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Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Makoto Miura, Akiko Kuwahara, Akinori Tomozawa, Naoki Omae, Motohiro Yamamori, Kaori Kadoyama, Toshiyuki Sakaeda
Objectives: A retrospective examination was conducted to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality of elderly patients (65 years or older) treated with the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination antibiotic, ampicillin/sulbactam (ABPC/SBT). Methods: Clinical data from 96 patients who were hospitalized with infectious diseases and treated with ABPC/SBT (9 g/day or 12 g/day) were analyzed. Risk factors examined included demographic and clinical laboratory parameters. Parameter values prior to treatment and changes after treatment were compared between survivors and non-survivors...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Nicholas S Sigona, Jeffrey M Steele, Christopher D Miller
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of a pharmacist-driven beta-lactam allergy interview on antimicrobial therapy. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. PRACTICE SETTING: Clarification of beta-lactam allergy may expand treatment options for patients and potentially improve outcomes, reduce toxicity, and reduce costs. PRACTICE INNOVATION: At our institution, a pilot service using a pharmacy resident and infectious diseases clinical pharmacist was implemented to clarify beta-lactam allergy information and, where appropriate, recommend a change to the patient's antibiotic therapy...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Monica Baiula, Paola Galletti, Giulia Martelli, Roberto Soldati, Laura Belvisi, Monica Civera, Samantha Deianira Dattoli, Santi Mario Spampinato, Daria Giacomini
A novel series of beta-lactam derivatives that was designed and synthesized to target RGD-binding and leukocyte integrins is reported. The compound library was evaluated by investigating the effects on integrin-mediated cell adhesion and cell signaling in cell lines expressing alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta5, alphaVbeta6, alpha5beta1, alphaIIbbeta3, alpha4beta1, and alphaLbeta2 integrins. SAR analysis of the new series of azetidinones enabled the recognition of structural elements associated with integrin selectivity...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sarah E Petite, Seth R Bauer, Jessica E Bollinger, Christine L Ahrens, Lisa M Harinstein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if beta-lactam monotherapy is sufficient for complicated intra-abdominal infections or if broader coverage is required, such as with vancomycin. This study sought to determine the clinical outcomes of piperacillin/tazobactam monotherapy compared to combination therapy with vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam for complicated intra-abdominal infections among patients within a surgical intensive care unit. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Anna Klöckner, Henrike Bühl, Patrick Viollier, Beate Henrichfreise
The evolutionary separated Gram-negative Chlamydiales show a biphasic life cycle and replicate exclusively within eukaryotic host cells. Members of the genus Chlamydia are responsible for many acute and chronic diseases in humans, and Chlamydia-related bacteria are emerging pathogens. We revisit past efforts to detect cell wall material in Chlamydia and Chlamydia-related bacteria in the context of recent breakthroughs in elucidating the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the chlamydial cell wall biosynthesis...
September 21, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Roni Bitterman, Mical Paul, Dina Polak, Yuval Geffen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Evaggelos Kiriazopoulos, Sabina Zaharaki, Ariadni Vonaparti, Panagiota Vourna, Eirini Panteri-Petratou, Dimitra Gennimata, Kara Lombardo, Irene Panderi
The use of cephalosporins during breast feeding raises several issues, including the risk of drug exposure through breast milk for the infant. In this article a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/ positive ion electrospray mass spectrometric assay (HILIC/ESI-MS) was developed for the quantitation of cefuroxime, cefoxitin and cefazolin in breast milk and human plasma. The assay was based on the use of small sample size, 25 μL of biological samples, following acetonitrile precipitation of proteins and filtration that enabled injection into the HILIC/ESI-MS system...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandardhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or non-degradable polymer-based and hence limited by their non-degradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized non-covalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maïté Micaelo, Pascal Rasmy, Marlène Amara, Juliette Lambert, Aymeric Coutard, Béatrice Pangon
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a Gram-positive bacillus, is reported to cause for cutaneous infections and endocarditis. We report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia without severe clinical illness. The patient, a 74-year-old man, is suffering from a chronic lymphoid leukemia (LLC). Following a trauma, the patient developed a bruise on the left inch. Because the site of shock seemed clinically infected, oral amoxicilline-acid clavulanic (AAC) treatment was started after withdrawn 1 set of blood cultures. These blood culture specimens yielded a Gram-positive bacillus identified as E...
October 1, 2016: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Ben Oliveira, Sangita Chaterjee, Aine Burns
We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman who developed acute confusion, acute kidney injury and temperature spikes while on extended courses of beta-lactams for osteomyelitis. The cause of her deterioration was felt to be due to sepsis when in fact it was as a result of toxicity from antibiotics. This was demonstrated by a rapid resolution in her condition following haemodialysis. We also performed a literature review to appraise the neuro and nephrotoxicity of various antibiotics and how best to manage toxicity when it occurs...
