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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222721/are-the-adverse-effects-of-stressors-on-amphibians-mediated-by-their-effects-on-stress-hormones
#1
Caitlin R Gabor, Sarah A Knutie, Elizabeth A Roznik, Jason R Rohr
Adverse effects of anthropogenic changes on biodiversity might be mediated by their impacts on the stress response of organisms. To test this hypothesis, we crossed exposure to metyrapone, a synthesis inhibitor of the stress hormone corticosterone, with exposure to the herbicide atrazine and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) to assess whether the effects of these stressors on tadpoles and post-metamorphic frogs were mediated by corticosterone. Metyrapone countered atrazine- and Bd-induced corticosterone elevations...
December 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222453/transcriptome-analysis-of-brachypodium-during-fungal-pathogen-infection-reveals-both-shared-and-distinct-defense-responses-with-wheat
#2
Jonathan J Powell, Jason Carere, Gaurav Sablok, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Jiri Stiller, Michelle L Colgrave, Donald M Gardiner, John M Manners, John P Vogel, Robert J Henry, Kemal Kazan
Fusarium crown rot (FCR) of wheat and barley, predominantly caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum, is a disease of economic significance. The quantitative nature of FCR resistance within cultivated wheat germplasm has significantly limited breeding efforts to enhanced FCR resistance in wheat. In this study, we characterized the molecular responses of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium hereafter) to F. pseudograminearum infection using RNA-seq to determine whether Brachypodium can be exploited as a model system towards better understanding of F...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222334/cellular-flip-long-isoform-cflipl-ikk%C3%AE-interactions-inhibit-irf7-activation-representing-a-new-cellular-strategy-to-inhibit-ifn%C3%AE-expression
#3
Lauren T Gates-Tanzer, Joanna L Shisler
IFNα is important for anti-viral and anticancer defenses. However, over-production is associated with autoimmune disorders. Thus, the cell must precisely up- and down-regulate IFNα to achieve immune system homeostasis. The cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) is reported to inhibit IFNα production. However, the mechanism for this antagonism remained unknown. The goal here was to identify this mechanism. Here, we examined the signal transduction events that occur during TLR9- induced IRF7 activation...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222165/innate-sex-bias-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-infection-is-driven-by-%C3%AE-hemolysin
#4
Moriah J Castleman, Srijana Pokhrel, Kathleen D Triplett, Donna F Kusewitt, Bradley O Elmore, Jason A Joyner, Jon K Femling, Geetanjali Sharma, Helen J Hathaway, Eric R Prossnitz, Pamela R Hall
Numerous studies have reported sex bias in infectious diseases, with bias direction dependent on pathogen and site of infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), yet sex bias in susceptibility to S. aureus SSTI has not been described. A search of electronic health records revealed an odds ratio of 2.4 for S. aureus SSTI in males versus females. To investigate the physiological basis of this bias, we compared outcomes between male and female mice in a model of S...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220548/haem-oxygenase-a-functionally-diverse-enzyme-of-photosynthetic-organisms-and-its-role-in-phytochrome-chromophore-biosynthesis-cellular-signalling-and-defence-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Lovely Mahawar, G S Shekhawat
Haem oxygenase (HO) is a universal enzyme that catalyzes stereospecific clevage of haem to BV IX α and liberates Fe+2 ion and CO as byproduct. Beside haem degradation, it has important functions in plants that include cellular defence, stomatal regulation, iron mobilization, phytochrome chromophore synthesis and lateral root formation. Phytochromes are an extended family of photoreceptors with a molecular mass of 250 kDa and occur as a dimer made up of two equivalent subunits of 125 kDa each. Each subunit is made of two components; the chromophore, a light capturing pigment molecule and the apoprotein...
December 8, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218049/immunoglobulins-g-from-sera-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-induce-oxidative-stress-and-upregulation-of-antioxidative-system-in-bv-2-microglial-cell-line
#6
Milena Milošević, Katarina Milićević, Iva Božić, Irena Lavrnja, Ivana Stevanović, Dunja Bijelić, Marija Dubaić, Irena Živković, Zorica Stević, Rashid Giniatullin, Pavle Andjus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a very fast progression, no diagnostic tool for the presymptomatic phase, and still no effective treatment of the disease. Although ALS affects motor neurons, the overall pathophysiological condition points out to the non-cell autonomous mechanisms, where astrocytes and microglia play crucial roles in the disease progression. We have already shown that IgG from sera of ALS patients (ALS IgG) induce calcium transients and an increase in the mobility of acidic vesicles in cultured rat astrocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216819/transcriptomic-analysis-of-pak-choi-under-acute-ozone-exposure-revealed-regulatory-mechanism-against-ozone-stress
#7
Lu Zhang, Bin Xu, Tao Wu, Mu-Xuan Wen, Lian-Xue Fan, Zhao-Zhong Feng, Elena Paoletti
BACKGROUND: Ground-level ozone (O3) is one of the major air pollutants, which cause oxidative injury to plants. The physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying the responses of plants to O3 stress have been well investigated. However, there are limited reports about the molecular basis of plant responses to O3. In this study, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis) exposed to different O3 concentrations was conducted for the first time...
