivery vehicles for exogenous therapeutic cargoes, their intrinsic properties and biological effects must be understood. We performed miRNA profiling and found substantial differences in the miRNA landscape of prostate cancer (PC3) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 exosomes with little correlation in abundance of common miRNAs (R2  = 0...
April 30, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662176/cancer-cell-secreted-exosomal-mir-105-promotes-tumour-growth-through-the-myc-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming-of-stromal-cells
#7
Wei Yan, Xiwei Wu, Weiying Zhou, Miranda Y Fong, Minghui Cao, Juan Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Chih-Hong Chen, Oluwole Fadare, Donald P Pizzo, Jiawen Wu, Liang Liu, Xuxiang Liu, Andrew R Chin, Xiubao Ren, Yuan Chen, Jason W Locasale, Shizhen Emily Wang
Cancer and other cells residing in the same niche engage various modes of interactions to synchronize and buffer the negative effects of environmental changes. Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been implicated in the intercellular crosstalk. Here we show a mechanistic model involving breast-cancer-secreted, extracellular-vesicle-encapsulated miR-105, which is induced by the oncoprotein MYC in cancer cells and, in turn, activates MYC signalling in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to induce a metabolic program...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658109/pge-2-ep-4-antagonism-enhances-tumor-chemosensitivity-by-inducing-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-clearance-of-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Meng-Chieh Lin, Shih-Yin Chen, Pei- Lin He, Harvey Herschman, Hua-Jung Li
Cells expressing mesenchymal/basal phenotypes in tumors have been associated with stem cell properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We explored overcoming mesenchymal CSC resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Our goal was to reduce CSC numbers in vivo, in conjunction with chemotherapy, to reduce tumor burden. Analysis of clinical samples demonstrated that COX-2/PGE2 /EP4 signaling is elevated in basal-like and chemoresistant breast carcinoma and is correlated with survival and relapse of breast cancer...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617321/exosome-mediated-transfer-of-cancer-cell-resistance-to-antiestrogen-drugs
#9
Svetlana E Semina, Alexander M Scherbakov, Anna A Vnukova, Dmitry V Bagrov, Evgeniy G Evtushenko, Vera M Safronova, Daria A Golovina, Ludmila N Lyubchenko, Margarita V Gudkova, Mikhail A Krasil'nikov
Exosomes are small vesicles which are produced by the cells and released into the surrounding space. They can transfer biomolecules into recipient cells. The main goal of the work was to study the exosome involvement in the cell transfer of hormonal resistance. The experiments were performed on in vitro cultured estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-7 sublines resistant to SERM tamoxifen and/or biguanide metformin, which exerts its anti-proliferative effect, at least in a part, via the suppression of estrogen machinery...
April 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609137/cytokine-mediated-therapeutic-resistance-in-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Chunli Tan, Weizi Hu, Yunjie He, Yanyan Zhang, Guangqin Zhang, Yong Xu, Jinhai Tang
Therapeutic resistance leading to tumor relapse is a major challenge in breast cancer (BCa) treatment. Numerous factors involved in multiple mechanisms promote the development of tumor chemo/radio-resistance. Cytokines/chemokines are important inflammatory factors and highly related to tumorigenesis, metastasis and tumors responses to treatment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that the network of cytokines activates multiple cell signaling pathways to promote tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and migration...
March 30, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593419/functional-mirnas-in-breast-cancer-drug-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Weizi Hu, Chunli Tan, Yunjie He, Guangqin Zhang, Yong Xu, Jinhai Tang
Owing to improved early surveillance and advanced therapy strategies, the current death rate due to breast cancer has decreased; nevertheless, drug resistance and relapse remain obstacles on the path to successful systematic treatment. Multiple mechanisms responsible for drug resistance have been elucidated, and miRNAs seem to play a major part in almost every aspect of cancer progression, including tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In recent years, exosomes have emerged as novel modes of intercellular signaling vehicles, initiating cell-cell communication through their fusion with target cell membranes, delivering functional molecules including miRNAs and proteins...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557526/circulating-micrornas-from-the-mir-106a-363-cluster-on-chromosome-x-as-novel-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-breast-cancer
#12
Minghui Li, Yan Zhou, Tiansong Xia, Xin Zhou, Zebo Huang, Huo Zhang, Wei Zhu, Qiang Ding, Shui Wang
PURPOSE: Novel noninvasive biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) are urgently needed in clinics. The aim of this study was to explore whether miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster can be detected in the circulation of BC patients and whether these miRNAs can serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: The expression of 12 miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster was evaluated using qRT-PCR in 400 plasma samples (from 200 BC patients and 200 healthy controls (HCs)) and 406 serum samples (from 204 BC patients and 202 HCs) via a three-phase study...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557524/secretomes-reveal-several-novel-proteins-as-well-as-tgf-%C3%AE-1-as-the-top-upstream-regulator-of-metastatic-process-in-breast-cancer
#13
Nuray Erin, Nur Ogan, Azmi Yerlikaya
PURPOSE: Metastatic breast cancer is resistant to many conventional treatments and novel therapeutic targets are needed. We previously isolated subsets of 4T1 murine breast cancer cells which metastasized to liver (4TLM), brain (4TBM), and heart (4THM). Among these cells, 4TLM is the most aggressive one, demonstrating mesenchymal phenotype. Here we compared secreted proteins from 4TLM, 4TBM, and 4THM cells and compared with that of hardly metastatic 67NR cells to detect differentially secreted factors involved in organ-specific metastasis...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539586/nephronectin-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-breast-cancer-and-promotes-metastasis-via-its-integrin-binding-motifs
#14
Tonje S Steigedal, Jimita Toraskar, Richard P Redvers, Marit Valla, Synnøve N Magnussen, Anna M Bofin, Signe Opdahl, Steinar Lundgren, Bedrich L Eckhardt, John M Lamar, Judy Doherty, Richard O Hynes, Robin L Anderson, Gunbjørg Svineng
Most cancer patients with solid tumors who succumb to their illness die of metastatic disease. While early detection and improved treatment have led to reduced mortality, even for those with metastatic cancer, some patients still respond poorly to treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of metastasis is important to improve prognostication, to stratify patients for treatment, and to identify new targets for therapy. We have shown previously that expression of nephronectin (NPNT) is correlated with metastatic propensity in breast cancer cell lines...
