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post traumatic stress disorder review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814475/developmental-pathway-genes-and-neural-plasticity-underlying-emotional-learning-and-stress-related-disorders
#1
Marissa E Maheu, Kerry J Ressler
The manipulation of neural plasticity as a means of intervening in the onset and progression of stress-related disorders retains its appeal for many researchers, despite our limited success in translating such interventions from the laboratory to the clinic. Given the challenges of identifying individual genetic variants that confer increased risk for illnesses like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, some have turned their attention instead to focusing on so-called "master regulators" of plasticity that may provide a means of controlling these potentially impaired processes in psychiatric illnesses...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813327/recent-developments-in-understanding-ethnocultural-and-race-differences-in-trauma-exposure-and-ptsd
#2
REVIEW
Anu Asnaani, Brittany Hall-Clark
Our understanding of demographic specifications that put certain individuals at greater risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has grown significantly over the past few decades. This brief review specifically examines the studies exploring the potential influence of ethnocultural and racial group status on trauma exposure and PTSD, with a focus on findings published recently in the past five years. We first provide a brief review of current epidemiological data examining associations among ethnicity/culture/race and trauma exposure/PTSD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813314/cognitive-factors-in-the-development-maintenance-and-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Stefanie T LoSavio, Kirsten H Dillon, Patricia A Resick
Cognitive content and processes are central to theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper, we highlight recent findings on cognitive factors in PTSD. Evidence for the role of negative post-traumatic cognitions in PTSD has continued to mount, with cognitions mediating PTSD symptoms and predicting PTSD over and above other key variables. Researchers have also continued to implicate cognitive processes like rumination in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Finally, we review how cognitive-behavioral therapies interrupt dysfunctional cognitive processes in PTSD and highlight research supporting the theory that changes in cognitions are the mechanism of these treatments...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813307/the-innate-alarm-system-in-ptsd-conscious-and-subconscious-processing-of-threat
#4
REVIEW
Ruth A Lanius, Daniela Rabellino, Jenna E Boyd, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon
The innate alarm system (IAS), comprised of functionally connected brain regions including the brainstem, amygdala, pulvinar, and frontotemporal cortex, is a fast subcortical brain network facilitating rapid responses to threat. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) features subconscious and conscious threat detection, together contributing to hyperarousal symptoms. Emerging literature identifies aberrant threat-related neurocircuitry involved in subconscious and conscious threat processing in PTSD. We review this literature, focusing on subconscious threat processing and its relation to the IAS...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810979/women-veterans-a-population-at-risk-for-fibromyalgia-the-associations-between-fibromyalgia-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#5
Rita F D'Aoust, Alicia Gill Rossiter, Amanda Elliott, Ming Ji, Cecile Lengacher, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Federal Health Care recently published an executive summary from a round table discussion indicating that active duty and retired female military personnel are at high risk for adverse health outcomes unique to military service including complications related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unreported sexual trauma, and musculoskeletal problems. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine began to review, evaluate, and summarize the literature on health outcomes in Gulf War-deployed and found sufficient evidence of a causal relationship with PTSD and suggestive evidence of an association with fibromyalgia (FM)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810970/completion-of-a-veteran-focused-civic-service-program-improves-health-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-with-a-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Karen A Lawrence, Monica M Matthieu, Emma Robertson-Blackmore
INTRODUCTION: Volunteering as a health promotion intervention is positively related to improved health and well-being in civilians and older adults. Yet, the impacts of participating in a community-based volunteering program on returning military veterans have not been studied, nor have the outcomes for veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational, pre-post survey examines health, psychological, and social outcomes from a cohort of post-9/11/01 veterans with (N = 67) and without a reported TBI history (N = 273) who completed a 6-month, 20-hour per week veteran-focused civic service program...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807135/suicidal-ideation-and-suicidal-self-directed-violence-following-clinician-initiated-prescription-opioid-discontinuation-among-long-term-opioid-users
#7
Michael I Demidenko, Steven K Dobscha, Benjamin J Morasco, Thomas H A Meath, Mark A Ilgen, Travis I Lovejoy
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about patient outcomes following discontinuation of opioid therapy, which may include suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal self-directed violence (SSV). The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of SI and non-fatal SSV in a sample of patients discontinued from long-term opioid therapy (LTOT). METHOD: Five hundred-nine Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients whose clinicians discontinued them from LTOT were selected from a national cohort of VHA patients who discontinued opioids in 2012...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805168/9-11-related-ptsd-among-highly-exposed-populations-a-systematic-review-15-years-after-the-attack
