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Squaring the circle

M Borówko, W Rżysko, S Sokołowski, T Staszewski
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the phase behavior of disks decorated with small ligands in two-dimensional films. We consider disks with four ligands, which are fixed at vertices of a square or slide over the circle delimiting the core. For selected model systems, phase diagrams are evaluated and discussed. We show that ligand mobility can change the topology of phase diagrams. In particular, it can affect fluid-solid transitions, changing the solid phase symmetry. Moreover, the mobility of ligands can either hamper or facilitate crystallization...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Karoon Shahebrahimi, Nasrin Jalilian, Nasrin Bazgir, Mansour Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. This study compares the effects of 2 types of insulin sensitizer drugs, metformin and pioglitazone, on clinical, metabolic, and endocrine characteristics of women with PCOS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Joong Won Shin, Yong Un Shin, Ki Bang Uhm, Kyung Rim Sung, Min Ho Kang, Hee Yoon Cho, Mincheol Seong
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of optic disc center displacement on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: The optic disc center was manipulated at 1-pixel intervals in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal directions. According to the manipulated optic disc center location, the RNFL thickness data were resampled: (1) at a 3.46-mm diameter circle; and (2) between a 2.5-mm diameter circle and 5...
2016: PloS One
Encarni Marcos, Satoshi Tsujimoto, Aldo Genovesio
: The estimation of space and time can interfere with each other, and neuroimaging studies have shown overlapping activation in the parietal and prefrontal cortical areas. We used duration and distance discrimination tasks to determine whether space and time share resources in prefrontal cortex (PF) neurons. Monkeys were required to report which of two stimuli, a red circle or blue square, presented sequentially, were longer and farther, respectively, in the duration and distance tasks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marlene Z Bloom
It was four months in Alaska, in the middle of winter, that changed Joseph Marek's view of what it means to be a pharmacist. Marek was on his last rotation in pharmacy school when he experienced the kind of practice that he wanted for himself. He found that kind of practice as a consultant pharmacist, and next month, Marek, 49, will become the 2016-2017 president of the American Society of Consulting Pharmacists. Working at the Public Health Service (PHS) in the Arctic Circle in 1990, he dispensed and carried out clinical duties with the chief pharmacist and provided care to the native Inuit population through the Indian Health Service...
2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Patrice D Cani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Fatemeh Dabbagh Kashani, Masoud Yousefi
In this research, based on an analytical expression for cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix elements, coherence and polarization properties of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) radial array laser beams propagating through weak oceanic turbulence are analyzed. Spectral degrees of coherence and polarization are analytically calculated using CSD matrix elements. Also, the effective width of spatial degree of coherence (EWSDC) is calculated numerically. The simulation is done by considering the effects of source parameters (such as radius of the array setup's circle, effective width of the spectral degree of coherence, and wavelength) and turbulent ocean factors (such as the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations, Kolmogorov micro-scale, and rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature) in detail...
August 10, 2016: Applied Optics
N G Naumov
Reactive changes of astrocytes were studied in forebrain nucleus accumbens in rats (n = 12) after global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries, which is a frequently used model to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological agents that have anti-ischemic and neuroprotective properties. Under these conditions, the nucleus accumbens was in the area of partial ischemia. Morphometric study of nucleus accumbens was performed in three groups of rats (4 animals in each group) after ligation of both common carotid arteries, after a sham operation and in healthy animals...
2016: Morfologi︠a︡
Fu-Lai Wen, Hsuan-Yi Chen, Kwan-Tai Leung
Actin polymerization is ubiquitously utilized to power the locomotion of eukaryotic cells and pathogenic bacteria in living systems. Inevitably, actin polymerization and depolymerization proceed in a fluctuating environment that renders the locomotion stochastic. Previously, we have introduced a deterministic model that manages to reproduce actin-propelled trajectories in experiments, but not to address fluctuations around them. To remedy this, here we supplement the deterministic model with noise terms. It enables us to compute the effects of fluctuating actin density and forces on the trajectories...
June 2016: Physical Review. E
Karolina Świder, Przemysław Bąbel
Research shows that placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia can be induced through observational learning. Our aim was to replicate and extend these results by studying the influence of the type and colour of stimuli used as placebos on the placebo effects induced by observational learning. Three experimental and two control groups were tested. All participants received pain stimuli of the same intensity preceded by colour lights (green and red) or geometric shapes (circles and squares). Before receiving pain stimuli, participants in the experimental groups, but not in the control groups, observed a model who rated pain stimuli that were preceded by either green lights (green placebo group), red lights (red placebo group), or circles (circle placebo group) as being less painful than those preceded by either red lights (green placebo group), green lights (red placebo group), or squares (circle placebo group)...
2016: PloS One
Jianliang Zhu, Panlong Wu, Yuming Bo
Because the existing extremum ratio method for projectile attitude measurement is vulnerable to random disturbance, a novel integral ratio method is proposed to calculate the projectile attitude. First, the non-orthogonal measurement theory of the magnetic sensors is analyzed. It is found that the projectile rotating velocity is constant in one spinning circle and the attitude error is actually the pitch error. Next, by investigating the model of the extremum ratio method, an integral ratio mathematical model is established to improve the anti-disturbance performance...
