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Squaring the circle

Zhengzhou Wang, Bingliang Hu, Qinye Yin
The schlieren method of measuring far-field focal spots offers many advantages at the Shenguang III laser facility such as low cost and automatic laser-path collimation. However, current methods of far-field focal spot measurement often suffer from low precision and efficiency when the final focal spot is merged manually, thereby reducing the accuracy of reconstruction. In this paper, we introduce an improved schlieren method to construct the high dynamic-range image of far-field focal spots and improve the reconstruction accuracy and efficiency...
2017: PloS One
B Williams, S Taylor
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), launched in September 2015 to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, require action by all countries. The new goals range from traditional areas of health and education to a newer focus on global trade and environmental protection. We discuss how all countries can be incentivised to engage and commit and argue that thoughtful target-setting and benchmarking, a more aggressive focus on equity and an emphasis on the interdependence of health and non-health development goals are key to meaningful progress...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Jan-Malte Sinning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: European Heart Journal
Shuanghao Zheng, Xingyan Tang, Zhong-Shuai Wu, Yuan-Zhi Tan, Sen Wang, Chenglin Sun, Hui-Ming Cheng, Xinhe Bao
The emerging smart power source-unitized electronics represent an utmost innovative paradigm requiring dramatic alteration from materials to device assembly and integration. However, traditional power sources with huge bottlenecks on the design and performance cannot keep pace with the revolutionized progress of shape-confirmable integrated circuits. Here, we demonstrate a versatile printable technology to fabricate arbitrary-shaped, printable graphene-based planar sandwich supercapacitors based on the layer-structured film of electrochemically exfoliated graphene as two electrodes and nanosized graphene oxide (lateral size of 100 nm) as a separator on one substrate...
February 9, 2017: ACS Nano
Monica Gori, Giulia Cappagli, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Sara Finocchietti
Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Joanna Zambrzycka, Donna Kotsopoulos, Joanne Lee, Samantha Makosz
Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm, two-year-old children's ability to discriminate valid (typical and atypical) squares, rectangles, triangles, and circles from invalid distractors was examined. The cognitive and environmental factors that might predict this ability were also investigated. Two-year-old children (N=33) were able to discriminate squares, triangles, and circles, but not rectangles. No significant cognitive or environmental predictors of this ability were found. The results suggest that the ability to shape discriminate at age two is under considerable development and that other factors may be responsible for children's ability to discriminate shapes...
January 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
M Borówko, W Rżysko, S Sokołowski, T Staszewski
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the phase behavior of disks decorated with small ligands in two-dimensional films. We consider disks with four ligands, which are fixed at vertices of a square or slide over the circle delimiting the core. For selected model systems, phase diagrams are evaluated and discussed. We show that ligand mobility can change the topology of phase diagrams. In particular, it can affect fluid-solid transitions, changing the solid phase symmetry. Moreover, the mobility of ligands can either hamper or facilitate crystallization...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Karoon Shahebrahimi, Nasrin Jalilian, Nasrin Bazgir, Mansour Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. This study compares the effects of 2 types of insulin sensitizer drugs, metformin and pioglitazone, on clinical, metabolic, and endocrine characteristics of women with PCOS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Joong Won Shin, Yong Un Shin, Ki Bang Uhm, Kyung Rim Sung, Min Ho Kang, Hee Yoon Cho, Mincheol Seong
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of optic disc center displacement on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: The optic disc center was manipulated at 1-pixel intervals in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal directions. According to the manipulated optic disc center location, the RNFL thickness data were resampled: (1) at a 3.46-mm diameter circle; and (2) between a 2.5-mm diameter circle and 5...
2016: PloS One
Encarni Marcos, Satoshi Tsujimoto, Aldo Genovesio
: The estimation of space and time can interfere with each other, and neuroimaging studies have shown overlapping activation in the parietal and prefrontal cortical areas. We used duration and distance discrimination tasks to determine whether space and time share resources in prefrontal cortex (PF) neurons. Monkeys were required to report which of two stimuli, a red circle or blue square, presented sequentially, were longer and farther, respectively, in the duration and distance tasks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marlene Z Bloom
It was four months in Alaska, in the middle of winter, that changed Joseph Marek's view of what it means to be a pharmacist. Marek was on his last rotation in pharmacy school when he experienced the kind of practice that he wanted for himself. He found that kind of practice as a consultant pharmacist, and next month, Marek, 49, will become the 2016-2017 president of the American Society of Consulting Pharmacists. Working at the Public Health Service (PHS) in the Arctic Circle in 1990, he dispensed and carried out clinical duties with the chief pharmacist and provided care to the native Inuit population through the Indian Health Service...