March 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499928/exosomes-in-cancer-liquid-biopsy-a-focus-on-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Sina Halvaei, Shiva Daryani, Zahra Eslami-S, Tannaz Samadi, Narges Jafarbeik-Iravani, Tayebeh Oghabi Bakhshayesh, Keivan Majidzadeh-A, Rezvan Esmaeili
The important challenge about cancer is diagnosis in primary stages and proper treatment. Although classical clinico-pathological features of the tumor have major prognostic value, the advances in diagnosis and treatment are indebted to discovery of molecular biomarkers and control of cancer in the pre-invasive state. Moreover, the efficiency of available therapeutic options is highly diminished, and chemotherapy is still the main treatment due to lack of enough specific targets. Accordingly, finding the new noninvasive biomarkers for cancer is still an important clinical challenge that is not achieved yet...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484119/breast-cancer-cell-derived-exosomes-and-macrophage-polarization-are-associated-with-lymph-node-metastasis
#16
Yin Ji Piao, Hoe Suk Kim, Eun Hye Hwang, Jisu Woo, Meihua Zhang, Woo Kyung Moon
Crosstalk between breast cancer and macrophages has potential implications for tumor metastasis. This study investigates macrophage polarization induced by triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell-derived exosomes that promote lymph node (LN) metastasis in orthotopic TNBC models. The MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line expressing the exosomal CD63-red fluorescence (RFP) fusion protein was generated to noninvasively visualize exosome transfer into cancer cells and macrophages. Administration of RFP-tagged exosomes enhanced migration of macrophages and induced macrophage polarization in vitro ...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441349/liquid-biopsy-in-clinical-management-of-breast-lung-and-colorectal-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Ivana Bratić Hench, Jürgen Hench, Markus Tolnay
Examination of tumor molecular characteristics by liquid biopsy is likely to greatly influence personalized cancer patient management. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and tumor-derived exosomes, all collectively referred to as "liquid biopsies," are not only a modality to monitor treatment efficacy, disease progression, and emerging therapy resistance mechanisms, but they also assess tumor heterogeneity and evolution in real time. We review the literature concerning the examination of ctDNA and CTC in a diagnostic setting, evaluating their prognostic, predictive, and monitoring capabilities...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415817/heterologous-human-rat-her2-specific-exosome-targeted-t-cell-vaccine-stimulates-potent-humoral-and-ctl-responses-leading-to-enhanced-circumvention-of-her2-tolerance-in-double-transgenic-hla-a2-her2-mice
#18
Yufeng Xie, Jie Wu, Aizhang Xu, Shahid Ahmeqd, Amer Sami, Rajni Chibbar, Andrew Freywald, Changyu Zheng, Jim Xiang
DNA vaccines composed of heterologous human HER2 and rat neu sequences induce stronger antibody response and protective antitumor immunity than either HER2 or neu DNA vaccines in transgenic mice. We previously developed HER2-specific exosome-targeted T-cell vaccine HER2-TEXO capable of stimulating HER2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, but only leading to partial protective immunity in double-transgenic HLA-A2/HER2 mice with self-immune tolerance to HER2. Here, we constructed an adenoviral vector AdVHuRt expressing HuRt fusion protein composed of NH2 -HER21-407 (Hu) and COOH-neu408-690 (Rt) fragments, and developed a heterologous human/rat HER2-specific exosome-targeted T-cell vaccine HuRt-TEXO using polyclonal CD4+ T-cells uptaking exosomes released by AdVHuRt -transfected dendritic cells...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386907/exosome-mediated-delivery-of-malat1-induces-cell-proliferation-in-breast-cancer
#19
Ping Zhang, Hongxing Zhou, Kefeng Lu, Yunou Lu, Yan Wang, Tongbao Feng
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Cancer-secreted exosomes have recently been recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. The aim of this study was to determine the role of exosomal long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in breast cancer progression. Materials and methods: Breast cancer specimens were obtained with informed consent from patients. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect MALAT1 expression, and cellular proliferation was measured using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367765/employing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-support-tumor-targeted-delivery-of-extracellular-vesicle-ev-encapsulated-microrna-379
#20
K P O'Brien, S Khan, K E Gilligan, H Zafar, P Lalor, C Glynn, C O'Flatharta, H Ingoldsby, P Dockery, A De Bhulbh, J R Schweber, K St John, M Leahy, J M Murphy, W M Gallagher, T O'Brien, M J Kerin, R M Dwyer
Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have a well-established tumor-homing capacity, highlighting potential as tumor-targeted delivery vehicles. MSCs secrete extracellular vesicle (EV)-encapsulated microRNAs, which play a role in intercellular communication. The aim of this study was to characterize a potential tumor suppressor microRNA, miR-379, and engineer MSCs to secrete EVs enriched with miR-379 for in vivo therapy of breast cancer. miR-379 expression was significantly reduced in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumor tissue from the same patients...
January 25, 2018: Oncogene
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