#8
A Lowell, B Suarez-Jimenez, L Helpman, X Zhu, A Durosky, A Hilburn, F Schneier, R Gross, Y Neria
BACKGROUND: The 11 September 2001 (9/11) attacks were unprecedented in magnitude and mental health impact. While a large body of research has emerged since the attacks, published reviews are few, and are limited by an emphasis on cross-sectional research, short time frame, and exclusion of treatment studies. Additionally, to date, there has been no systematic review of available longitudinal information as a unique data set. Consequently, knowledge regarding long-term trajectories of 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among highly exposed populations, and whether available treatment approaches effectively address PTSD within the context of mass, man-made disaster, remains limited...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797262/when-a-parent-dies-a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-support-programs-for-parentally-bereaved-children-and-their-caregivers
#9
Ann-Sofie Bergman, Ulf Axberg, Elizabeth Hanson
BACKGROUND: The death of a parent is a highly stressful life event for bereaved children. Several studies have shown an increased risk of mental ill-health and psychosocial problems among affected children. The aims of this study were to systematically review studies about effective support interventions for parentally bereaved children and to identify gaps in the research. METHODS: The review's inclusion criteria were comparative studies with samples of parentally bereaved children...
August 10, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758144/immune-signaling-mechanisms-of-ptsd-risk-and-symptom-development-insights-from-animal-models
#10
Jessica Deslauriers, Susan Powell, Victoria B Risbrough
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by persistent re-experiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance, and increased arousal. The approved pharmacological treatments for PTSD have limited efficacy (~60% treatment response), supporting the need for identification of biomarkers and novel pharmacological therapies. Mounting evidence suggests increased inflammatory markers and altered immune gene expression correlate with the severity of symptoms in PTSD patients. However a causal role of immune signaling in development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms is not clear, as inflammation may also be an epiphenomenon related to metabolic and behavioral effects of stress...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757598/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-for-treating-neurocognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-traumatic-brain-injury-an-evaluation-of-current-evidence
#11
REVIEW
John K Yue, John F Burke, Pavan S Upadhyayula, Ethan A Winkler, Hansen Deng, Caitlin K Robinson, Romain Pirracchio, Catherine G Suen, Sourabh Sharma, Adam R Ferguson, Laura B Ngwenya, Murray B Stein, Geoffrey T Manley, Phiroz E Tarapore
The prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is 20%-50%, and disorders of mood and cognition may remain even after recovery of neurologic function is achieved. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) block the reuptake of serotonin in presynaptic cells to lead to increased serotonergic activity in the synaptic cleft, constituting first-line treatment for a variety of neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders. This review investigates the utility of SSRIs in treating post-TBI disorders...
July 25, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746330/updates-on-pharmacological-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
R Koirala, E G I Søegaard, S B Thapa
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder affects a significant proportion of those who have been exposed to exceptionally threatening or catastrophic events or situations such as earthquakes, rape and civil war. The condition can often become chronic and disabling. Medical intervention can therefore be of paramount importance. There are no national guidelines for trauma disorders in Nepal and there is a lack of adequate knowledge regarding drug treatment of PTSD among doctors and other service providers. Though psychotherapy is internationally regarded as the first line treatment for PTSD, it is often not feasible in Nepal due to lack of resources and skilled health workers in this field...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740430/a-systematic-literature-review-exploring-the-prevalence-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-the-role-played-by-stress-and-traumatic-stress-in-breast-cancer-diagnosis-and-trajectory
#13
REVIEW
Paola Arnaboldi, Silvia Riva, Chiara Crico, Gabriella Pravettoni
Stress has been extensively studied as a psychosomatic factor associated with breast cancer. This study aims to review the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), its associated risk factors, the role of predicting factors for its early diagnosis/prevention, the implications for co-treatment, and the potential links by which stress could impact cancer risk, by closely examining the literature on breast cancer survivors. The authors systematically reviewed studies published from 2002 to 2016 pertaining to PTSD, breast cancer and PTSD, and breast cancer and stress...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735779/a-systematic-review-of-variables-associated-with-sleep-paralysis
#14
REVIEW
Dan Denis, Christopher C French, Alice M Gregory
Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. While the causes are unknown, a number of studies have investigated potential risk factors. In this article, we conducted a systematic review on the available literature regarding variables associated with both the frequency and intensity of sleep paralysis episodes. A total of 42 studies met the inclusion criteria. For each study, sample size, study site, sex and age of participants, sleep paralysis measure, and results of analyses looking at the relationship(s) between sleep paralysis and associated variable(s) were extracted...