2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Patrice D Cani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Fatemeh Dabbagh Kashani, Masoud Yousefi
In this research, based on an analytical expression for cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix elements, coherence and polarization properties of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) radial array laser beams propagating through weak oceanic turbulence are analyzed. Spectral degrees of coherence and polarization are analytically calculated using CSD matrix elements. Also, the effective width of spatial degree of coherence (EWSDC) is calculated numerically. The simulation is done by considering the effects of source parameters (such as radius of the array setup's circle, effective width of the spectral degree of coherence, and wavelength) and turbulent ocean factors (such as the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations, Kolmogorov micro-scale, and rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature) in detail...
August 10, 2016: Applied Optics
N G Naumov
Reactive changes of astrocytes were studied in forebrain nucleus accumbens in rats (n = 12) after global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries, which is a frequently used model to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological agents that have anti-ischemic and neuroprotective properties. Under these conditions, the nucleus accumbens was in the area of partial ischemia. Morphometric study of nucleus accumbens was performed in three groups of rats (4 animals in each group) after ligation of both common carotid arteries, after a sham operation and in healthy animals...
2016: Morfologi︠a︡
Fu-Lai Wen, Hsuan-Yi Chen, Kwan-Tai Leung
Actin polymerization is ubiquitously utilized to power the locomotion of eukaryotic cells and pathogenic bacteria in living systems. Inevitably, actin polymerization and depolymerization proceed in a fluctuating environment that renders the locomotion stochastic. Previously, we have introduced a deterministic model that manages to reproduce actin-propelled trajectories in experiments, but not to address fluctuations around them. To remedy this, here we supplement the deterministic model with noise terms. It enables us to compute the effects of fluctuating actin density and forces on the trajectories...
June 2016: Physical Review. E
Karolina Świder, Przemysław Bąbel
Research shows that placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia can be induced through observational learning. Our aim was to replicate and extend these results by studying the influence of the type and colour of stimuli used as placebos on the placebo effects induced by observational learning. Three experimental and two control groups were tested. All participants received pain stimuli of the same intensity preceded by colour lights (green and red) or geometric shapes (circles and squares). Before receiving pain stimuli, participants in the experimental groups, but not in the control groups, observed a model who rated pain stimuli that were preceded by either green lights (green placebo group), red lights (red placebo group), or circles (circle placebo group) as being less painful than those preceded by either red lights (green placebo group), green lights (red placebo group), or squares (circle placebo group)...
2016: PloS One
Jianliang Zhu, Panlong Wu, Yuming Bo
Because the existing extremum ratio method for projectile attitude measurement is vulnerable to random disturbance, a novel integral ratio method is proposed to calculate the projectile attitude. First, the non-orthogonal measurement theory of the magnetic sensors is analyzed. It is found that the projectile rotating velocity is constant in one spinning circle and the attitude error is actually the pitch error. Next, by investigating the model of the extremum ratio method, an integral ratio mathematical model is established to improve the anti-disturbance performance...
2016: Sensors
Veena Chatrath, Ranjana Khetarpal, Divya Bansal, Harjinder Kaur
CONTEXT: While giving low-flow anesthesia, it is a routine practice to give fixed duration of initial high-flow. This study was conducted to show the use of equilibration point as changeover point from initial high-flow to low-flow. AIMS: It was to compare the use of equilibration point, hemodynamics, end-tidal agent concentration, recovery time, and recovery score between isoflurane and sevoflurane. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It was a prospective randomized study conducted on 100 patients who were admitted for elective surgery expected to be < 2 h duration...
May 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Harold W Hatch, William P Krekelberg, Steven D Hudson, Vincent K Shen
Cubic colloids, sedimented on a surface and immersed in a solution of depletant molecules, were modeled with a family of shapes which smoothly varies from squares to circles. Using Wang-Landau simulations with expanded ensembles, we observe the formation of rhombic lattices, square lattices, hexagonal lattices, and a fluid phase. This systematic investigation includes locating transitions between all combinations of the three lattice structures upon changing the shape and transitions between the fluid and crystal upon changing the depletant concentration...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christine Fawcett, Victoria Wesevich, Gustaf Gredebäck
Pupillary contagion-responding to pupil size observed in other people with changes in one's own pupil-has been found in adults and suggests that arousal and other internal states could be transferred across individuals using a subtle physiological cue. Examining this phenomenon developmentally gives insight into its origins and underlying mechanisms, such as whether it is an automatic adaptation already present in infancy. In the current study, 6- and 9-month-olds viewed schematic depictions of eyes with smaller and larger pupils-pairs of concentric circles with smaller and larger black centers-while their own pupil sizes were recorded...
July 2016: Psychological Science
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