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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801937/in-situ-split-liver-splitting-under-extra-corporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-brain-dead-donor
#1
Assalino Michela, Pietro Majno, Christian Toso, Thierry Berney, Raphaël Giraud, Philipp Dutkowski, Axel Andres, Barbara Wildhaber, Laure Elkrief
Hemodynamic instability is generally considered as a contraindication to liver splitting, in particular when using an in-situ technique. We describe the cases of two young donors with brain death in whom refractory cardiac arrest and hemodynamic instability were supported by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), allowing uneventful in situ splitting. Two adult and two pediatric liver recipients were successfully transplanted with immediate graft function. Favorable outcomes were also observed for the other transplanted organs, including one heart, two lungs and four kidneys...
August 12, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800318/mir-513c-suppresses-neuroblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-through-direct-targeting-glutaminase-gls
#2
Hong-Liang Xia, Yao Lv, Chun-Wei Xu, Ming-Cui Fu, Ting Zhang, Xiang-Ming Yan, Shu Dai, Qian-Wei Xiong, Yun Zhou, Jian Wang, Xu Cao
Neuroblastoma is a brain malignancy of childhood and accounts for 7-10% of childhood cancers, leading to approximately 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short (about 18-25 nucleotides), noncoding and single stranded endogenous RNAs, which complementarily bind to the 3' untranslated regions of their target genes. Recently, glutamine metabolism has been recognized as an important nutrition source for tumor cells, and hence targeting glutamine metabolism could benefit to development of anti-cancer agents...
July 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782587/prolonged-ketamine-exposure-induces-increased-activity-of-the-glun2b-containing-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-neonatal-rats
#3
Saurabh S Kokane, Kerui Gong, Jianhui Jin, Qing Lin
Ketamine is a commonly used anesthetic among pediatric patients due to its high efficacy. However, it has been demonstrated by several preclinical studies that, widespread accelerated programmed death of neurons (neuroapoptosis) occurs due to prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine specifically in the neonatal brain. Therefore, an emphasis on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this selective vulnerability of the neonatal brain to ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis becomes important in order to identify potential therapeutic targets, which would help prevent or at least ameliorate this neuroapoptosis...
August 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780390/a-12-year-experience-with-tracheostomy-for-neonates-and-infants-in-northern-taiwan-indications-hospital-courses-and-long-term-outcomes
#4
Chia-Huei Chen, Jui-Hsing Chang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Nan-Chang Chiu, Chun-Chin Peng, Wai-Tim Jim, Hung-Yang Chang, Kuo-Sheng Lee
BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is a valuable procedure in infants and neonates with chronic respiratory failure or severe airway obstruction. The aim of this study is to identify the indication, hospital course, and long-term outcome in a cohort of infants who required tracheostomy in a neonatal and pediatric tertiary care center in northern Taiwan. METHODS: Medical records of infants, who underwent tracheostomy between January 2002 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed...
July 24, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741144/tobacco-use-and-smoke-exposure-in-children-new-trends-harm-and-strategies-to-improve-health-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Luv D Makadia, P Jervey Roper, Jeannette O Andrews, Martha S Tingen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Every day in the USA, approximately 4000 adolescents begin smoking and the adolescent brain is particularly susceptible to nicotine addiction. We present current pediatric trends on tobacco use and exposures, various new products used by adolescents, the adverse biological and behavioral effects of tobacco use and exposures, and tobacco control strategies to eliminate tobacco-related illnesses and deaths in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve-20% of women continue to smoke during pregnancy...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723885/term-versus-preterm-cord-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-brain-injury
#6
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Jan Loose, Ilias Nitsos, Beth J Allison, Robert Bischof, Courtney A McDonald, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: White matter brain injury in preterm infants can induce neurodevelopmental deficits. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells demonstrate neuroprotective properties, but it is unknown whether cells obtained from preterm versus term cord blood have similar efficacy. This study compared the ability of term cord blood (TCB) versus preterm cord blood (PCB) cells to reduce white matter injury in preterm fetal sheep. METHODS: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in fetal sheep (0...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719478/a-review-of-nonfatal-drowning-in-the-pediatric-age-group-a-10-year-experience-at-a-university-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#7
