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Pediatric brain death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052939/no-association-between-radiation-dose-from-pediatric-ct-scans-and-risk-of-subsequent-hodgkin-lymphoma
#1
Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, Neige Journy, Choonsik Lee, Lindsay M Morton, Richard Harbron, Douglas R Stewart, Louise Parker, Alan W Craft, Kieran McHugh, Mark Little, Mark Pearce
BACKGROUND: We examined the relationship between estimated radiation dose from CT scans and subsequent Hodgkin lymphoma in the UK pediatric CT scans cohort. METHODS: A retrospective, record linkage cohort included patients aged 0-21 years who underwent CT scans between 1980 and 2002 and were followed up for cancer or death until 2008. Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between estimated radiation dose (lagged by two years) and incident Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed at least two years after the first CT scan...
January 4, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045472/inhaled-nitric-oxide-for-respiratory-failure-in-preterm-infants
#2
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Neil Finer, Thomas Pennaforte
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure and the potential risks of iNO differ substantially in preterm infants, necessitating specific study in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine effects of treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or other serious brain injury and on adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017613/developmental-regulation-of-mitochondrial-apoptosis-by-c-myc-governs-age-and-tissue-specific-sensitivity-to-cancer-therapeutics
#3
Kristopher A Sarosiek, Cameron Fraser, Nathiya Muthalagu, Patrick D Bhola, Weiting Chang, Samuel K McBrayer, Adam Cantlon, Sudeshna Fisch, Gail Golomb-Mello, Jeremy A Ryan, Jing Deng, Brian Jian, Chris Corbett, Marti Goldenberg, Joseph R Madsen, Ronglih Liao, Dominic Walsh, John Sedivy, Daniel J Murphy, Daniel Ruben Carrasco, Shenandoah Robinson, Javid Moslehi, Anthony Letai
It is not understood why healthy tissues can exhibit varying levels of sensitivity to the same toxic stimuli. Using BH3 profiling, we find that mitochondria of many adult somatic tissues, including brain, heart, and kidneys, are profoundly refractory to pro-apoptotic signaling, leading to cellular resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapies and ionizing radiation. In contrast, mitochondria from these tissues in young mice and humans are primed for apoptosis, predisposing them to undergo cell death in response to genotoxic damage...
January 9, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017579/seizures-caused-by-brain-tumors-in-children
#4
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of seizures secondary to pediatric brain tumors. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric tumor and the most common cause of death in pediatric cancer. Seizures are one of the most common symptoms of pediatric brain tumors. Factors associated with increased risk of seizures include supratentorial location, gray matter involvement, low-grade, and certain histological features-especially dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, and oligodendroglioma...
December 7, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955899/nasa-model-of-threat-and-error-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-patterns-of-error%C3%A2-chains
#5
Edward Hickey, Eric Pham-Hung, Yaroslavna Nosikova, Fredrik Halvorsen, Michael Gritti, Steven Schwartz, Christopher A Caldarone, Glen Van Arsdell
BACKGROUND: We introduced the National Aeronautics and Space Association threat-and-error model to our surgical unit. All admissions are considered flights, which should pass through stepwise deescalations in risk during surgical recovery. We hypothesized that errors significantly influence risk deescalation and contribute to poor outcomes. METHODS: Patient flights (524) were tracked in real time for threats, errors, and unintended states by full-time performance personnel...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926496/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-pi3k-pathway-in-pediatric-brain-tumors
#6
REVIEW
Hazel A Rogers, Jasper Estranero, Keshni Gudka, Richard G Grundy
Central nervous system tumors are the most common cancer type in children and the leading cause of cancer related deaths. There is therefore a need to develop novel treatments. Large scale profiling studies have begun to identify alterations that could be targeted therapeutically, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which is one of the most commonly activated pathways in cancer with many inhibitors under clinical development. PI3K signaling has been shown to be aberrantly activated in many pediatric CNS neoplasms...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919715/perioperative-brain-natriuretic-peptide-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-patients-its-association-with-postoperative-outcomes
#7
Tomoyuki Kanazawa, Moritoki Egi, Yuichiro Toda, Kazuyoshi Shimizu, Kentaro Sugimoto, Tatsuo Iwasaki, Hiroshi Morimatsu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perioperative brain natriuretic peptide levels and the incidence of postoperative serious adverse events (SAEs) in pediatric cardiac patients. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: A single-institution university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 15 years old who underwent cardiac surgery that required cardiopulmonary bypass from December 21, 2012 to February 26, 2014...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917595/societal-preferences-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma-balancing-risk-of-death-and-quality-of-life
#8
Amir Khakban, Tima Mohammadi, Larry D Lynd, Don Mabbott, Eric Bouffet, Louise Gastonguay, Zafar Zafari, David Malkin, Michael Taylor, Carlo A Marra
PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent childhood brain cancer. Children with medulloblastoma typically receive a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The survival rate is high but survivors often have sequelae from radiotherapy of the entire developing brain and spinal cord. Ongoing genetic studies have suggested that decreasing the dose of radiation might be possible among children with favorable molecular variants; however, this may result in an increased disease recurrence...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903616/immediate-rule-out-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-using-electrocardiogram-and-baseline-high-sensitivity-troponin-i
#9
Johannes Tobias Neumann, Nils Arne Sörensen, Francisco Ojeda, Tjark Schwemer, Jonas Lehmacher, Saskia Gönner, Nikolas Jarsetz, Till Keller, Sarina Schaefer, Thomas Renné, Ulf Landmesser, Peter Clemmensen, Nataliya Makarova, Renate B Schnabel, Tanja Zeller, Mahir Karakas, John W Pickering, Martin Than, William Parsonage, Jaimi Greenslade, Louise Cullen, Dirk Westermann, Stefan Blankenberg