June 8, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708415/assessing-the-effectiveness-of-yoga-as-a-complementary-and-alternative-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-and-synthesis
#15
Nicole A Sciarrino, Christian DeLucia, Kaitlin O'Brien, Kristen McAdams
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects many who have experienced trauma. In addition to skills-focused treatments, exposure-based treatments, cognitive therapy, combination treatments, and EMDR, a number of alternative treatments for PTSD have emerged in recent years. The search for alternative treatments is justified based on the empirical observation that a large percentage of individuals fail to benefit optimally from existing treatments (e...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698828/a-case-of-pediatric-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-presenting-as-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-case-report
#16
Muhammad A Tahir, Nida R Gujar, Nusrat Jahan
In the past few years, there has been increased recognition that children, who have faced traumatic incidences, can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), just like in adults. We present a case of PTSD in a 6-year-old child who endured three surgical procedures because he was suffering from a congenital cranial stenosis (Pfeiffer) syndrome. Because of repetitive painful episodes, resulting from the syndrome, and then post-surgical complications, the child developed behavioral outbursts, hypervigilence, concentration problems, and irritability...
May 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681619/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#17
Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Federica Sancassiani, Angiolo Gadducci, Liliana Dell'Osso
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the deadliest malignancies. The impact of this diagnosis is, therefore, highly traumatic, and affected women are prone to significant distress during the whole course of the disease. The present paper is aimed to review extant literature about the relationship between OC and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
July 6, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680693/the-incorporation-of-emotion-regulation-skills-into-couple-and-family-based-treatments-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Deborah A Perlick, Frederic J Sautter, Julia J Becker-Cretu, Danielle Schultz, Savannah C Grier, Alexander V Libin, Manon Maitland Schladen, Shirley M Glynn
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling, potentially chronic disorder that is characterized by re-experience and hyperarousal symptoms as well as the avoidance of trauma-related stimuli. The distress experienced by many veterans of the Vietnam War and their partners prompted a strong interest in developing conjoint interventions that could both alleviate the core symptoms of PTSD and strengthen family bonds. We review the evolution of and evidence base for conjoint PTSD treatments from the Vietnam era through the post-911 era...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670837/analytical-methodologies-for-the-stereoselective-determination-of-fluoxetine-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Gabriel Hancu, Melania Cârcu-Dobrin, Monica Budău, Aura Rusu
Fluoxetine is a widely used antidepressant belonging to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class; it is used in the treatment of major depression, obsessive compulsive, premenstrual dysphoric, panic and post-traumatic stress disorders. Fluoxetine is an optical active pharmaceutical substance, which is used as a racemate in therapy, but stereospecific interactions associated with the serotonin-reuptake carrier, for both the parent drug and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, have been described in the literature...
July 3, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667201/study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-cognitive-processing-therapy-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-among-japanese-patients-the-safety-power-intimacy-esteem-trust-spinet-study
#20
Masaya Ito, Masaru Horikoshi, Patricia A Resick, Akiko Katayanagi, Mitsuhiro Miyamae, Yuriko Takagishi, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Ayako Kanie, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Toshiaki A Furukawa
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is widely regarded as a safe and effective first-line treatment for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, no comparative studies have been conducted to examine the treatment outcomes in an Asian population. The aim of the present trial is to investigate the efficacy of CPT (individual format) as a treatment for PTSD in a population of Japanese patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A 16-week, single-centre, assessor-masked, randomised, parallel-group superiority trial has been designed to compare the efficacy of CPT in conjunction with treatment as usual (mostly pharmacotherapy and clinical monitoring) versus treatment as usual alone...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
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