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post traumatic stress disorder review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884855/effectiveness-of-trauma-focused-psychological-therapies-compared-to-usual-postnatal-care-for-treating-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-women-following-traumatic-birth-a-systematic-review-protocol
#2
Marie Furuta, Debbie Spain, Debra Bick, Edmond S W Ng, Jacqueline Sin
INTRODUCTION: Maternal mental health has been largely neglected in the literature. Women, however, may be vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress symptoms or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), following traumatic birth. In turn, this may affect their capacity for child rearing and ability to form a secure bond with their baby and impact on the wider family. Trauma-focused psychological therapies (TFPT) are widely regarded as effective and acceptable interventions for PTSD in general and clinical populations...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881856/stress-glucocorticoids-and-memory-implications-for-treating-fear-related-disorders
#3
Dominique de Quervain, Lars Schwabe, Benno Roozendaal
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867101/regulation-of-fear-extinction-by-long-term-depression-the-roles-of-endocannabinoids-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#4
REVIEW
Maxwell R Bennett, Jonathon Arnold, Sean N Hatton, Jim Lagopoulos
The extinction of a conditioned fear response is of great interest in the search for a means of ameliorating adverse neurobiological changes resulting from stress. The discovery that endocannibinoid (EC) levels are inversely related to the extent of such stress, and that the amygdala is a primary site mediating stress, suggests that ECs in this brain region might play a major role in extinction. Supporting this are the observations that the basolateral complex of the amygdala shows an increase in ECs only during extinction and that early clinical trials indicate that cannabinoid-like agents, when taken orally by patients suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reduce insomnia and nightmares...
November 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865585/the-prevalence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-pregnancy-and-after-birth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Pelin Dikmen Yildiz, Susan Ayers, Louise Phillips
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have provided preliminary insights into risk factors and possible prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) postpartum with no attempt to examine prenatal PTSD. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy and after birth, and the course of PTSD over this time. METHODS: PsychINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using PTSD terms crossed with perinatal terms. Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy or after birth using a diagnostic measure...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851897/neuropsychological-functioning-of-childhood-trauma-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
S Malarbi, H M Abu-Rayya, F Muscara, R Stargatt
This study reviewed evidence for cognitive impairments in trauma-exposed children with and without PTSD. Twenty-seven studies were eligible for meta-analysis, totalling 1,526 participants, including 412 trauma-exposed children (PTSD unknown), 300 children with PTSD (PTSD+), 323 children without PTSD (PTSD-), and 491 trauma-naive controls. Eligible studies mostly investigated familial-maltreatment trauma (k=22). Trauma-exposed children (PTSD unknown) performed more poorly overall than controls (d=-0.57). Cognitive deficits were seen in PTSD+ compared to controls, including a large effect size (ES) for general intelligence (d=-0...
November 13, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849485/psychological-impact-of-deploying-in-support-of-the-u-s-response-to-ebola-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-past-outbreaks
#7
Kartavya J Vyas, Eileen M Delaney, Jennifer A Webb-Murphy, Scott L Johnston
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential psychological impact of deploying in support of the U.S. response to Ebola in west Africa by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were identified using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Thirty-two studies involving 26,869 persons were included in the systematic review; 13 studies involving 7,785 persons were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848034/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Camelia-Lucia Cimpianu, Wolfgang Strube, Peter Falkai, Ulrich Palm, Alkomiet Hasan
Invasive and non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a promising add-on treatment for treatment-refractory depression, but is also increasingly evaluated for its application in other psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, schizophrenia, somatoform disorder, and others. We performed a systematic review aiming to give a detailed overview of the available evidence of the efficacy of VNS for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Data derived from animal models, experimental trials without health-related outcomes, case reports, single-session studies, and reviews were excluded...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845777/newer-insights-into-the-role-of-mirna-a-tiny-genetic-tool-in-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
REVIEW
V V Giridharan, R A Thandavarayan, G R Fries, C Walss-Bass, T Barichello, N J Justice, M K Reddy, J Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder occurring in about 2-9% of individuals after their exposure to life-threatening events, such as severe accidents, sexual abuse, combat or a natural catastrophe. Because PTSD patients are exposed to trauma, it is likely that epigenetic modifications have an important role in disease development and prognosis. For the past two decades, abnormal expression of the epigenetic regulators microRNAs (miRs) and miR-mediated gene regulation have been given importance in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and viral infection...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822569/trends-in-research-with-u-s-military-service-member-participants-a-population-specific-clinicaltrials-gov-review
#10
Wendy A Cook, Ardith Z Doorenbos, Elizabeth J Bridges
BACKGROUND: ClinicalTrials.gov reviews have evaluated research trends for specific conditions and age groups but not for specific populations of research participants. No ClinicalTrials.gov reviews have evaluated research with military service member participants. PURPOSE: Study objectives were (a) to use ClinicalTrials.gov to identify trends in biomedical research from 2005 to 2014 in which U.S. military service members actively participated as research participants and (b) to describe a search strategy for adaptation in future ClinicalTrials...
