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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425244/initiation-extension-and-termination-of-rna-synthesis-by-a-paramyxovirus-polymerase
#1
Paul C Jordan, Cheng Liu, Pauline Raynaud, Michael K Lo, Christina F Spiropoulou, Julian A Symons, Leo Beigelman, Jerome Deval
Paramyxoviruses represent a family of RNA viruses causing significant human diseases. These include measles virus, the most infectious virus ever reported, in addition to parainfluenza virus, and other emerging viruses. Paramyxoviruses likely share common replication machinery but their mechanisms of RNA biosynthesis activities and details of their complex polymerase structures are unknown. Mechanistic and functional details of a paramyxovirus polymerase would have sweeping implications for understanding RNA virus replication and for the development of new antiviral medicines...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391683/cryptic-etiopathological-conditions-of-equine-nervous-system-with-special-emphasis-on-viral-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Rakesh Kumar, Rajendra D Patil
The importance of horse (Equus caballus) to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission...
December 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351657/characterization-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-nipah-virus-spillover-events-in-bangladesh-2007-2013
#3
Maria C Cortes, Simon Cauchemez, Noemie Lefrancq, Stephen P Luby, M Jahangir Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, Mahmudur Rahman, Peter Daszak, Henrik Salje, Emily S Gurley
Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus, harbored by bats and lethal to humans. Bat to human spillovers occur every winter in Bangladesh. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the number of spillovers detected by district and year that remains unexplained. We analyzed data from all 57 spillovers from 2007-2013 and found that temperature differences explained 36% of the year-to-year variation in the total number of spillovers each winter while distance to surveillance hospitals explained 45% of spatial heterogeneity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331670/circulation-of-alphacoronavirus-betacoronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-hipposideros-bat-species-in-zimbabwe
#4
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321315/paramyxovirus-v-proteins-interact-with-the-rig-i-trim25-regulatory-complex-and-inhibit-rig-i-signaling
#5
Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Leighland J Feinman, Adolfo García-Sastre, Megan L Shaw
Paramyxovirus V proteins are known antagonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated interferon induction pathway, interacting with and inhibiting the RLR MDA5. We report interactions between the Nipah virus V protein and both the RIG-I regulatory protein, TRIM25, and RIG-I. We also observed interactions between these host proteins and the V proteins of measles virus, Sendai virus and parainfluenza virus. These interactions are mediated by the conserved C-terminal domain of the V protein, which binds to the tandem CARDs of RIG-I (the region of TRIM25-ubiquitination) and to the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which mediates TRIM25 interaction with the RIG-I CARDs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260663/nipah-virus-contamination-of-hospital-surfaces-during-outbreaks-bangladesh-2013-2014
#6
Md Zakiul Hassan, Hossain M S Sazzad, Stephen P Luby, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Md Muzahidul Islam, Ute Ströher, Sharmin Sultana, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Peter Daszak, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley
Nipah virus (NiV) has been transmitted from patient to caregivers in Bangladesh presumably through oral secretions. We aimed to detect whether NiV-infected patients contaminate hospital surfaces with the virus. During December 2013-April 2014, we collected 1 swab sample from 5 surfaces near NiV-infected patients and tested surface and oral swab samples by real-time reverse transcription PCR for NiV RNA. We identified 16 Nipah patients; 12 cases were laboratory-confirmed and 4 probable. Of the 12 laboratory-confirmed cases, 10 showed NiV RNA in oral swab specimens...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092793/proteomic-composition-of-nipah-virus-like-particles
#7
Natalia Mara Vera-Velasco, Maria Jesús García-Murria, Manuel M Sánchez Del Pino, Ismael Mingarro, Luis Martinez-Gil
Virions are often described as virus-only entities with no cellular components with the exception of the lipids in their membranes. However, advances in proteomics are revealing substantial amounts of host proteins in the viral particles. In the case of Nipah virus (NiV), the viral components in the virion have been known for some time. Nonetheless, no information has been obtained regarding the cellular proteins in the viral particles. To address this question, we produced Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) for NiV by expressing the F, G and M proteins in human-derived cells...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035743/transmission-of-henipaviruses
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Weatherman, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
The genus Henipavirus has expanded rapidly in geographic range, number of species, and host range. Hendra and Nipah virus are two henipaviruses known to cause severe disease in humans with a high case-fatality rate. Pteropid spp. bats are the natural reservoir of Hendra and Nipah virus. From these bats, virus can be transmitted to an amplifying host, horses and pigs, and from these hosts to humans, or the virus can be transmitted directly to humans. Although the main route of shedding varies between host species, close contact is required for transmission in all hosts...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984239/variability-of-interferon-%C3%AE-induction-and-antiviral-activity-in-nipah-virus-infected-differentiated-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-of-two-human-donors
#9
Lucie Sauerhering, Helena Müller, Laura Behner, Mareike Elvert, Sarah Katharina Fehling, Thomas Strecker, Andrea Maisner
Highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) generally causes severe encephalitis in humans. Respiratory symptoms are infrequently observed, likely reflecting variations in infection kinetics in human airways. Supporting this idea, we recently identified individual differences in NiV replication kinetics in cultured airway epithelia from different human donors. As type III interferons (IFN-λ) represent major players in the defence mechanism against viral infection of the respiratory mucosa, we studied IFN-λ induction and antiviral activity in NiV-infected primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) cultured under air-liquid interface conditions...
