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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241084/characterization-of-bovine-embryos-cultured-under-conditions-appropriate-for-sustaining-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency
#1
Bas Brinkhof, Helena T A van Tol, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Richard W Wubbolts, Henk P Haagsman, Bernard A J Roelen
In mammalian preimplantation development, pluripotent cells are set aside from cells that contribute to extra-embryonic tissues. Although the pluripotent cell population of mouse and human embryos can be cultured as embryonic stem cells, little is known about the pathways involved in formation of a bovine pluripotent cell population, nor how to maintain these cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile related to bovine pluripotency. Therefore, in vitro derived embryos were cultured in various culture media that recently have been reported capable of maintaining the naïve pluripotent state of human embryonic cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240738/inflammation-induced-mirna-155-inhibits-self-renewal-of-neural-stem-cells-via-suppression-of-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-c-ebp%C3%AE-expression
#2
Kayoko Obora, Yuta Onodera, Toshiyuki Takehara, John Frampton, Joe Hasei, Toshifumi Ozaki, Takeshi Teramura, Kanji Fukuda
Intracerebral inflammation resulting from injury or disease is implicated in disruption of neural regeneration and may lead to irreversible neuronal dysfunction. Analysis of inflammation-related microRNA profiles in various tissues, including the brain, has identified miR-155 among the most prominent miRNAs linked to inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that miR-155 mediates inflammation-induced suppression of neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal. Using primary mouse NSCs and human NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, we demonstrate that three important genes involved in NSC self-renewal (Msi1, Hes1 and Bmi1) are suppressed by miR-155...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240438/feeder-independent-canine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-maintained-under-serum-free-conditions
#3
Toshiya Nishimura, Shingo Hatoya, Ryoji Kanegi, Daluthgamage Pasty Himali Wijesekera, Kousuke Sanno, Erina Tanaka, Kikuya Sugiura, Noritoshi Kawate, Hiromitsu Tamada, Hiroshi Imai, Toshio Inaba
Canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) are an attractive source for regenerative veterinary medicine, and may also serve as a disease model for human regenerative medicine. Extending the application of ciPSCs from bench to bedside, however, requires the resolution of many issues. We generated ciPSCs expressing doxycycline-inducible murine Oct3/4 (Pou5f1), Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, which were introduced using lentiviral vectors. The resultant ciPSCs required doxycycline to proliferate in the undifferentiated state...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238948/mechanisms-of-embryonic-stomach-development
#4
REVIEW
Kyle W McCracken, James M Wells
The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including foregut patterning, stomach specification, and gastric regionalization. These developmental events have important implications in later homeostasis and disease in the adult stomach...
February 23, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238797/in%C3%A2-vitro-modeling-of-blood-brain-barrier-with-human-ipsc-derived-endothelial-cells-pericytes-neurons-and-astrocytes-via-notch-signaling
#5
Kohei Yamamizu, Mio Iwasaki, Hitomi Takakubo, Takumi Sakamoto, Takeshi Ikuno, Mami Miyoshi, Takayuki Kondo, Yoichi Nakao, Masato Nakagawa, Haruhisa Inoue, Jun K Yamashita
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of four cell populations, brain endothelial cells (BECs), pericytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Its role is to precisely regulate the microenvironment of the brain through selective substance crossing. Here we generated an in vitro model of the BBB by differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into all four populations. When the four hiPSC-derived populations were co-cultured, endothelial cells (ECs) were endowed with features consistent with BECs, including a high expression of nutrient transporters (CAT3, MFSD2A) and efflux transporters (ABCA1, BCRP, PGP, MRP5), and strong barrier function based on tight junctions...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238796/ephrin-b1-mosaicism-drives-cell-segregation-in-craniofrontonasal-syndrome-hipsc-derived-neuroepithelial-cells
#6
Terren K Niethamer, Andrew R Larson, Audrey K O'Neill, Marina Bershteyn, Edward C Hsiao, Ophir D Klein, Jason H Pomerantz, Jeffrey O Bush
Although human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great potential for the study of human diseases affecting disparate cell types, they have been underutilized in seeking mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial disorders. Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by mutations in EFNB1 and characterized by craniofacial, skeletal, and neurological anomalies. Heterozygous females are more severely affected than hemizygous males, a phenomenon termed cellular interference that involves mosaicism for EPHRIN-B1 function...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238795/reversal-of-phenotypic-abnormalities-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-correction-in-huntington-disease-patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#7
Xiaohong Xu, Yilin Tay, Bernice Sim, Su-In Yoon, Yihui Huang, Jolene Ooi, Kagistia Hana Utami, Amin Ziaei, Bryan Ng, Carola Radulescu, Donovan Low, Alvin Yu Jin Ng, Marie Loh, Byrappa Venkatesh, Florent Ginhoux, George J Augustine, Mahmoud A Pouladi
Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in HTT. Here we report correction of HD human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using a CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac transposon-based approach. We show that both HD and corrected isogenic hiPSCs can be differentiated into excitable, synaptically active forebrain neurons. We further demonstrate that phenotypic abnormalities in HD hiPSC-derived neural cells, including impaired neural rosette formation, increased susceptibility to growth factor withdrawal, and deficits in mitochondrial respiration, are rescued in isogenic controls...
