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Drug induced seizure

Tian-Hui Wu, Fei Yin, Jing Peng, Hui-Min Kong, Lin-Hong Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a microRNA-132 antagonist on lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in young Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: Forty-five 3-week-old SD rats were randomly and equally divided into epilepticus model group, microRNA-132 antagonist group, and microRNA-132 antagonist negative control group. The young SD rat model of SE was established using lithium-pilocarpine. For the microRNA-132 antagonist group and the negative control group, pretreatment was performed 24 hours before the model establishment...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Tamar M van Veenendaal, Dominique M IJff, Albert P Aldenkamp, Richard H C Lazeron, Nicolaas A J Puts, Richard A E Edden, Paul A M Hofman, Anton J A de Louw, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Although antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are effective in suppressing epileptic seizures, they also induce (cognitive) side effects, with mental slowing as a general effect. This study aimed to assess whether concentrations of MR detectable neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, are associated with mental slowing in patients with epilepsy taking AEDs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from patients with localization-related epilepsy using a variety of AEDs from three risk categories, i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Carl L Faingold, Marcus Randall, Chang Zeng, Shifang Peng, Xiaoyan Long, Hua-Jun Feng
Drugs that enhance the action of serotonin (5-hydroxytrypamine, 5-HT), including several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), reduce susceptibility to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that leads to death in the DBA/1 mouse model of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). However, it is not clear if specific 5-HT receptors are important in the action of these drugs and whether the brain is the major site of action of these agents in this SUDEP model. The current study examined the actions of agents that affect the 5-HT3 receptor subtype on S-IRA and whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of an SSRI would reduce S-IRA susceptibility in DBA/1 mice...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Maria Vittoria De Angelis, Roberta Di Giacomo, Antonio Di Muzio, Marco Onofrj, Laura Bonanni
BACKGROUND: Movement disorder emergencies include any movement disorder which develops over hours to days, in which failure to appropriately diagnose and manage can result in patient morbidity or mortality.Movement disorder emergencies include acute dystonia: sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements. Acute dystonia is a serious challenge for emergency room doctors and neurologists, because of the high probability of misdiagnosis, due to the presence of several mimickers including partial seizures, meningitis, localized tetanus, serum electrolyte level abnormalities, strychnine poisoning, angioedema, malingering, catatonia, and conversion...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elham Kordijaz, Ali Moghimi, Masoud Fereidoni, Saeedeh Asadi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Ali Roohbakhsh
Convulsive seizures are due to abnormal synchronous and repetitive neuronal discharges in the central nervous system (CNS). Finding new therapeutics to overcome the side effects of the current drug therapies and to increase their effectiveness is ongoing. Orexin-A and orexin-B are brain neuropeptides originating from postero-lateral hypothalamic neurons. Studies show that orexins, through activation of OX1 and OX2 receptors, have excitatory effects in the CNS. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of OX1 receptor antagonist (SB-334867) on seizure- and anxiety-related behaviors of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindled rats...
October 14, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Jaspinder Kaur, Dileep Kumar, Mostafa Alfishawy, Ricardo Lopez, Issac Sachmechi
Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Dariusz Andrzejczak, Agata Woldan-Tambor, Katarzyna Bednarska, Jolanta B Zawilska
A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammatory processes and activation of glial cells could contribute to seizures and epileptogenesis. In various animal studies on epilepsy, proinflammatory cytokines have been demonstrated to exert a proconvulsive activity. On the other hand, it is suggested that antiepileptic drugs could modulate immune system activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether topiramate, a new generation antiepileptic drug with a complex mechanism of action, could affect the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 from primary rat microglial cell cultures...
September 28, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Jun Ren, Xiuqing Ding, John J Greer
Inhalation of capsaicin based sprays can cause central respiratory depression and lethal apneas. There are contradictory reports regarding the sites of capsaicin action. Further, an understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced apneas and the development of pharmacological interventions are lacking. The main objectives were to perform a systematic study of the mechanisms of action of capsaicin-induced apneas and to provide insights relevant to pharmacological intervention. In vitro and in vivo rat and TRPV1-null mouse models were used to measure respiratory parameters and seizure-like activity in the presence of capsaicin and compounds that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
H Yu, G L Qi, J Wang, L Chen, Z Deng, Y S Zhao, S S Lei, X Q Zhu
Epilepsy refers to a clinical syndrome generated by spontaneous seizures in the central nervous system. Epilepsy triggers a complex pathological process including inflammatory response and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) increase. It has been reported that AQP4 helps to enhance the immunological function of the central nervous system in pathological conditions, but the relationship between AQP4 and inflammatory cytokines is poorly understood in chronic epilepsy processes. As an inhibitor of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetazolamide (AZA) may inhibit water infiltration through AQP4...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Seung-Young Oh, Hannah Lee, Yang-Hyo Park, Ho Geol Ryu
Seizure is the second most common neurologic complication after liver transplantation and may be caused by metabolic abnormalities, electrolyte imbalance, infection, and immunosuppressant toxicity. A 61-year-old male patient underwent liver transplantation due to hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis with portal systemic encephalopathy. The immediate postoperative course of the patient was uncomplicated. However, on postoperative day (POD) 6, weakness developed in both lower extremities. No abnormal findings were detected on a brain computed tomography (CT) scan on POD 8, but a generalized tonic clonic seizure developed which was difficult to control even with multiple antiepileptic drugs...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Mirosław Zagaja, Marta Andres-Mach, Paweł Patrzylas, Daniel Pyrka, Monika Szpringer, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Dorota Żółkowska, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) on the protective action of 5 various second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., lacosamide, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. Seizure activity was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (25mA, 500V, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Drug-related adverse effects were determined in the chimney, grip-strength and passive avoidance tests...