October 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974687/monomeric-ephrinb2-binding-induces-allosteric-changes-in-nipah-virus-g-that-precede-its-full-activation
#10
Joyce J W Wong, Tracy A Young, Jiayan Zhang, Shiheng Liu, George P Leser, Elizabeth A Komives, Robert A Lamb, Z Hong Zhou, Joshua Salafsky, Theodore S Jardetzky
Nipah virus is an emergent paramyxovirus that causes deadly encephalitis and respiratory infections in humans. Two glycoproteins coordinate the infection of host cells, an attachment protein (G), which binds to cell surface receptors, and a fusion (F) protein, which carries out the process of virus-cell membrane fusion. The G protein binds to ephrin B2/3 receptors, inducing G conformational changes that trigger F protein refolding. Using an optical approach based on second harmonic generation, we show that monomeric and dimeric receptors activate distinct conformational changes in G...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972216/the-henipavirus-v-protein-is-a-prevalently-unfolded-protein-with-a-zinc-finger-domain-involved-in-binding-to-ddb1
#11
Edoardo Salladini, Vincent Delauzun, Sonia Longhi
Henipaviruses are severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Beyond the P protein, the Henipavirus P gene also encodes the V protein which shares with P its N-terminal, intrinsically disordered region (PNT) and possesses a unique C-terminal domain predicted to be folded and to bind zinc (ZnFD). Henipavirus V proteins antagonize IFN signaling through PNT-mediated binding to STAT1, and several paramyxoviral V proteins promote STAT1 degradation through binding to DDB1. Structural and molecular information on Henipavirus V proteins is lacking, and their ability to interact with DDB1 has not been documented yet...
October 24, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905152/a-controlled-trial-to-reduce-the-risk-of-human-nipah-virus-exposure-in-bangladesh
#12
Nazmun Nahar, Repon C Paul, Rebeca Sultana, Shariful Amin Sumon, Kajal Chandra Banik, Jaynal Abedin, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Fernando Garcia, Susan Zimicki, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in Bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated by Pteropus bats. We assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially NiV-contaminated raw sap. During the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. In one area, we disseminated a "do not drink raw sap" message and, in the other area, encouraged only drinking sap if it had been protected from bat contamination by a barrier ("only safe sap")...
September 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904190/exploring-the-human-nipah-virus-protein-protein-interactome
#13
Luis Martinez-Gil, Natalia M Vera-Velasco, Ismael Mingarro
Nipah virus is an emerging, highly pathogenic, zoonotic virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. Human transmission occurs by close contact with infected animals, the consumption of contaminated food, or, occasionally, via other infected individuals. Currently, we lack therapeutic or prophylactic treatments for Nipah virus. To develop these agents we must now improve our understanding of the host-virus interactions that underpin a productive infection. This aim led us to perform the present work, in which we identified 101 human-Nipah virus protein-protein interactions (PPIs), most of which (88) are novel...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883102/tackling-nipah-virus-%C3%A2-2-36-million-grant-awarded-to-pirbright-to-create-vaccine
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835499/nipah-and-hendra-virus-nucleoproteins-inhibit-nuclear-accumulation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-1-stat1-and-stat2-by-interfering-with-their-complex-formation
#15
Akihiro Sugai, Hiroki Sato, Ikuyo Takayama, Misako Yoneda, Chieko Kai
Henipaviruses, such as Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses, are highly pathogenic zoonotic agents within the Paramyxoviridae family. The phosphoprotein (P) gene products of the paramyxoviruses have been well characterized for their interferon (IFN) antagonist activity and their contribution to viral pathogenicity. In this study, we demonstrated that the nucleoprotein (N) of henipaviruses also prevents the host IFN signaling response. Reporter assays demonstrated that the NiV and HeV N proteins (NiV-N and HeV-N, respectively) dose-dependently suppressed both type I and type II IFN responses and that the inhibitory effect was mediated by their core domains...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820130/convergence-of-humans-bats-trees-and-culture-in-nipah-virus-transmission-bangladesh
#16
Emily S Gurley, Sonia T Hegde, Kamal Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, M Jahangir Hossain, Mahmudur Rahman, M A Yushuf Sharker, Henrik Salje, M Saiful Islam, Jonathan H Epstein, Salah U Khan, A Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, Stephen P Luby
Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011-2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767708/physiological-stress-and-hendra-virus-in-flying-foxes-pteropus-spp-australia
#17
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, Craig Smith, David Mayer, Ina Smith, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox) and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox) appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756915/in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-common-epitope-based-peptide-vaccine-for-nipah-and-hendra-viruses
#18
Chayan Kumar Saha, Md Mahbub Hasan, Md Saddam Hossain, Md Asraful Jahan, Abul Kalam Azad
OBJECTIVE: To explore a common B- and T-cell epitope-based vaccine that can elicit an immune response against encephalitis causing genus Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV). METHODS: Membrane proteins F, G and M of HeV and NiV were retrieved from the protein database and subjected to different bioinformatics tools to predict antigenic B-cell epitopes. Best B-cell epitopes were then analyzed to predict their T-cell antigenic potentiality. Antigenic B- and T-cell epitopes that shared maximum identity with HeV and NiV were selected...
June 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714870/antiviral-lipopeptide-cell-membrane-interaction-is-influenced-by-peg-linker-length
#19
Marcelo T Augusto, Axel Hollmann, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona, Nuno C Santos
A set of lipopeptides was recently reported for their broad-spectrum antiviral activity against viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, including human parainfluenza virus type 3 and Nipah virus. Among them, the peptide with a 24-unit PEG linker connecting it to a cholesterol moiety (VG-PEG24-Chol) was found to be the best membrane fusion inhibitory peptide. Here, we evaluated the interaction of the same set of peptides with biomembrane model systems and isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-cocirculate-with-type-1-and-severe-acute-respiratory-system-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-of-luxembourg
#20
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus were evaluated. Feces collection (n = 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, feces (n = 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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