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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444493/modulators-of-innate-immunity-as-novel-therapeutics-for-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
REVIEW
Aleksei Suslov, Stefan Wieland, Stephan Menne
The first line defense mechanisms against viral infection are mediated by the innate immune system. Viral components are detected by infected cells and/or innate immune cells that express different sensory receptors. They in turn mediate induction of direct antiviral mechanisms and further modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. For evading the innate system, most viruses have evolved efficient mechanisms to block sensing and/or antiviral functions of the innate response. Interestingly, hepatitis B virus (HBV) seems to act like a stealth virus that escapes cell intrinsic antiviral mechanisms through avoiding recognition by the innate system rather than blocking its effector functions...
February 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444463/a-comparative-study-on-oxidative-stress-response-in-the-hepatopancreas-and-midgut-of-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-under-gradual-changes-to-low-or-high-ph-environment
#2
Si-Yin Han, Meng-Qiang Wang, Bao-Jie Wang, Mei Liu, Ke-Yong Jiang, Lei Wang
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low pH (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high pH (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-day period. Survival of shrimp, and ROS production, antioxidant responses and oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas and midgut were investigated. Consequently, shrimp enhanced MnSOD, GPx, and Hsp70 transcripts as early defense mechanism in the hepatopancreas and midgut to scavenge excessive ROS during short-term (≤7 d) gradual-low and high pH stress...
February 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444416/structural-changes-in-the-cell-envelope-of-yarrowia-lipolytica-yeast-under-stress-conditions
#3
Anna Yurievna Arinbasarova, Andrey Valerievich Machulin, Elena Nikolaevna Biryukova, Vladimir Vladislavovich Sorokin, Alexander Grigorievich Medentsev, Nataliya Egorovna Suzina
The ultrastructural changes in the cell envelope of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as stress response were examined using electron microscopy technique. The formation of new cellular surface structures including membrane vesicles, pore channels and wall surface globules were shown for the first time under conditions of oxidative (endogenous and exogenous) or thermal stress. This demonstrates once again that under stress conditions the microorganisms reveal properties unknown for them before. Particularly noteworthy is the silicon accumulation, which was revealed at the surface globules with X-ray microanalysis of the elemental composition of cells' thin sections...
February 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444255/identification-of-the-dna-methyltransferases-establishing-the-methylome-of-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#4
Martin Hagemann, Katrin Gärtner, Matthias Scharnagl, Paul Bolay, Steffen C Lott, Janina Fuss, Bruno Huettel, Richard Reinhardt, Stephan Klähn, Wolfgang R Hess
DNA methylation in bacteria is important for defense against foreign DNA, but is also involved in DNA repair, replication, chromosome partitioning, and regulatory processes. Thus, characterization of the underlying DNA methyltransferases in genetically tractable bacteria is of paramount importance. Here, we characterized the methylome and orphan methyltransferases in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing revealed four DNA methylation recognition sequences in addition to the previously known motif m5CGATCG, which is recognized by M...
February 12, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442498/proteostasis-and-the-regulation-of-intra-and-extracellular-protein-aggregation-by-atp-independent-molecular-chaperones-lens-%C3%AE-crystallins-and-milk-caseins
#5
John A Carver, Heath Ecroyd, Roger J W Truscott, David C Thorn, Carl Holt
Molecular chaperone proteins perform a diversity of roles inside and outside the cell. One of the most important is the stabilization of misfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation, a process that is potentially detrimental to cell viability. Diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and cataract are characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates. In vivo, many proteins are metastable and therefore under mild destabilizing conditions have an inherent tendency to misfold, aggregate, and hence lose functionality...
February 14, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442053/prochlorperazine-interaction-with-melanin-and-melanocytes
#6
M Otre Ba, D Wrześniok, J Rok, A Beberok, E Buszman
Prochlorperazine is a phenothiazine-class antipsychotic drug usually used to treat nausea, vomiting and schizophrenia. Phenothiazine derivatives have been known to cause serious side effects, like extrapyramidal symptoms, but also skin disorders which mechanism has not been fully established. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between prochlorperazine and melanin as well as to estimate the effect of prochlorperazine on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441869/monosodium-glutamate-induced-obesity-changed-the-expression-and-activity-of-glutathione-s-transferases-in-mouse-heart-and-kidney
#7
I Boušová, Š Košťáková, P Matoušková, H Bártíková, B Szotáková, L Skálová
Obesity may affect activity and/or expression of enzymes participating in xenobiotics' detoxification and antioxidant defense. This study sought to investigate the activities and expression of cardiac and renal glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms in order to reveal possible differences between obese and control mice. For this purpose, mice with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity were used as an experimental model. Obesity was induced in newborn male mice by repeated s.c. administration of MSG. At 8 months of age, mice were sacrificed and specific activity, protein and mRNA expressions levels of GSTs were analyzed in their heart and kidney...