August 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815720/the-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#11
REVIEW
Chunchen Xiang, Yujia Wang, Han Zhang, Fang Han
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle involved in cellular homeostasis and control of protein quality. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular response to ER stress and promotes cell survival. Severe or prolonged stress activates apoptosis signaling to trigger cell death. In mammals, the UPR is initiated by three major ER stress sensors, including inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase 1, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase and activating transcription factor 6...
November 4, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809274/ashamed-and-afraid-a-scoping-review-of-the-role-of-shame-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#12
REVIEW
Tanya Saraiya, Teresa Lopez-Castro
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable progress in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a large percentage of individuals remain symptomatic following gold-standard therapies. One route to improving care is examining affective disturbances that involve other emotions beyond fear and threat. A growing body of research has implicated shame in PTSD's development and course, although to date no review of this specific literature exists. This scoping review investigated the link between shame and PTSD and sought to identify research gaps...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799776/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-a-potential-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
David J Eve, Martin R Steele, Paul R Sanberg, Cesar V Borlongan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782830/patient-outcomes-after-critical-illness-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies-following-hospital-discharge
#14
Mohamed D Hashem, Aparna Nallagangula, Swaroopa Nalamalapu, Krishidhar Nunna, Utkarsh Nausran, Karen A Robinson, Victor D Dinglas, Dale M Needham, Michelle N Eakin
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in patient outcomes following critical illness, with an increasing number and different types of studies conducted, and a need for synthesis of existing findings to help inform the field. For this purpose we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies evaluating patient outcomes after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases from inception to June 2015...
October 26, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778421/does-pediatric-ptsd-alter-the-brain-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-mri-studies
#15
Ana Carolina Coelho Milani, Elis Viviane Hoffmann, Victor Fossaluza, Andrea Parolin Jackowski, Marcelo Feijo Mello
Several studies have recently demonstrated that the volumes of specific brain regions are reduced in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those of healthy controls. Our study investigated the potential association between early traumatic experiences and altered brain regions and functions. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature regarding functional MRI and a meta-analysis of structural MRI studies that investigated cerebral region volumes in pediatric patients with PTSD...
October 25, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752476/shining-light-on-the-head-photobiomodulation-for-brain-disorders
#16
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749004/neurobiology-of-co-morbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder
#17
Nicholas W Gilpin, Jeff L Weiner
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly co-morbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of co-morbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on co-morbid PTSD and AUD: we summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this co-morbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD, and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739175/stellate-ganglion-block-in-the-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-of-historical-and-recent-literature
#18
Mary R Summers, Remington L Nevin
Concerns over the rising prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly among military service members returning from combat, and over barriers that hinder individuals from seeking out or adhering to standard therapies have contributed to interest in alternative therapies for the disorder. A novel alternative therapy for PTSD-stellate ganglion block (SGB)-may be considered lacking in formal evidence of efficacy despite having shown considerable promise. This review of the recent and historical literature related to SGB finds evidence of substantial beneficial psychiatric effects and substantiates that this fast-acting, somatic treatment may provide positive results for patients with PTSD and may reduce barriers to therapy, particularly among military populations...
October 14, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726123/psychological-therapies-for-children-and-adolescents-exposed-to-trauma
#19
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723122/literature-review-and-meta-analysis-of-risk-factors-for-delayed-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-older-adults-after-a-fall
#20
Frédéric Bloch
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can appear after a fall and try to identify predictive factors for its development in older fallers. METHODS: Systematic literature review and meta-analyses of studies on PTSD post fall in older subjects. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-seven indexed articles were identified, of which three had complete data on PTSD post fall in older subjects. Only the odds ratio of the association between history of fall and occurrence of PTSD was significant (odds ratio = 2...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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