February 21, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238794/efficient-precision-genome-editing-in-ipscs-via-genetic-co-targeting-with%C3%A2-selection
#8
Katie A Mitzelfelt, Chris McDermott-Roe, Michael N Grzybowski, Maribel Marquez, Chieh-Ti Kuo, Michael Riedel, Shuping Lai, Melinda J Choi, Kurt D Kolander, Daniel Helbling, David P Dimmock, Michele A Battle, Chuanchau J Jou, Martin Tristani-Firouzi, James W Verbsky, Ivor J Benjamin, Aron M Geurts
Genome editing in induced pluripotent stem cells is currently hampered by the laborious and expensive nature of identifying homology-directed repair (HDR)-modified cells. We present an approach where isolation of cells bearing a selectable, HDR-mediated editing event at one locus enriches for HDR-mediated edits at additional loci. This strategy, called co-targeting with selection, improves the probability of isolating cells bearing HDR-mediated variants and accelerates the production of disease models.
February 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238547/hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-stem-cell-derived-human-neurons-transplanted-into-mouse-brain
#9
Ira Espuny-Camacho, Amaia M Arranz, Mark Fiers, An Snellinx, Kunie Ando, Sebastian Munck, Jerome Bonnefont, Laurie Lambot, Nikky Corthout, Lorna Omodho, Elke Vanden Eynden, Enrico Radaelli, Ina Tesseur, Selina Wray, Andreas Ebneth, John Hardy, Karelle Leroy, Jean-Pierre Brion, Pierre Vanderhaeghen, Bart De Strooper
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a unique entry to study species-specific aspects of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in vitro culture of neurons deprives them of their natural environment. Here we transplanted human PSC-derived cortical neuronal precursors into the brain of a murine AD model. Human neurons differentiate and integrate into the brain, express 3R/4R Tau splice forms, show abnormal phosphorylation and conformational Tau changes, and undergo neurodegeneration...
February 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238087/bone-regeneration-in-the-stem-cell-era-safe-play-for-the-patient
#10
Estella Musacchio, Nicola Veronese
The past decade has seen outstanding scientific progress in the field of stem cell (SC) research and clinical application. SCs are convenient both technically and biologically: they are easy to find and to culture and they can differentiate in virtually all tissues and even in whole organs. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) are a type of pluripotent SC generated in vitro directly from mature cells through the introduction of key transcription factors. The use of iPSs, however tantalizing, poses serious safety concerns because of their genomic instability...
February 25, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237843/characterization-of-energy-and-neurotransmitter-metabolism-in-cortical-glutamatergic-neurons-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-a-novel-approach-to-study-metabolism-in-human-neurons
#11
Blanca I Aldana, Yu Zhang, Maria Fog Lihme, Lasse K Bak, Jørgen E Nielsen, Bjørn Holst, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude, Helle S Waagepetersen
Alterations in the cellular metabolic machinery of the brain are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Novel human cellular disease models are essential in order to study underlying disease mechanisms. In the present study, we characterized major metabolic pathways in neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). With this aim, cultures of hiPSC-derived neurons were incubated with [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]glutamate or [U-(13)C]glutamine. Isotopic labeling in metabolites was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and cellular amino acid content was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 22, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237823/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-klf4-what-we-currently-know
#12
REVIEW
Amr M Ghaleb, Vincent W Yang
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger-containing transcription factor that regulates diverse cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Since its discovery in 1996, KLF4 has been gaining a lot of attention, after it was shown in 2006 as one of four factors required for the induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we review the current knowledge on the different functions and roles of KLF4 in various tissue and organ systems.