December 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216438/antiulcerative-activity-of-milk-proteins-hydrolysates
#8
Wilman Carrillo, Karin Maia Monteiro, Daniel Martínez-Maqueda, Mercedes Ramos, Isidra Recio, João Ernesto de Carvalho
Several studies have shown the protective effect of dairy products, especially α-lactalbumin and derived hydrolysates, against induced gastric ulcerative lesions. The mucus strengthening represents an important mechanism in the defense of gastrointestinal mucosa. Previously, a hydrolysate from casein (CNH) and a hydrolysate from whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin (WPH) demonstrated a stimulatory activity on mucus production in intestinal goblet cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible antiulcerative activity of these two hydrolysates in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#9
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213262/the-oxidative-stress-agent-hypochlorite-stimulates-c-di-gmp-synthesis-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Nikola Strempel, Michael Nusser, Anke Neidig, Gerald Brenner-Weiss, Joerg Overhage
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to survive under a variety of often harmful environmental conditions due to a multitude of intrinsic and adaptive resistance mechanisms, including biofilm formation as one important survival strategy. Here, we investigated the adaptation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to hypochlorite (HClO), a phagocyte-derived host defense compound and frequently used disinfectant. In static biofilm assays, we observed a significant enhancement in initial cell attachment in the presence of sublethal HClO concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213084/emerging-role-for-the-perk-eif2%C3%AE-atf4-in-human-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#11
Karina Luiza Dias-Teixeira, Teresa C Calegari-Silva, Jorge M Medina, Áislan C Vivarini, Átila Cavalcanti, Nataly Teteo, Alynne Karen M Santana, Fernando Real, Ciro M Gomes, Renata Meirelles Santos Pereira, Nicolas Fasel, João S Silva, Bertal H Aktas, Ulisses G Lopes
Leishmania parasites utilize adaptive evasion mechanisms in infected macrophages to overcome host defenses and proliferate. We report here that the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling branch of the integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response (IERSR) is activated by Leishmania and this pathway is important for Leishmania amazonensis infection. Knocking down PERK or ATF4 expression or inhibiting PERK kinase activity diminished L. amazonensis infection. Knocking down ATF4 decreased NRF2 expression and its nuclear translocation, reduced HO-1 expression and increased nitric oxide production...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212307/dysregulation-of-nrf2-in-cancer-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Byung-Jin Jung, Hwan-Sic Yoo, Sooyoung Shin, Young-Joon Park, Sang-Min Jeon
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays an important role in redox metabolism and antioxidant defense. Under normal conditions, NRF2 proteins are maintained at very low levels because of their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation via binding to the kelch‑like ECH associated protein 1 (KEAP1)-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. However, oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses disrupt the KEAP1-NRF2 interaction, which leads to the accumulation and transactivation of NRF2. During recent decades, a growing body of evidence suggests that NRF2 is frequently activated in many types of cancer by multiple mechanisms, including the genetic mutations in the KEAP1-NRF2 pathway...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211798/lipl21-lipoprotein-binding-to-peptidoglycan-enables-leptospira-interrogans-to-escape-nod1-and-nod2-recognition
#13
Gwenn Ratet, Ignacio Santecchia, Martine Fanton d'Andon, Frédérique Vernel-Pauillac, Richard Wheeler, Pascal Lenormand, Frédéric Fischer, Pierre Lechat, David A Haake, Mathieu Picardeau, Ivo G Boneca, Catherine Werts
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis, potentially severe in humans, caused by spirochetal bacteria, Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans). Host defense mechanisms involved in leptospirosis are poorly understood. Recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoproteins by Toll-Like Receptors (TLR)4 and TLR2 is crucial for clearance of leptospires in mice, yet the role of Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain (NOD)-like receptors (NOD)1 and NOD2, recognizing peptidoglycan (PG) fragments has not previously been examined...
