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Nipah virus

Jessica F Bruhn, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Sarah M Urata, Sheng Li, Ian J Tickle, Gérard Bricogne, Erica Ollmann Saphire
: Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that is classified in a distinct genus from Ebola virus (EBOV) (genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus). Both viruses produce a multifunctional protein termed VP35, which acts as a polymerase co-factor, a viral protein chaperone and an antagonist of the innate immune response. VP35 contains a central oligomerization domain with a predicted coiled-coil motif. This domain has been shown to be essential for RNA polymerase function. Here we present crystal structures of the MARV VP35 oligomerization domain...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
Laura Baseler, Dana P Scott, Greg Saturday, Eva Horne, Rebecca Rosenke, Tina Thomas, Kimberly Meade-White, Elaine Haddock, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
BACKGROUND: Nipah virus causes respiratory and neurologic disease with case fatality rates up to 100% in individual outbreaks. End stage lesions have been described in the respiratory and nervous systems, vasculature and often lymphoid organs in fatal human cases; however, the initial target organs of Nipah virus infection have not been identified. Here, we detected the initial target tissues and cells of Nipah virus and tracked virus dissemination during the early phase of infection in Syrian hamsters inoculated with a Nipah virus isolate from Malaysia (NiV-M) or Bangladesh (NiV-B)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Robin R L Simons, Verity Horigan, Paul Gale, Rowena D Kosmider, Andrew C Breed, Emma L Snary
Bat-borne viruses have been linked to a number of zoonotic diseases; in 2014 there have been human cases of Nipah virus (NiV) in Bangladesh and Ebola virus in West and Central Africa. Here we describe a model designed to provide initial quantitative predictions of the risk of entry of such viruses to European Union (EU) Member States (MSs) through four routes: human travel, legal trade (e.g. fruit and animal products), live animal movements and illegal importation of bushmeat. The model utilises available datasets to assess the movement via these routes between individual countries of the world and EU MSs...
2016: PloS One
Chwan Hong Foo, Christina L Rootes, Karla Cowley, Glenn A Marsh, Cathryn M Gould, Celine Deffrasnes, Christopher J Cowled, Reuben Klein, Sarah J Riddell, Deborah Middleton, Kaylene J Simpson, Lin-Fa Wang, Andrew G D Bean, Cameron R Stewart
Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Priyanka Dutta, Ahnaf Siddiqui, Mohsen Botlani, Sameer Varma
Nipah is an emerging paramyxovirus that is of serious concern to human health. It invades host cells using two of its membrane proteins-G and F. G binds to host ephrins and this stimulates G to activate F. Upon activation, F mediates virus-host membrane fusion. Here we focus on mechanisms that underlie the stimulation of G by ephrins. Experiments show that G interacts with ephrin and F through separate sites located on two different domains, the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the F activation domain (FAD)...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Sonia T Hegde, Hossain M S Sazzad, M Jahangir Hossain, Mahbub-Ul Alam, Eben Kenah, Peter Daszak, Pierre Rollin, Mahmudur Rahman, Stephen P Luby, Emily S Gurley
Human Nipah encephalitis outbreaks have been identified almost yearly in Bangladesh since 2001. Though raw date palm sap consumption and person-to-person contact are recognized as major transmission pathways, alternative pathways of transmission are plausible and may not have been identified due to limited statistical power in each outbreak. We conducted a risk factor analysis using all 157 cases and 632 controls surveyed in previous investigations during 2004-2012 to identify exposures independently associated with Nipah, since date palm sap was first asked about as an exposure in 2004...
October 13, 2016: EcoHealth
David H Kingsley
Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Preeti Bharaj, Yao E Wang, Brian E Dawes, Tatyana E Yun, Arnold Park, Benjamin Yen, Christopher F Basler, Alexander N Freiberg, Benhur Lee, Ricardo Rajsbaum
For efficient replication, viruses have developed mechanisms to evade innate immune responses, including the antiviral type-I interferon (IFN-I) system. Nipah virus (NiV), a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Henipavirus), is known to encode for four P gene-derived viral proteins (P/C/W/V) with IFN-I antagonist functions. Here we report that NiV matrix protein (NiV-M), which is important for virus assembly and budding, can also inhibit IFN-I responses. IFN-I production requires activation of multiple signaling components including the IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε)...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Michelle D Audsley, David A Jans, Gregory W Moseley
Paramyxoviruses replicate in the cytoplasm with no obvious requirement to interact with the nucleus. Nevertheless, the W protein of the highly lethal bat-borne paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) is known to undergo specific targeting to the nucleus, mediated by a single nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within the C-terminal domain. Here, we report for the first time that additional sites modulate nucleocytoplasmic localisation of W. We show that the N-terminal domain interacts with importin α1 and contributes to nuclear accumulation of W, indicative of a novel N-terminal NLS...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Pragya Yadav, Prasad Sarkale, Deepak Patil, Anita Shete, Prasad Kokate, Vimal Kumar, Rajlaxmi Jain, Santosh Jadhav, Atanu Basu, Shailesh Pawar, Anakkathil Sudeep, Mangesh Gokhale, Rajen Lakra, Devendra Mourya
Bat-borne viral diseases are a major public health concern among newly emerging infectious diseases which includes severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah, Marburg and Ebola virus disease. During the survey for Nipah virus among bats at North-East region of India; Tioman virus (TioV), a new member of the Paramyxoviridae family was isolated from tissues of Pteropus giganteus bats for the first time in India. This isolate was identified and confirmed by RT-PCR, sequence analysis and electron microscopy. A range of vertebrate cell lines were shown to be susceptible to Tioman virus...