February 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237397/sox17-regulates-cholangiocyte-differentiation-and-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-cholangiocarcinoma
#13
M Merino-Azpitarte, E Lozano, M J Perugorria, A Esparza-Baquer, O Erice, A Santos-Laso, C J O'Rourke, J B Andersen, R Jiménez-Agüero, A Lacasta, M D'Amato, O Briz, N Jalan-Sakrikar, R C Huebert, K M Thelen, S A Gradilone, A M Aransay, J L Lavín, M G Fernández-Barrena, A Matheu, M Marzioni, G J Gores, L Bujanda, J J G Marin, J M Banales
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a biliary malignancy linked to genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, such as hypermethylation of SOX17 promoter. Here, the role of SOX17 in cholangiocyte differentiation and cholangiocarcinogenesis was studied. METHODS: SOX17 expression/function was evaluated along the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) into cholangiocytes, in the dedifferentiation process of normal human cholangiocytes (NHC) in culture and in cholangiocarcinogenesis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237347/generation-of-lif-independent-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-canine-fetal-fibroblasts
#14
N J N Gonçalves, F F Bressan, K C S Roballo, F V Meirelles, P L P Xavier, H Fukumasu, C Williams, M Breen, S Koh, R Sper, J Piedrahita, C E Ambrósio
Takahashi and Yamanaka established the first technique in which transcription factors related to pluripotency are incorporated into the genome of somatic cells to enable reprogramming of these cells. The expression of these transcription factors enables a differentiated somatic cell to reverse its phenotype to an embryonic state, generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs from canine fetal fibroblasts were produced through lentiviral polycistronic human and mouse vectors (hOSKM/mOSKM), aiming to obtain pluripotent stem cells with similar features to embryonic stem cells (ESC) in this animal model...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235832/one-thousand-somatic-snvs-per-skin-fibroblast-cell-set-baseline-of-mosaic-mutational-load-with-patterns-that-suggest-proliferative-origin
#15
Alexej Abyzov, Livia Tomasini, Bo Zhou, Nikolaos Vasmatzis, Gianfilippo Coppola, Mariangela Amenduni, Reenal Pattni, Michael Wilson, Mark Gerstein, Sherman Weissman, Alexander E Urban, Flora M Vaccarino
Few studies have been conducted to understand post-zygotic accumulation of mutations in cells of the healthy human body. We reprogrammed 32 skin fibroblast cells from families of donors into human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. The clonal nature of hiPSC lines allows a high-resolution analysis of the genomes of the founder fibroblast cells without being confounded by the artifacts of single cell whole genome amplification. We estimate that on average a fibroblast cell in children has 1,035 mostly benign mosaic SNVs...
February 24, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231034/upscaling-of-hips-cell-derived-neurons-for-high-throughput-screening
#16
Stefanie Traub, Heiko Stahl, Holger Rosenbrock, Eric Simon, Ralf Heilker
The advent of human-induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell-derived neurons promised to provide better model cells for drug discovery in the context of the central nervous system. This work demonstrates both the upscaling of cellular expansion and the acceleration of neuronal differentiation to accommodate the immense material needs of a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach. Using GRowth factor-driven expansion and INhibition of NotCH (GRINCH) during maturation, the derived cells are here referred to as GRINCH neurons...
March 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230281/resveratrol-enhances-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Na Li, Zhaoyu Du, Qiaoyan Shen, Qijing Lei, Ying Zhang, Mengfei Zhang, Jinlian Hua
Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to affect the differentiation of several types of stem cells, while the detailed mechanism is elusive. Here, we aim to investigate the function of RSV in self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the related mechanisms. In contrast with its reported roles, we found unexpectedly that differentiated ESCs or iPSCs treated by RSV would not show further differentiation, but regained a naïve pluripotency state with higher expressions of core transcriptional factors and with the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers when transplanted in vivo...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230233/establishment-and-growth-responses-of-nile-tilapia-embryonic-stem-like-cell-lines-under-feeder-free-condition
#18
Zhenhua Fan, Linyan Liu, Xiaohuan Huang, Yang Zhao, Linyan Zhou, Deshou Wang, Jing Wei
Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an invaluable tool for molecular analysis of vertebrate development and a bridge linking genomic manipulations in vitro and functional analysis of target genes in vivo. Work towards fish ES cells so far has focused on zebrafish (Danio renio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here we describe the derivation, pluripotency, differentiation and growth responses of ES cell lines from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a world-wide commercial farmed fish. These cell lines, designated as TES1-3, were initiated from blastomeres of Nile tilapia middle blastula embryos (MBE)...
February 23, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229422/therapeutic-application-of-adult-stem-cells-in-the-heart
#19
Taylor A Johnson, Dinender K Singla
Cell therapies have been explored as a potential treatment avenue to treat heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction, doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Embryonic and adult stem cells (ASCs) have been examined in animal and clinical settings. Unlike embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, ASCs do not pose a threat to form teratomas, nor do they have immune system concerns, making them ideal for therapeutic use in humans. In this review, we will investigate different characteristics and sources of adult stem cells and progenitor cells, as well as determine their efficacy in cell transplantation in experimental and clinical trials...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229416/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-an-individual-specific-and-renewable-source-of-adult-stem-cells
#20
Glen Lester Sequiera, Sekaran Saravanan, Sanjiv Dhingra
This chapter deals with the employment of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as a candidate to differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This would enable to help establish a regular source of human MSCs with the aim of avoiding the problems associated with procuring the MSCs either from different healthy individuals or patients, limited extraction potentials, batch-to-batch variations or from diverse sources such as bone marrow or adipose tissue. The procedures described herein allow for a guided and ensured approach for the regular maintenance of hiPSCs and their subsequent differentiation into MSCs using the prescribed medium...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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