Faisal O Al-Qurashi, Abdullah A Yousef, Abdullah Aljoudi, Saleh M Alzahrani, Nasser Y Al-Jawder, Abdulrahman K Al-Ahmar, Mosab S Al-Majed, Hussam M Abouollo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nonfatal drowning experience, risk factors, intrahospital assessment and postincidental outcomes for children admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, over a 10-year period. METHODS: Children up to the age of 14 years who were admitted with the diagnosis of nonfatal drowning from July 2005 to June 2015 were included. Data regarding demographics, timing, season and location of drowning, presence of an assigned lifeguard, duration of submersion and transport to hospital, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, temperature, pH, blood sugar level, total hospital stay, and discharge status were extrapolated, and their effects on the patient's outcome analyzed...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717727/childhood-cancer-mortality-in-india-direct-estimates-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-of-childhood-deaths
#8
Sumit Gupta, Shaun K Morris, Wilson Suraweera, Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, Rajesh Dikshit, Prabhat Jha
PURPOSE: Although most children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries, measurements of childhood cancer burden in such countries have been restricted to incidence rates from a few subnational cancer registries and mortality rates from vital statistics. We aimed to provide alternative burden estimates by using nationally representative longitudinal survey-derived mortality rates. METHODS: We examined cancer deaths in childhood (1 month to 14 years of age) in the Million Death Study, a cohort of > 27,000 pediatric deaths in India on the basis of enhanced verbal autopsies...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716517/lethal-suicide-attempt-with-a-mixed-drug-intoxication-of-metoprolol-and-propafenone-a-first-pediatric-case-report
#9
Ivana Kacirova, Milan Grundmann, Martin Kolek, Erika Vyskocilova-Hrudikova, Romana Urinovska, Petr Handlos
INTRODUCTION: The β1 adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol is often prescribed together with the antiarrhythmic drug propafenone. Both are metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 and propafenone is also an inhibitor of this enzyme. We present a pediatric case showing metoprolol and propafenone intoxication in combination. CASE: A 14-year-old girl was admitted to a local emergency department after ingestion of metoprolol (probably 1g) and propafenone (probably 1.5-3g) in a suicide attempt...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700540/clinical-and-radiological-presentations-and-management-of-blunt-splenic-trauma-a-single-tertiary-hospital-experience
#10
Gaby Jabbour, Ammar Al-Hassani, Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Ruben Peralta, Mohammed Ellabib, Hisham Al-Jogol, Mohammed Asim, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND Splenic injury is the leading cause of major bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma. We examined the clinical and radiological presentations, management, and outcome of blunt splenic injuries (BSI) in our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of BSI patients between 2011 and 2014 was conducted. We analyzed and compared management and outcome of different splenic injury grades in trauma patients. RESULTS A total of 191 BSI patients were identified with a mean (SD) age of 26.9 years (13...
July 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699371/minocycline-attenuates-high-mobility-group-box-1-translocation-microglial-activation-and-thalamic-neurodegeneration-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-postnatal-day-17-rats
#11
Dennis William Simon, Rajesh K Aneja, Henry Alexander, Michael J Bell, Hulya Bayir, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
In response to cell injury the danger signal high mobility group box-1 (HMGB) is released, activating macrophages by binding pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the role of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline in attenuating HMGB1 translocation, microglial activation, and neuronal injury in a rat model of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Postnatal day 17 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to moderate-severe controlled cortical impact (CCI). Animals were randomized to treatment with minocycline (90 mg/kg, i...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667938/altered-stress-system-reactivity-after-pediatric-injury-relation-with-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#12
Linda Ewing-Cobbs, Mary R Prasad, Charles S Cox, Douglas A Granger, Gerardo Duque, Paul R Swank
Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in childhood. Injured children are at high risk for developing alterations in stress response systems and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that may compromise long-term physical and psychological health. In a prospective, observational cohort study, we examined individual differences in, and correlates of, stress-reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; salivary cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (ANS; salivary alpha amylase, sAA) following pediatric injury...
October 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650356/trending-fibrinolytic-dysregulation-fibrinolysis-shutdown-in-the-days-after-injury-is-associated-with-poor-outcome-in-severely-injured-children
#13
Christine M Leeper, Matthew D Neal, Christine J McKenna, Barbara A Gaines
OBJECTIVE: To trend fibrinolysis after injury and determine the influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and massive transfusion on fibrinolysis status. BACKGROUND: Admission fibrinolytic derangement is common in injured children and adults, and is associated with poor outcome. No studies examine fibrinolysis days after injury. METHODS: Prospective study of severely injured children at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. Rapid thromboelastography was obtained on admission and daily for up to 7 days...