May 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440562/myb52-negatively-regulates-pectin-demethylesterification-in-seed-coat-mucilage
#8
Dachuan Shi, Angyan Ren, Xianfeng Tang, Guang Qi, Zongchang Xu, Guohua Chai, Ruibo Hu, Gongke Zhou, Yingzhen Kong
Pectins are synthesized and methyl-esterified in the Golgi apparatus and then demethylesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) located in the cell wall. The degree of methylesterification affects the functional properties of pectin, and thereby influences plant growth and development, as well as defense responses. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate pectin demethylesterification. Here, we show that in seed coat mucilage the absence of the MYB52 transcription factor is correlated with an increase in PME activity and a decrease in the degree of pectin methylesterification...
February 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439264/innate-immunity-of-the-lung-from-basic-mechanisms-to-translational-medicine
#9
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439210/mycorrhiza-triggered-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-networks-impinge-on-herbivore-fitness
#10
Moritz Kaling, Anna Schmidt, Franco Moritz, Maaria Rosenkranz, Michael Witting, Karl Kasper, Dennis Janz, Phillipe Schmitt-Kopplin, Joerg-Peter Schnitzler, Andrea Polle
Symbioses between plants and mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in ecosystems and strengthen the plants' defense against aboveground herbivores. Here, we studied the underlying regulatory networks and biochemical mechanisms in leaves induced by ectomycorrhizae that modify herbivore interactions. Feeding damage and oviposition by the widespread poplar leaf beetle Chrysomela populi were reduced on ectomycorrhizal hybrid poplar Populus x canescens. Integration of transcriptomics, metabolomics and volatile emission patterns via mass difference networks demonstrated changes in nitrogen allocation in leaves of mycorrhizal poplars, down-regulation of phenolic pathways and up-regulation of defensive systems, including protease inhibitors, chitinases and aldoxime biosynthesis...
February 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438845/-brain-over-body-a-study-on-the-willful-regulation-of-autonomic-function-during-cold-exposure
#11
Otto Muzik, Kaice T Reilly, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
The defense of body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is a core objective of homeostatic regulation governed by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomous mechanisms of thermoregulation are only weakly affected by top-down modulation, allowing only transient tolerance for extreme cold. There is however, anecdotal evidence of a unique set of individuals known for extreme cold tolerance. Here we present a case study of a 57-year old Dutch national, Wim Hof, the so-called "Iceman", with the ability to withstand frequent prolonged periods of extreme cold exposure based on the practice of a self-developed technique involving a combination of forced breathing, cold exposure and meditation (collectively referred to as the Wim Hof Method, henceforth "WHM")...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438780/modulation-of-central-endocannabinoid-system-results-in-gastric-mucosal-protection-in-the-rat
#12
V E Tóth, Á Fehér, J Németh, I Gyertyán, Z S Zádori, K Gyires
Previous findings showed that inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), degrading enzymes of anandamide (2-AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), reduced the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions. The present study aimed to investigate: i./whether central or peripheral mechanism play a major role in the gastroprotective effect of inhibitors of FAAH, MAGL and AEA uptake, ii./which peripheral mechanism(s) may play a role in mucosal protective effect of FAAH, MAGL and uptake inhibitors...