2016: Sensors
Veena Chatrath, Ranjana Khetarpal, Divya Bansal, Harjinder Kaur
CONTEXT: While giving low-flow anesthesia, it is a routine practice to give fixed duration of initial high-flow. This study was conducted to show the use of equilibration point as changeover point from initial high-flow to low-flow. AIMS: It was to compare the use of equilibration point, hemodynamics, end-tidal agent concentration, recovery time, and recovery score between isoflurane and sevoflurane. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It was a prospective randomized study conducted on 100 patients who were admitted for elective surgery expected to be < 2 h duration...
May 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Harold W Hatch, William P Krekelberg, Steven D Hudson, Vincent K Shen
Cubic colloids, sedimented on a surface and immersed in a solution of depletant molecules, were modeled with a family of shapes which smoothly varies from squares to circles. Using Wang-Landau simulations with expanded ensembles, we observe the formation of rhombic lattices, square lattices, hexagonal lattices, and a fluid phase. This systematic investigation includes locating transitions between all combinations of the three lattice structures upon changing the shape and transitions between the fluid and crystal upon changing the depletant concentration...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christine Fawcett, Victoria Wesevich, Gustaf Gredebäck
Pupillary contagion-responding to pupil size observed in other people with changes in one's own pupil-has been found in adults and suggests that arousal and other internal states could be transferred across individuals using a subtle physiological cue. Examining this phenomenon developmentally gives insight into its origins and underlying mechanisms, such as whether it is an automatic adaptation already present in infancy. In the current study, 6- and 9-month-olds viewed schematic depictions of eyes with smaller and larger pupils-pairs of concentric circles with smaller and larger black centers-while their own pupil sizes were recorded...
July 2016: Psychological Science
Yi Zheng, Shanshan Sun, Ying Li
Orthonormal polynomials have been extensively applied in optical image systems. One important optical pupil, which is widely processed in lateral shearing interferometers (LSI) and subaperture stitch tests (SST), is the overlap region of two circular wavefronts that are displaced from each other. We call it an olivary pupil. In this paper, the normalized process of an olivary pupil in a unit circle is first presented. Then, using a nonrecursive matrix method, Zernike olivary polynomials (ZOPs) are obtained...
April 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Amandine Magnaudeix, Julie Usseglio, Marie Lasgorceix, Fabrice Lalloue, Chantal Damia, Joël Brie, Patricia Pascaud-Mathieu, Eric Champion
UNLABELLED: The development of scaffolds for bone filling of large defects requires an understanding of angiogenesis and vascular guidance, which are crucial processes for bone formation and healing. There are few investigations on the ability of a scaffold to support blood vessel guidance and it this is of great importance because it relates to the quality and dispersion of the blood vessel network. This work reports an analysis of vascularisation of porous silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) bioceramics and the effects of pore shape on vascular guidance using an expedient ex ovo model, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay...
July 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Kim Ouwehand, Tamara van Gog, Fred Paas
In this study, we investigated whether the visuospatial working memory performance of young and older adults would improve if they used a multimodal as compared with a unimodal encoding strategy, and whether or not visual cues would add to this effect. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with trials consisting of an array of squares and an array of circles. They were instructed to point at one type of figure (multimodal encoding strategy) and only to observe the other (unimodal encoding strategy). After each trial, an immediate location recognition test of one of the two arrays followed...
August 2016: Memory & Cognition
Jie Liu, Xi Ren, Xiaowei Guo, Huanbo Sun, Yong Tang, Zhenghui Luo, Qiong Zhang, Dongxia Zhang, Yuesheng Huang, Jiaping Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of direct current electric fields on directional migration and arrangement of dermal fibroblasts in neonatal BALB/c mice and the related mechanisms. METHODS: Twelve neonatal BALB/c mice were divided into 4 batches. The skin on the back of 3 neonatal mice in each batch was obtained to culture fibroblasts. Fibroblasts of the second passage were inoculated in 27 square cover slips with the concentration of 5 × 10(4) cells per mL. (1) Experiment 1...
April 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Kieran P Fuller, Diana Gaspar, Luis M Delgado, Abhay Pandit, Dimitrios I Zeugolis
BACKGROUND: Electro-spun scaffolds are utilized in a diverse spectrum of clinical targets, with an ever-increasing quantity of work progressing to clinical studies and commercialization. The limited number of conformations in which the scaffolds can be fabricated hampers their wide acceptance in clinical practice. MATERIALS & METHODS: Herein, we assessed a single-strep fabrication process for predesigned electro-spun scaffold preparation and the ramifications of the introduction of porosity (0, 30, 50, 70%) and pore shape (circle, rhomboid, square) on structural, mechanical (tensile and ball burst) and biological (dermal fibroblast and THP-1) properties...
May 2016: Nanomedicine
Silvia Favalli, Delia Ferri
In recent years the European Union (EU) has sought to develop a far-reaching policy regarding persons with disabilities. However, to date, EU non-discrimination legislation does not provide any clear legal definition of what constitutes a disability. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has attempted to fill this gap and, in several decisions, has elaborated on the concept of disability and its meaning under EU law. The CJEU, with reference to the application of the Employment Equality Directive, has explained the notion of disability mainly by comparing and contrasting it to the concept of sickness...
March 2016: European Journal of Health Law
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