October 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Marguerite Cameron, Matthew Saab, Luke Heider, J Trenton McClure, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Javier Sanchez
Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Dragana Protic, Dragana Savic, Dragana Andjelkovic, Nina Djukanovic, Marija Zdravkovic, Sinisa F Djurasevic, Zoran Todorovic
INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are increasingly resistant nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of CoNS isolates in clinical settings, the evolution of antimicrobial resistance of CoNS, and antibiotic consumption in a hospital. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective cohort study was carried out at a tertiary healthcare facility over 17 months. Identification of isolated cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek2 system...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Dinh Quoc Tuc, Moreau-Guigon Elodie, Labadie Pierre, Alliot Fabrice, Teil Marie-Jeanne, Blanchard Martine, Eurin Joelle, Chevreuil Marc
Investigation of domestic and hospital effluents in a sewage system of an elementary watershed showed that antibiotics belonging to eight classes were present with concentrations ranging from <LOQ to 50μgL(-1). The compounds most often detected in the effluents were the fluoroquinolones (79-100%), the sulfonamides (86-100%) and the macrolides (79-86%). Vancomycin, strictly reserved for hospital use in France, was detected exclusively in the hospital effluent, supporting its pertinent use as a marker of hospital discharge...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Moises Natividad-Pedreño, Alberto Nuñez-Chia, Nuria Cobo-Valenzuela, Tomas Alcantara-Martos, Maria T Carrascal, Alberto D Delgado-Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cefazolin and cefuroxime (the two most commonly used beta lactam antibiotics) at therapeutic doses in fracture healing in an animal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 75 adult male wistar rats (3months old) were selected. They were divided into three groups of 25 animals each (placebo, cefazolin and cefuroxime). A closed fracture was made in the middle third of the right femur of each rat and fixed with a Kirschner wire. Each group was treated with either saline (placebo), cefazolin or cefuroxime at therapeutic doses during fracture healing...
September 2016: Injury
Whitney R Buckel, Edward Stenehjem, Jeff Sorensen, Nathan Dean, Brandon Webb
RATIONALE: Guidelines recommend a switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics once patients who are hospitalized with pneumonia achieve clinical stability. However, little evidence guides the selection of an oral antibiotic for patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia, especially where no microbiological diagnosis is made. OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes between patients who were transitioned to broad vs narrow spectrum oral antibiotics after initially receiving broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic coverage...
October 3, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Rick Dersch, Tilman Hottenrott, Stefanie Schmidt, Harriet Sommer, Hans-Iko Huppertz, Sebastian Rauer, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Many aspects of pharmacological treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children, such as choice of drug, dosage, and duration are subject to intense debates, leading to uncertainties in patients' parents and healthcare providers alike. To assess the available evidence for pharmacological treatment for children with Lyme neuroborreliosis we conducted a systematic review. METHODS: The comprehensive systematic literature search included randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies (NRS) on treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children (age <18 years)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Neurology
Santiago Ramón-García, Rubén González Del Río, Angel Santos Villarejo, Gaye D Sweet, Fraser Cunningham, David Barros, Lluís Ballell, Alfonso Mendoza-Losana, Santiago Ferrer-Bazaga, Charles J Thompson
While modern cephalosporins developed for broad spectrum antibacterial activities have never been pursued for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, we identified first generation cephalosporins having clinically relevant inhibitory concentrations, both alone and in synergistic drug combinations. Common chemical patterns required for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were identified using structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies. Numerous cephalosporins were synergistic with rifampicin, the cornerstone drug for TB therapy, and ethambutol, a first-line anti-TB drug...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xing-Bei Weng, Zu-Huang Mi, Chun-Xin Wang, Jian-Ming Zhu
We present the draft genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing sequence type 2357 (ST2357) strain, NB60, which contains drug-resistant genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, colistin, macrolides, and tetracycline. Strain NB60 was isolated from human blood, making it an important tool for studying K. pneumoniae pathogenesis.
2016: Genome Announcements
Stefan Monecke, Lutz Jatzwauk, Elke Müller, Hedda Nitschke, Katharina Pfohl, Peter Slickers, Annett Reissig, Antje Ruppelt-Lorz, Ralf Ehricht
SCCmec elements are very important mobile genetic elements in Staphylococci that carry beta-lactam resistance genes mecA/mecC, recombinase genes and a variety of accessory genes. Twelve main types and a couple of variants have yet been described. In addition, there are also other SCC elements harbouring other markers. In order to subtype strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on variations within their SCCmec elements, 86 markers were selected from published SCC sequences for an assay based on multiplexed primer extension reactions followed by hybridisation to the specific probes...
2016: PloS One
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