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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914086/killing-bacteria-with-cytotoxic-effector-proteins-of-human-killer-immune-cells-granzymes-granulysin-and-perforin
#1
Diego López León, Isabelle Fellay, Pierre-Yves Mantel, Michael Walch
Bacterial pathogens represent a constant threat to human health that was exacerbated in recent years by a dramatic increase of strains resistant to last resort antibiotics. The immune system of higher vertebrates generally evolved several efficient innate and adaptive mechanisms to fight ubiquitous bacterial pathogens. Among those mechanisms, immune proteases were recognized to contribute essentially to antibacterial immune defense. The effector serine proteases of the adaptive immune system, the granzymes, exert potent antimicrobial activity when they are delivered into the bacterial cytosol by prokaryotic membrane disrupting proteins, such as granulysin...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913825/hypolipidemic-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-to-treat-hyperlipidemic-rats
#2
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Pedro H Doleski, Aline A Boligon, Lenita M Stefani, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-caryophyllene on hypercholesterolemia using a model of hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats, as well as its possible effect on hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Thus, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in serum, while reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutayl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the hepatic tissue...
December 2, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913794/tlr-ligands-but-not-modulators-of-histone-modifiers-can-induce-the-complex-immune-response-pattern-of-endotoxin-tolerance-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#3
Juliane Günther, Wolfram Petzl, Holm Zerbe, Hans-Joachim Schuberth, Hans-Martin Seyfert
Excessive stimulation of the TLR4 axis through LPS reduces the expression of some cytokine genes in immune cells, while stimulating the expression of immune defense genes during a subsequent bacterial infection. This endotoxin tolerance (ET) is mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Priming the udder of cows with LPS was shown to induce ET in mammary epithelial cells (MEC), thereby protecting the udder against reinfection for some time. Seeking alternatives to LPS priming we tried to elicit ET by priming MEC with either lipopeptide (Pam2CSK4) via the TLR2/6 axis or inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#4
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913210/trpv4-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-resists-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-blocking-cyp2e1-mediated-redox-toxicity
#5
Ratanesh K Seth, Suvarthi Das, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Firas Alhasson, Gregory Michelotti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Anna Mae Diehl, Darwin P Bell, Wolfgang Liedtke, Saurabh Chatterjee
NAFLD is a clinically progressive disease with steatosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis being the stages where clinical intervention becomes necessary. Lack of early biomarkers and absence of a FDA approved drug obstructs efforts for effective treatment. NAFLD progression is strongly linked to a balance between liver injury, tissue regeneration and the functioning of endogenous defense mechanisms. The failure of the defense pathways to resist the tissue damage arising from redox stress, one of the "multiple hits" in disease progression, give rise to heightened inflammation and occasional fibrosis...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912877/riceberry-bran-extract-prevents-renal-dysfunction-and-impaired-renal-organic-anion-transporter-3-oat3-function-by-modulating-the-pkc-nrf2-pathway-in-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#6
Phatchawan Arjinajarn, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Nuttawud Chueakula, Krit Jaikumkao, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont, Orranuch Norkaew, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
PURPOSE: This study investigated the protective effects of Riceberry bran extract (RBBE) on renal function, and the function and expression of renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and explored the mechanisms for its protective effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (n= 42) were divided into six groups to receive normal saline, gentamicin (100mg/kg), co-treatment of gentamicin and RBBE (at dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), and RBBE (at dose of 1000mg/kg) only, for consecutive fifteen days...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911998/tropical-forest-loss-and-its-multitrophic-effects-on-insect-herbivory
#7
José Carlos Morante-Filho, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Madelon Lohbeck, Teja Tscharntke, Deborah Faria
Forest loss threatens biodiversity, but its potential effects on multitrophic ecological interactions are poorly understood. Insect herbivory depends on complex bottom-up (e.g., resource availability and plant antiherbivore defenses) and top-down forces (e.g., abundance of predators and herbivorous), but its determinants in human-altered tropical landscapes are largely unknown. Using structural equation models, we assessed the direct and indirect effects of forest loss on insect herbivory in 40 landscapes (115 ha each) from two regions with contrasting land-use change trajectories in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911871/inhibition-of-cancer-antioxidant-defense-by-natural-compounds
#8
