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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738528/molecular-basis-for-oxidative-stress-induced-by-simulated-microgravity-in-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Li Zhao, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
Caenorhabditis elegans is an important in vivo assay system for toxicological studies. Herein, we investigated the role of oxidative stress and the underlying molecular mechanism for induced adverse effects of simulated microgravity. In nematodes, simulated microgravity treatment induced a significant induction of oxidative stress. Genes (mev-1, gas-1, and isp-1) encoding a molecular machinery for the control of oxidative stress were found to be dysregulated in simulated microgravity treated nematodes. Meanwhile, genes (sod-2, sod-3, sod-4, sod-5, aak-2, skn-1, and gst-4) encoding certain antioxidant defense systems were increased in simulated microgravity treated nematodes...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736767/activation-of-mosquito-complement-antiplasmodial-response-requires-cellular-immunity
#2
Julio César Castillo, Ana Beatriz Barletta Ferreira, Nathanie Trisnadi, Carolina Barillas-Mury
The mosquito complement-like system is a major defense mechanism that limits Plasmodium infection. Ookinete midgut invasion results in irreversible damage to invaded cells and triggers epithelial nitration and complement activation. Several lines of evidence suggest that hemocytes participate in early antiplasmodial responses that target ookinetes, but their role remains unclear. The fate of hemocytes in response to Plasmodium infection was investigated by labeling this cell population in vivo. We found that midgut nitration triggers the local release of hemocyte-derived microvesicles (HdMv) into the basal labyrinth of the midgut...
January 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736213/beyond-expectations-the-responses-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-visual-food-cues
#3
Luz Verastegui-Tena, Aurelia Schulte-Holierhoek, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras Fiszman
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734787/selenium-deficiency-induced-thioredoxin-suppression-and-thioredoxin-knock-down-disbalanced-insulin-responsiveness-in-chicken-cardiomyocytes-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-inhibition
#4
Jie Yang, Sattar Hamid, Jingzeng Cai, Qi Liu, Shiwen Xu, Ziwei Zhang
Thioredoxin (Txn) system is the most crucial antioxidant defense mechanism in cell consisting of Txn, thioredoxin reductase (TR) and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH). Perturbations in Txn system may compromise cell survival through oxidative stress induction. Metabolic activity of insulin plays important roles in fulfilling the stable and persistent demands of heart through glucose metabolism. However, the roles of Txn and Txn system in insulin modulated cardiac energy metabolism have been less reported...
July 19, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734635/programmed-cell-death-and-inflammation-winter-is-coming
#5
REVIEW
Joseph P Kolb, Thomas H Oguin, Andrew Oberst, Jennifer Martinez
The life of an organism requires the assistance of an unlikely process: programmed cell death. Both development and the maintenance of homeostasis result in the production of superfluous cells that must eventually be disposed of. Furthermore, programmed cell death can also represent a defense mechanism; for example, by depriving pathogens of a replication niche. The responsibility of handling these dead cells falls on phagocytes of the immune system, which surveil their surroundings for dying or dead cells and efficiently clear them in a quiescent manner...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734225/adverse-effects-of-methylmercury-mehg-on-life-parameters-antioxidant-systems-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-the-rotifer-brachionus-koreanus-and-the-copepod-paracyclopina-nana
#6
Young Hwan Lee, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hye-Min Kang, Minghua Wang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Jae-Seong Lee
To evaluate the adverse effects of MeHg on the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana, we assessed the effects of MeHg toxicity on life parameters (e.g. growth retardation and fecundity), antioxidant systems, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways at various concentrations (1ng/L, 10ng/L, 100ng/L, 500ng/L, and 1000ng/L). MeHg exposure resulted in the growth retardation with the increased ROS levels but decreased glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in both B...
July 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734166/naturally-occurring-immunomodulators-with-antitumor-activity-an-insight-on-their-mechanisms-of-action
#7
REVIEW
Shimaa Ibrahim Abdelmonym Mohamed, Ibrahim Jantan, Md Areeful Haque
Natural products with immunomodulatory activity are widely used in treatment of many diseases including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders in addition to cancer. They gained a great interest in the last decades as therapeutic agents since they provide inexpensive and less toxic products than the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents. Immunomodulators are the agents that have the ability to boost or suppress the host defense response that can be used as a prophylaxis as well as in combination with other therapeutic modalities...