July 22, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626255/underlying-cause-of-death-recorded-during-2013-to-2015-at-a-tertiary-general-hospital-in-vientiane-capital-lao-pdr
#14
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Tavanh Manivon, Bounxou Keohavong, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the cause of death is not registered in death reports. As a result, the government cannot produce official reports that show mortality according to cause of death. This study aimed to report the underlying cause of death in a tertiary general hospital (Mittaphab Hospital) in Vientiane capital. Mittaphab hospital is a governmental teaching hospital with 300 beds for inpatient services specialized in orthopedics, neurology, and hemodialysis. Since a children hospital exists beside Mittaphab Hospital, severe pediatric cases are referred to the child hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605426/biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-and-inflammation-in-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Ursula K Rohlwink, Katya Mauff, Katalin A Wilkinson, Nico Enslin, Emmanuel Wegoye, Robert J Wilkinson, Anthony A Figaji
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to death or disability in half the affected individuals. Tools to assess severity and predict outcome are lacking. Neuro-specific biomarkers could serve as markers of the severity and evolution of brain injury, but have not been widely explored in TBM. We examined biomarkers of neurological injury (neuromarkers) and inflammation in pediatric TBM and their association with outcome. Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with TBM and hydrocephalus taken on admission and over 3 weeks were analysed for neuromarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and multiple inflammatory markers...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603224/proton-beam-therapy-for-pediatric-brain-tumor
#16
Masashi Mizumoto, Yoshiko Oshiro, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Hidehiro Kohzuki, Hideyuki Sakurai
Cancer is a major cause of childhood death, with central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms being the second most common pediatric malignancy, following hematological cancer. Treatment of pediatric CNS malignancies requires multimodal treatment using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, and advances in these treatments have given favorable results and longer survival. However, treatment-related toxicities have also occurred, particularly for radiotherapy, after which secondary cancer, reduced function of irradiated organs, and retarded growth are significant problems...
June 9, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598565/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors-in-children-treated-with-multimodal-therapies-the-necessity-of-upfront-radiotherapy-after-surgery
#17
Jeongshim Lee, Dong-Seok Kim, Jung Woo Han, Chang-Ok Suh
BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare malignant pediatric brain tumor with a dismal prognosis. We evaluated the efficacy of multimodal therapy in children with ATRT. PROCEDURE: Nine children diagnosed with cranial ATRT, who received multimodal therapy between 2005 and 2014, including surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT), systemic chemotherapy (CT), and high-dose chemotherapy/stem cell transplantation (HDCT/SCT), were analyzed retrospectively...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596990/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cerebral-malaria-patients-reveals-distinct-pathogenetic-processes-in-different-parts-of-the-brain
#18
Sanjib Mohanty, Laura A Benjamin, Megharay Majhi, Premanand Panda, Sam Kampondeni, Praveen K Sahu, Akshaya Mohanty, Kishore C Mahanta, Rajyabardhan Pattnaik, Rashmi R Mohanty, Sonia Joshi, Anita Mohanty, Ian W Turnbull, Arjen M Dondorp, Terrie E Taylor, Samuel C Wassmer
The mechanisms underlying the rapidly reversible brain swelling described in patients with cerebral malaria (CM) are unknown. Using a 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, we undertook an observational study in Rourkela, India, of 11 Indian patients hospitalized with CM and increased brain volume. Among the 11 cases, there were 5 adults and 6 children. All patients had reduced consciousness and various degrees of cortical swelling at baseline. The latter was predominately posterior in distribution...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589518/forty-years-of-sodium-channels-structure-function-pharmacology-and-epilepsy
#19
William A Catterall
Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in brain neurons. In the 1970s, much was known about the function of sodium channels from measurements of ionic currents using the voltage clamp method, but there was no information about the sodium channel molecules themselves. As a postdoctoral fellow and staff scientist at the National Institutes of Health, I developed neurotoxins as molecular probes of sodium channels in cultured neuroblastoma cells. During those years, Bruce Ransom and I crossed paths as members of the laboratories of Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Nelson and shared insights about sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells from my work and electrical excitability and synaptic transmission in cultured spinal cord neurons from Bruce's pioneering electrophysiological studies...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585791/-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-due-to-civil-gunshot-wounds-at-a-general-hospital-in-cali-colombia
#20
L Parrado Sánchez, C Gómez, J A Valderrama Chaparro, L D Beltrán Osorio, M Sierra Ruiz, A Enríquez Marulanda, J Lobato Polo
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to gunshot-wounds (GSW) is a critical situation in the pediatric population. The aim of this study is to characterize TBI in this population since there are few reports that describe it especially in Colombia where its incidence is high, also to determine which were the main mortality predictor within our population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which we reviewed pediatric medical records of patients that had consulted at the Fundacion Valle del Lili pediatric Emergency Room between January of 2011 and December of 2015 because of TBI due to GSW...
January 25, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
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