December 6, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211115/acute-stress-disorder-and-defense-mechanisms-a-study-of-physical-trauma-patients-admitted-to-an-emergency-hospital
#14
Márcia Rosane Moreira Santana, Cleonice Zatti, Mariana Lunardi Spader, Bibiana Godoi Malgarim, Emílio Salle, Renato Piltcher, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Andre Goettems Bastos, Lúcia Helena Freitas
INTRODUCTION: Acute stress disorder (ASD) encompasses a set of symptoms that can arise in individuals after exposure to a traumatic event. This study assessed the defense mechanisms used by victims of physical trauma who developed ASD. METHOD: This was a controlled cross-sectional study of 146 patients who suffered physical trauma and required hospitalization. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate ASD symptoms based on DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, in addition to the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ)...
December 4, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210003/abscisic-acid-insensitive-4-transcription-factor-is-an-important-player-in-the-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-feeding
#15
Anna Barczak-Brzyżek, Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz, Magdalena Górecka, Karol Kot, Barbara Karpińska, Marcin Filipecki
Plants growing in constantly changeable environmental conditions are compelled to evolve regulatory mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Effective defence to invaders is largely connected with phytohormone regulation, resulting in the production of numerous defensive proteins and specialized metabolites. In our work, we elucidated the role of the Abscisic Acid Insensitive 4 (ABI4) transcription factor in the plant response to the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM). This polyphagous mite is one of the most destructive herbivores, which sucks mesophyll cells of numerous crop and wild plants...
December 5, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#16
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209593/analysis-of-the-salivary-gland-transcriptome-of-unfed-and-partially-fed-amblyomma-sculptum-ticks-and-descriptive-proteome-of-the-saliva
#17
Eliane Esteves, Sandra R Maruyama, Rebeca Kawahara, André Fujita, Larissa A Martins, Adne A Righi, Francisco B Costa, Giuseppe Palmisano, Marcelo B Labruna, Anderson Sá-Nunes, José M C Ribeiro, Andréa C Fogaça
Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogenic microorganisms to their vertebrate hosts. Amblyomma sculptum is vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most lethal rickettsiosis that affects humans. It is known that the transmission of pathogens by ticks is mainly associated with the physiology of the feeding process. Pathogens that are acquired with the blood meal must first colonize the tick gut and later the salivary glands (SG) in order to be transmitted during a subsequent blood feeding via saliva...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209447/nrf2-a-potential-therapeutic-target-against-oxidative-stress-in-corneal-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Xiu-Fen Liu, Dan-Dan Zhou, Tian Xie, Tayyab Hamid Malik, Cheng-Bo Lu, Hai-Jun Li, Fan Wang, Chang Shu, Cong Liu, Cheng-Wei Lu, Ji-Long Hao
Corneal diseases are one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. Conservative medical agents, which may prevent sight-threatening corneal disease progression, are urgently desired. Numerous evidences have revealed the involvement of oxidative stress in various corneal diseases, such as corneal wound healing and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology- (ECH-) associated protein 1 (Keap1)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is well known as one of the main antioxidative defense systems...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208752/effects-of-alanyl-glutamine-treatment-on-the-peritoneal-dialysis-effluent-proteome-reveal-pathomechanism-associated-molecular-signatures
#19
Rebecca Herzog, Michael Boehm, Markus Unterwurzacher, Anja Wagner, Katja Parapatics, Peter Majek, André C Mueller, Anton Lichtenauer, Keiryn L Bennett, Seth L Alper, Andreas Vychytil, Christoph Aufricht, Klaus Kratochwill
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a modality of renal replacement therapy in which the high volumes of available PD effluent (PDE) represents a rich source of biomarkers for monitoring disease and therapy. Although this information could help guide the management of PD patients, little is known about the potential of PDE to define pathomechanism-associated molecular signatures in PD.</p> <p>We therefore subjected PDE to a high-performance multiplex proteomic analysis after depletion of highly-abundant plasma proteins and enrichment of low-abundance proteins...
December 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208536/hek-293-secretome-attenuates-kainic-acid-neurotoxicity-through-insulin-like-growth-factor-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases-pathway-and-by-temporal-regulation-of-antioxidant-defense-machineries
#20
Chaitra Venugopal, Y S Harish Chandra Prasad, K Shobha, Venkata Bharatkumar Pinnelli, Anandh Dhanushkodi
A major impediment in the success of cell therapy for neurodegenerative diseases is the poor survival of grafted cells in the in vivo milieu, predominantly due to accumulated reactive oxygen species, thus prompting the search for suitable alternatives. Accumulating evidence suggests that the therapeutic potential of transplanted cells is partially attributed to the secretome released by them into the extracellular milieu. Studies that investigated the neuroprotective potential of the secretome attributes to the mere presence of growth factors without addressing other underlying cellular/molecular changes that occur upon post-secretome intervention like re-establishing the host cell's free radical scavenging machineries...
December 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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