October 1, 2016: Fitoterapia
Iliya Sigal, Margaret M Koletar, Dene Ringuette, Raanan Gad, Melanie Jeffrey, Peter L Carlen, Bojana Stefanovic, Ofer Levi
We report on a miniature label-free imaging system for monitoring brain blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in awake, freely behaving rats. The device, weighing 15 grams, enables imaging in a ∼ 2 × 2 mm field of view with 4.4 μm lateral resolution and 1 - 8 Hz temporal sampling rate. The imaging is performed through a chronically-implanted cranial window that remains optically clear between 2 to > 6 weeks after the craniotomy. This imaging method is well suited for longitudinal studies of chronic models of brain diseases and disorders...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Emily Johnson, Yousef Hannawi, Nirma Carballido Martinez, Eva K Ritzl
Cefepime has been associated with encephalopathy and with nonconvulsive seizure activity, primarily in patients with renal impairment. Here, we report a case of cefepime-associated encephalopathy in a patient with normal renal function with stimulus-induced rhythmic activity seen on electroencephalogram, which resolved on discontinuation of cefepime. We bring this to the attention of the neurohospitalist community, as cefepime is widely used in the hospital setting, and cefepime-related neurotoxicity may go overlooked, especially in patients with normal renal function...
October 2016: Neurohospitalist
Baba Shankar Rao Garige, Srisailam Keshetti, Uma Maheshwara Rao Vattikuti
BACKGROUND: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Ryan M Clanton, Guoyao Wu, Gamal Akabani, Rodolfo Aramayo
Epilepsy is too complex to be considered as a disease; it is more of a syndrome, characterized by seizures, which can be caused by a diverse array of afflictions. As such, drug interventions that target a single biological pathway will only help the specific individuals where that drug's mechanism of action is relevant to their disorder. Most likely, this will not alleviate all forms of epilepsy nor the potential biological pathways causing the seizures, such as glucose/amino acid transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, or neuronal myelination...
September 28, 2016: Amino Acids
Vinod G Ugale, Sanjay B Bari
Anticonvulsants effective against multiple seizures are of wide interest as antiepileptic drugs, especially if active against pharmaco-resistant seizures. Herein, we synthesized 16 different, rationally designed 2-((6,7-dimethoxy-4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)amino)-N-(substituted phenyl)acetamides and screened for anticonvulsant activities through in vivo experiments. Compound 4d emerged as prototype with excellent anti-seizure action in mice against electroshock, chemically induced and pharmaco-resistant 6-Hz seizure models with no symptoms of neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity (ED50  = 23...
September 28, 2016: Archiv der Pharmazie
Monica G Risley, Stephanie P Kelly, Kailiang Jia, Brock Grill, Ken Dawson-Scully
The microscopic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a valuable model for understanding the molecular and cellular basis of neurological disorders. The worm offers important physiological similarities to mammalian models such as conserved neuron morphology, ion channels, and neurotransmitters. While a wide-array of behavioral assays are available in C. elegans, an assay for electroshock/electroconvulsion remains absent. Here, we have developed a quantitative behavioral method to assess the locomotor response following electric shock in C...
2016: PloS One
Jangsup Moon, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ah Lim, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ick Byun, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Daejong Jeon, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
OBJECTIVE: Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is a widely used antiepileptic drug for the treatment of partial seizures that was developed through structural variation of carbamazepine. Although OXC has a lower risk of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) than carbamazepine, cADRs ranging from maculopapular eruption (MPE) to the more severe Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis still limit the use of OXC in some patients. A few human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related genetic risk factors for carbamazepine-induced cADRs have been identified...
September 26, 2016: Epilepsia
Oleg I Barygin
Perampanel is an antiepileptic drug that is used to treat partial-onset seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It is a highly selective AMPA receptor allosteric antagonist. However, published data on perampanel activity vary in different studies. In the present work we studied the inhibition of native calcium-permeable and calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors in rat brain neurons by perampanel using whole-cell patch clamp technique. We found that inhibitory activity and kinetics of perampanel action do not differ between calcium-permeable AMPA receptors of rat giant striatum interneurons and calcium-impermeable receptors of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (the IC50 value about 60nM)...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Osama M Al-Quteimat
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a serious, life-threatening skin reaction characterized by severe exfoliation and destruction of the epidermis of the skin. In most TEN cases, drugs are believed to be the causative agent; antipsychotics, antiepileptics, and other medications such as sulfonamides are among the most common causes of drug-induced TEN. Phenytoin, a commonly prescribed medication for seizure, was found to cause TEN. Evidence-based treatment guidelines are lacking, so the best strategy is to identify and avoid potential risk factors and to provide intensive supportive care...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
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