AIMS: Serial measurements of high-sensitivity troponin are used to rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with an assay specific cutoff at the 99th percentile. Here, we evaluated the performance of a single admission troponin with a lower cutoff combined with a low risk electrocardiogram (ECG) to rule out AMI. METHODS: Troponin I measured with a high-sensitivity assay (hs-TnI) was determined at admission in 1040 patients presenting with suspected AMI (BACC study)...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889018/posterior-fossa-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Lara A Brandão, Tina Young Poussaint
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882447/neonatal-repeated-exposure-to-isoflurane-not-sevoflurane-in-mice-reversibly-impaired-spatial-cognition-at-juvenile-age
#11
Jianhui Liu, Yanhong Zhao, Junjun Yang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Wei Zhang, Peijun Wang
Inhalation anesthetics facilitate surgical procedures in millions of children each year. However, animal studies demonstrate that exposure to the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause neuronal cell death in developing brains. The long-term cytotoxic effects of sevoflurane, the most popular pediatric anesthetic, have not been compared with isoflurane. Thus, this study was designed to compare the effects of equipotent doses of these two anesthetics on neonatal long-term neurotoxicity. Postnatal 7-day-old (P7) C57/BL male mice were exposed to 1...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876089/rapid-onset-obesity-hypoventilation-hypothalamic-dysfunction-autonomic-dysregulation-and-neuroendocrine-tumor-syndrome-with-a-homogenous-enlargement-of-the-pituitary-gland-a-case-report
#12
Lama Aljabban, Lina Kassab, Nour Alhuda Bakoura, Mohammad Fayez Alsalka, Ismaeil Maksoud
BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862642/external-validation-of-the-pecarn-head-trauma-prediction-rules-in-japan
#13
Kentaro Ide, Satoko Uematsu, Kenichi Tetsuhara, Satoshi Yoshimura, Takahiro Kato, Tohru Kobayashi
OBJECTIVES: The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) head trauma prediction rules are used to assist computed tomography (CT) decision-making for children with minor head trauma. Although the PECARN rules have been validated in North America and Europe, they have not yet been validated in Asia. In Japan, there are no clinical decision rules for children with minor head trauma. The rate of head CT for children with minor head trauma in Japan is high since CT is widely accessible across the country...
November 12, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850141/501-descriptive-comparison-of-pediatric-brain-dead-donors-versus-donation-after-circulatory-death-donors
#14
Ahmeneh Ghavam, Kimberly Lee, Nathan Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850015/375-a-needs-assessment-of-brain-death-education-in-pediatric-critical-care-medicine-fellowships
#15
Andrew Ausmus, Tara Petersen, Pippa Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836863/checkpoint-proteins-in-pediatric-brain-and-extracranial-solid-tumors-opportunities-for-immunotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Eric K Ring, James M Markert, G Yancey Gillespie, Gregory K Friedman
Pediatric brain and extracranial solid tumors are a diverse group of malignancies that represent almost half of all pediatric cancers. Standard therapy includes various combinations of surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and radiation, which can be very harmful to a developing child, and survivors carry a substantial burden of long-term morbidities. Although these therapies have improved survival rates for children with solid tumors, outcomes still remain extremely poor for subsets of patients. Recently, immunosuppressive checkpoint molecules that negatively regulate immune cell function have been described...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804148/efficacy-of-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-in-juvenile-batten-disease-cln3
#17
Amy Aldrich, Megan E Bosch, Rachel Fallet, Jessica Odvody, Maria Burkovetskaya, Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Jonathan D Cooper, Arlene V Drack, Tammy Kielian
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), or juvenile Batten disease, is a pediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in CLN3, typified by blindness, seizures, progressive cognitive and motor decline, and premature death. Currently, there is no treatment for JNCL that slows disease progression, which highlights the need to explore novel strategies to extend the survival and quality of life of afflicted children. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a second messenger with pleiotropic effects, including regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal survival...
December 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788786/potential-pediatric-organ-donors-after-cardiac-death
#18
A Pregernig, O Karam
BACKGROUND: More than 50 people die each year on the Swiss transplant waiting list. To increase their organ donors pool, some centers have developed a post-cardiac death organ donation program. Information about its impact in the pediatric population is still scarce. The aim of this work was to determine the potential impact of a program of organ donation after cardiac in a pediatric population. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all children deceased from 2005 to 2014 in a tertiary pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784630/minimally-invasive-biomarkers-of-general-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#19
X Zhang, F Liu, W Slikker, C Wang, M G Paule
The association of general anesthesia with developmental neurotoxicity, while nearly impossible to study in pediatric populations, is clearly demonstrable in a variety of animal models from rodents to nonhuman primates. Nearly all general anesthetics tested have been shown to cause abnormal brain cell death in animals when administered during periods of rapid brain growth. The ability to repeatedly assess in the same subjects adverse effects induced by general anesthetics provides significant power to address the time course of important events associated with exposures...
October 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781151/dose-dependent-short-and-long-term-effects-of-ionizing-irradiation-on-neural-stem-cells-in-murine-hippocampal-tissue-cultures-neuroprotective-potential-of-resveratrol
#20
Isabell Prager, Ina Patties, Katrin Himmelbach, Eva Kendzia, Felicitas Merz, Klaus Müller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Annegret Glasow
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of brain tumors, but neurocognitive deficits remain a significant risk, especially in pediatric patients. In recent trials, hippocampal sparing techniques are applied to reduce these adverse effects. Here, we investigate dose-dependent effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on juvenile hippocampal neurogenesis. Additionally, we evaluate the radioprotective potential of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol recognized for its bifunctional tumor-preventive and anticancer effects...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
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