July 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733420/sg2-type-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-myb15-controls-defense-induced-lignification-and-basal-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#8
William R Chezem, Altamash Memon, Fu-Shuang Li, Jing-Ke Weng, Nicole Kho Clay
Lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the genetic pathway controlling defense-induced lignification remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the Arabidopsis thaliana SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 as a regulator of defense-induced lignification and basal immunity. Loss of MYB15 reduces the content but not the composition of defense-induced lignin, whereas constitutive expression of MYB15 increases lignin content independently of immune activation...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732769/transcriptome-analysis-of-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-liver-challenged-with-polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic-acid-poly-i-c
#9
Yu Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Zheng-Fei Wang, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Bo-Ping Tang, Sen-Hao Jiang, Hua-Bin Zhang, Chun-Lin Zhou, Xin-Yue Chai, Qiu-Ning Liu
Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is one of the most important economic freshwater species in eastern China. However, infection by bacterial pathogenic diseases has caused high mortality and great economic loss in aquaculture. It is necessary for disease control to know more about the P. fulvidraco immune system and its related genes in response to bacterial infections. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of liver from P. fulvidraco stimulated by polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing method...
July 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732766/molecular-structural-and-functional-comparison-of-n-lobe-and-c-lobe-of-the-transferrin-from-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus-with-respect-to-its-immune-response
#10
N C N Perera, G I Godahewa, Jee Youn Hwang, Mun Gyeong Kwon, Seong Don Hwang, Jehee Lee
The iron-withholding strategy of innate immunity is an effective antimicrobial defense mechanism that combats microbial infection by depriving microorganisms of Fe(3+), which is important for their growth and propagation. Transferrins (Tfs) are a group of iron-binding proteins that exert their antimicrobial function through Fe(3+) sequestration. The current study describes both structural and functional characteristics of a transferrin ortholog from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (RbTf). The RbTf cDNA possesses an open reading frame (ORF) of 2079 bp encoding 693 amino acids...
July 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732263/proteomic-analysis-of-naturally-occurring-boron-tolerant-plant-gypsophila-sphaerocephala-l-in-response-to-high-boron-concentration
#11
Huseyin Tombuloglu, Guzin Tombuloglu, Mehmet Serdal Sakcali, Ali Turkan, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Hesham F Alharby, Shah Fahd, Waseem Mohammed Abdul
Gypsophila sphaerocephala is a naturally Boron (B) tolerant species that can grow around the B mining areas in Turkey, where the B concentration in soil reaches a lethal dose for plants (up to ∼8900mgkg(-1) (∼140mM). While its interesting survival capacity in extremely B containing soils, any molecular research has been conducted to understand its high tolerance mechanism yet. In the present study, we have performed a proteomic analysis of this plant to understand its high tolerance towards B-stress. Seedlings of G...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732239/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-mitochondrial-functions-morphology-kinetics-biogenesis-and-survival
#12
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio A Scorza
OBJECTIVES: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit adverse and beneficial effects on mitochondria, which have a strong impact on the treatment of patients with a mitochondrial disorder (MID) with epilepsy (mitochondrial epilepsy). This review aims at summarizing and discussing recent findings concerning the effect of AEDs on mitochondrial functions and the clinical consequences with regard to therapy of mitochondrial epilepsy and of MIDs in general. METHODS: Literature review...
July 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730933/drug-delivery-to-the-lungs-challenges-and-opportunities
#13
Stephen P Newman
Pulmonary drug delivery is relatively complex because the respiratory tract has evolved defense mechanisms to keep inhaled drug particles out of the lungs and to remove or inactivate them once deposited. In addition to these mechanical, chemical and immunological barriers, pulmonary drug delivery is adversely affected by the behavioral barriers of poor adherence and poor inhaler technique. Strategies to mitigate the effects of these barriers include use of inhaler devices and formulations that deliver drug to the lungs efficiently, appropriate inhaler technique and improved education of patients...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730673/autonomic-dysfunction-as-a-mechanism-of-intradialytic-blood-pressure-instability
#14
Tariq Shafi, Surekha Mullangi, Bernard G Jaar, Harry Silber
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the principal endogenous defense mechanism that maintains blood pressure in the setting of hypotension. Disruption of the ANS impairs this ability and can contribute to blood pressure instability, including hypotension and hypertension. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the ANS and the consequences of its dysfunction in patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with dialysis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of this autonomic dysfunction that may need future investigation...