September 9, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Brad S Pickering, John M Hardham, Greg Smith, Eva T Weingartl, Paul J Dominowski, Dennis L Foss, Duncan Mwangi, Christopher C Broder, James A Roth, Hana M Weingartl
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are members of the genus Henipavirus, within the family Paramyxoviridae. Nipah virus has caused outbreaks of human disease in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, India and Philippines, in addition to a large outbreak in swine in Malaysia in 1998/1999. Recently, NiV was suspected to be a causative agent of an outbreak in horses in 2014 in the Philippines, while HeV has caused multiple human and equine outbreaks in Australia since 1994. A swine vaccine able to prevent shedding of infectious virus is of veterinary and human health importance, and correlates of protection against henipavirus infection in swine need to be better understood...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
Ryo Horie, Misako Yoneda, Shotaro Uchida, Hiroki Sato, Chieko Kai
Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans, with high mortality. NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) is essential for its pathogenicity, but its functions are unclear. In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21-24 and 110-139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal...
October 2016: Virology
Michelle D Audsley, David A Jans, Gregory W Moseley
Genome replication and virion production by most negative-sense RNA viruses (NSVs) occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm, but many NSV-expressed proteins undergo active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via signals that exploit cellular nuclear transport pathways. Nuclear trafficking has been reported both for NSV accessory proteins (including isoforms of the rabies virus phosphoprotein, and V, W and C proteins of paramyxoviruses) and for structural proteins. Trafficking of the former is thought to enable accessory functions in viral modulation of antiviral responses including the type I IFN system, but the intranuclear roles of structural proteins such as nucleocapsid and matrix proteins, which have critical roles in extranuclear replication and viral assembly, are less clear...
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
Shahana Parveen, M Saiful Islam, Momtaz Begum, Mahbub-Ul Alam, Hossain M S Sazzad, Rebeca Sultana, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, M Jahangir Hossain, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak. METHODS: We explored residents' beliefs and perceptions about the illness and care-seeking practices and explained prevention messages following an interactive strategy with the aid of photos showed the types of contact that can lead to NiV transmission from bats to humans by drinking raw date palm sap and from person-to-person...
2016: BMC Public Health
Raina K Plowright, Alison J Peel, Daniel G Streicker, Amy T Gilbert, Hamish McCallum, James Wood, Michelle L Baker, Olivier Restif
Progress in combatting zoonoses that emerge from wildlife is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology of pathogens within reservoir hosts. We focus on the host-pathogen dynamics of four emerging viruses associated with bats: Hendra, Nipah, Ebola, and Marburg viruses. Spillover of bat infections to humans and domestic animals often coincides with pulses of viral excretion within bat populations, but the mechanisms driving such pulses are unclear. Three hypotheses dominate current research on these emerging bat infections...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chad E Mire, Benjamin A Satterfield, Joan B Geisbert, Krystle N Agans, Viktoriya Borisevich, Lianying Yan, Yee-Peng Chan, Robert W Cross, Karla A Fenton, Christopher C Broder, Thomas W Geisbert
Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus that causes severe disease in humans and animals. There are two distinct strains of NiV, Malaysia (NiVM) and Bangladesh (NiVB). Differences in transmission patterns and mortality rates suggest that NiVB may be more pathogenic than NiVM. To investigate pathogenic differences between strains, 4 African green monkeys (AGM) were exposed to NiVM and 4 AGMs were exposed to NiVB. While NiVB was uniformly lethal, only 50% of NiVM-infected animals succumbed to infection. Histopathology of lungs and spleens from NiVB-infected AGMs was significantly more severe than NiVM-infected animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
Silvia Angeletti, Alessandra Lo Presti, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi
Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae, characterized by high pathogenicity and endemic in South Asia. It is classified as a Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) agent. The case-fatality varies from 40% to 70% depending on the severity of the disease and on the availability of adequate healthcare facilities. At present no antiviral drugs are available for NiV disease and the treatment is just supportive. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses can be used to help in understanding the epidemiology and the temporal origin of this virus...
July 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Ruth E Watkinson, Benhur Lee
Nipah virus (NiV, Henipavirus) is a highly lethal emergent zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for repeated human outbreaks of encephalitis in South East Asia. There are no approved vaccines or treatments, thus improved understanding of NiV biology is imperative. NiV matrix protein recruits a plethora of cellular machinery to scaffold and coordinate virion budding. Intriguingly, matrix also hijacks cellular trafficking and ubiquitination pathways to facilitate transient nuclear localization. While the biological significance of matrix nuclear localization for an otherwise cytoplasmic virus remains enigmatic, the molecular details have begun to be characterized, and are conserved among matrix proteins from divergent paramyxoviruses...
August 2016: FEBS Letters
Bronwyn A Clayton, Deborah Middleton, Rachel Arkinstall, Leah Frazer, Lin-Fa Wang, Glenn A Marsh
Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ruben R Bender, Anke Muth, Irene C Schneider, Thorsten Friedel, Jessica Hartmann, Andreas Plückthun, Andrea Maisner, Christian J Buchholz
Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors (LVs) can be an effective tool for selective transfer of genes into distinct cell types of choice. Moreover, they can be used to determine the molecular properties that cell surface proteins must fulfill to act as receptors for viral glycoproteins. Here we show that LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted Nipah virus (NiV) glycoproteins effectively enter into cells when they use cell surface proteins as receptors that bring them closely enough to the cell membrane (less than 100 Å distance)...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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