February 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438676/stress-induced-cellular-responses-in-immunogenic-cell-death-implications-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Flavia Radogna, Marc Diederich
Cancer is evading the host's defense mechanisms leading to avoidance of immune destruction. During tumor progression, immune-evading cancer cells arise due to selective pressure from the hypoxic and nutrient-deprived microenvironment. Thus, therapies aiming at re-establishing immune destruction of pathological cells constitute innovating anti-cancer strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that selected conventional chemotherapeutic drugs increase the immunogenicity of stressed and dying cancer cells by triggering a form of cell death called immunogenic cell death (ICD), which is characterized by the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
February 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436902/both-live-and-dead-enterococci-activate-caenorhabditis-elegans-host-defense-via-immune-and-stress-pathways
#14
Grace J Yuen, Frederick M Ausubel
The innate immune response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied and a variety of Toll-independent immune response pathways have been identified. Surprisingly little, however, is known about how pathogens activate the C. elegans immune response. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are closely related enterococcal species that exhibit significantly different levels of virulence in C. elegans infection models. Previous work has shown that activation of the C. elegans immune response by Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves P...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435938/transgene-like-animal-models-using-intronic-micrornas
#15
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435718/varroa-destructor-parasitism-reduces-hemocyte-concentrations-and-prophenol-oxidase-gene-expression-in-bees-from-two-populations
#16
Gun Koleoglu, Paul H Goodwin, Mariana Reyes-Quintana, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Circulating hemocytes are responsible for defensive and healing mechanisms in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Parasitism by the mite Varroa destructor and injection of V. destructor homogenate in buffer, but not buffer injection, showed similar reductions in total hemocyte concentrations in both Africanized and European adult honey bees. This indicated that compounds in V. destructor homogenate can have similar effects as V. destructor parasitism and that the response is not solely due to wounding. Samples from honey bees with different hemocyte concentrations were compared for the expression patterns of hemolectin (AmHml), prophenol oxidase (AmPpo), and class C scavenger receptor (AmSRC-C)...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435411/ellagitannin-het-obtained-from-strawberry-leaves-is-oxidized-by-bacterial-membranes-and-inhibits-the-respiratory-chain
#17
Gustavo G Martos, Alicia Mamani, María P Filippone, Pedro O Abate, Néstor E Katz, Atilio P Castagnaro, Juan C Díaz Ricci
Plant secondary metabolism produces a variety of tannins that have a wide range of biological activities, including activation of plant defenses and antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral effects. The ellagitannin HeT (1- O -galloyl-2,3;4,6-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-d-glucopyranose) from strawberry leaves elicits a strong plant defense response, and exhibits antimicrobial activity associated to the inhibition of the oxygen consumption, but its mechanism of action is unknown. In this paper we investigate the influence of HeT on bacterial cell membrane integrity and its effect on respiration...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434586/bioactive-lipids-and-chronic-inflammation-managing-the-fire-within
#18
REVIEW
Valerio Chiurchiù, Alessandro Leuti, Mauro Maccarrone
Inflammation is an immune response that works as a contained fire that is pre-emptively sparked as a defensive process during infections or upon any kind of tissue insult, and that is spontaneously extinguished after elimination or termination of the damage. However, persistent and uncontrolled immune reactions act as a wildfire that promote chronic inflammation, unresolved tissue damage and, eventually, chronic diseases. A wide network of soluble mediators, among which endogenous bioactive lipids, governs all immune processes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432957/modulation-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-by-antimicrobial-peptides
#19
REVIEW
Ernest Y Lee, Michelle W Lee, Gerard C L Wong
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are typically thought of as molecular hole punchers that directly kill pathogens by membrane permeation. However, recent work has shown that AMPs are pleiotropic, multifunctional molecules that can strongly modulate immune responses. In this review, we provide a historical overview of the immunomodulatory properties of natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides, with a special focus on human cathelicidin and defensins. We also summarize the various mechanisms of AMP immune modulation and outline key structural rules underlying the recently-discovered phenomenon of AMP-mediated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432954/mechanistic-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities-of-antimicrobial-chemokines
#20
REVIEW
Matthew A Crawford, Katie R Margulieux, Arpita Singh, Robert K Nakamoto, Molly A Hughes
Chemokines are a family of small proteins best known for their ability to orchestrate immune cell trafficking and recruitment to sites of infection. Their role in promoting host defense is expanded by a number of additional receptor-dependent biological activities, and most, but not all, chemokines have been found to mediate direct antimicrobial effects against a broad range of microorganisms. The molecular mechanism(s) by which antimicrobial chemokines kill bacteria remains unknown; however, recent observations have expanded our fundamental understanding of chemokine-mediated bactericidal activity to reveal increasingly diverse and complex actions...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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