July 20, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730489/identification-of-plant-kinase-substrates-based-on-kinase-assay-linked-phosphoproteomics
#15
Chuan-Chih Hsu, Justine V Arrington, Liang Xue, W Andy Tao
Protein phosphorylation is one of the key events in the regulation of plant physiological responses to diverse environmental stimuli. As crucial regulators of phosphorylation, protein kinases have been linked to the control of seed germination, flowering, and stress responses. Identifying downstream substrates of kinases is important for dissecting kinase-substrate networks as well as delineating the underlying defense mechanisms in response to extracellular stimulation. Despite the fact that thousands of kinase-substrate networks have been identified in mammalian cells, the downstream substrates of important plant kinases are still elusive...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730407/venous-thromboembolism-thrombosis-inflammation-and-immunothrombosis-for-clinicians
#16
REVIEW
Eduardo Vazquez-Garza, Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez, Aline Navarrete, Jorge Joya-Harrison, David Rodriguez
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide disease related with mortality, cardiovascular disability, impaired quality of life and, cause major long-term complications. Clinicians related to the acute and long-term patients care must be involved in the molecular mechanisms of thrombosis. The vessel wall and its inner lining of the endothelium are critical to the maintenance of a patent vasculature. After endothelial disruption, collagen (first line of endothelial defense) and intravascular tissue factor (second line of endothelial defense) are exposed to blood flow, starting the formation of a thrombus...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#17
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729194/establishment-of-human-retinal-mitoscriptome-gene-expression-signature-for-diabetic-retinopathy-using-cadaver-eyes
#18
Gowthaman Govindarajan, Saumi Mathews, Karthik Srinivasan, Kim Ramasamy, Sundaresan Periyasamy
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness due to retinal microvasculature. We used microarray analysis for the first time to establish the retinal mitoscriptome gene expression signature for DR using human cadaver eyes. Among the 1042 genes, 60 (52-down, 8-up) and 39 (36-down, 3-up) genes were differentially expressed in the DR as compared to normal control and diabetic retinas respectively. These genes were mainly responsible for regulating angiogenesis, anti-oxidant defense mechanism, ATP production and apoptosis contributing to the disease pathology of DR...
July 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727939/phytohormone-and-genome-variations-in-vitis-amurensis-resistant-to-downy-mildew
#19
Ling Yin, Junjie Qu, Shuhan Deng, Shaoli Liu, Jiang Lu, Yali Zhang
Downy mildew (DM) resistance is a highly desirable agronomic trait in grape breeding. High variation in Plasmopara viticola resistance was found in Vitis cultivars. Some accessions show high P. viticola resistance even under conditions highly conducive to DM. Here, leaf disc inoculation experiments revealed that Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshaner' exhibited DM resistance with necrotic spots, whereas the V. amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar 'Zuoyouhong' was susceptible. Changes in plant hormones accumulation profiles, differed between the cultivars...
July 20, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727441/adsorption-induced-changes-of-human-hemoglobin-on-ferric-pyrophosphate-nanoparticle-surface-probed-by-isotope-exchange-mass-spectrometry-an-implication-on-structure-function-correlation
#20
Bindu Y Srinivasu, Beena Bose, Gopa Mitra, Anura V Kurpad, Amit Kumar Mandal
In general, proteins in the biological system interact with nanoparticles (NPs) via adsorption on the particle surface. Understanding the adsorption at molecular level is crucial to explore NP-protein interactions. The increasing concerns about the risk to human health on NP exposure have been explored through the discovery of a handful protein biomarkers and biochemical analysis. However, detailed information on structural perturbation and associated functional changes of proteins on interaction with NPs is limited...
July 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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