Alicja Sznarkowska, Anna Kostecka, Katarzyna Meller, Krzysztof Piotr Bielawski
All classic, non-surgical anticancer approaches like chemotherapy, radiotherapy or photodynamic therapy kill cancer cells by inducing severe oxidative stress. Even tough chemo- and radiotherapy are still a gold standard in cancer treatment, the identification of non-toxic compounds that enhance their selectivity, would allow for lowering their doses, reduce side effects and risk of second cancers. Many natural products have the ability to sensitize cancer cells to oxidative stress induced by chemo- and radiotherapy by limiting antioxidant capacity of cancer cells...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911390/a-method-for-extracting-pigments-from-squid-doryteuthis-pealeii
#9
Christopher W DiBona, Thomas L Williams, Sean R Dinneen, Stephanie F Jones Labadie, Leila F Deravi
Cephalopods can undergo rapid and adaptive changes in dermal coloration for sensing, communication, defense, and reproduction purposes. These capabilities are supported in part by the areal expansion and retraction of pigmented organs known as chromatophores. While it is known that the chromatophores contain a tethered network of pigmented granules, their structure-function properties have not been fully detailed. We describe a method for isolating the nanostructured granules in squid Doryteuthis pealeii chromatophores and demonstrate how their associated pigments can be extracted in acidic solvents...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910760/immunomodulation-effect-of-aqueous-extract-of-the-artist-s-conk-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-applanatum-agaricomycetes-on-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Azadeh Manayi, Mahdi Vazirian, Fereshteh Hassan Zade, Akram Tehranifard
It is well known that innate immunity in fish can be activated by many synthetic and natural immunos-timulants; several natural substances induced immunity in fish in previous surveys. This study discussed data regarding the effect of Ganoderma applanatum aqueous extract on the defense mechanisms of rainbow trout in feeding trials. Fish were fed 250, 500, and 1000 mg extract/kg diet 4 times daily. Growth, humoral parameters, lysozyme activity, and serum protein concentrations were assessed after a period of 45 days...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909855/conifer-monoterpene-chemistry-during-an-outbreak-enhances-consumption-and-immune-response-of-an-eruptive-folivore
#11
Amy M Trowbridge, M Deane Bowers, Russell K Monson
Changes in the chemical composition of plant defense compounds during herbivory can impact herbivore resource allocation patterns and thereby herbivore survival, growth, and immune response against endoparasitoid infection. Few studies have investigated folivore responses to changes in plant chemistry that occur under outbreak conditions in mature conifer systems. Using data from an earlier observational field study, we carried out laboratory bioassays to test how variation in monoterpenes in piñon pine trees (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae) during an outbreak affects growth, consumption, and immune response of a specialist herbivore, the Southwestern tiger moth (Lophocampa ingens, Arctiidae)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909314/controlled-detonation-evolution-of-necroptosis-in-pathogen-defense
#12
REVIEW
Michelle Brault, Andrew Oberst
Necroptosis is a lytic form of programmed cell death that involves the swelling and rupture of dying cells. While several necroptosis-inducing stimuli have been defined, in most cells this pathway is kept in check by the action of the pro-apoptotic protease caspase-8 and the IAP ubiquitin ligases. How and when necroptosis is triggered under physiological conditions therefore remains a persistent question. Because necroptosis likely arose as a defensive mechanism against viral infection, exploration of this question requires a consideration of host-pathogen interactions, and how the sensing of infection could sensitize cells to necroptosis...
December 2, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908826/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-midgut-in-silkworm-infected-with-bombyx-mori-cytoplasmic-polyhedrosis-virus
#13
Kun Gao, Xiang-Yuan Deng, Meng-Ke Shang, Guang-Xing Qin, Cheng-Xiang Hou, Xi-Jie Guo
: Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) specifically infects the epithelial cells in the midgut of silkworm and causes them to death, which negatively affects the sericulture industry. In order to determine the midgut response at the protein levels to the virus infection, differential proteomes of the silkworm midgut responsive to BmCPV infection were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908614/a-critical-discussion-on-diet-genomic-mutations-and-repair-mechanisms-in-colon-carcinogenesis
#15
Juliana Yumi Sakita, Bianca Gasparotto, Sergio Britto Garcia, Sergio Akira Uyemura, Vinicius Kannen
Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies and its etiology closely tied to dietary habits. Recent epidemiological data shows that colon cancer incidence is shifting to a much younger population. In this regard, some dietary components from a regular human meal might have various DNA-damaging compounds. Given that not every person endure cancer, the colonic malignancy develops throughout decades, and persistent DNA damage promotes cancer when induced at the proper intensity, a critical discussion of possible novel mechanisms by which carcinogens promote these tumors is urgently needed...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908408/protective-effect-of-magnesium-acetyltaurate-against-nmda-induced-retinal-damage-involves-restoration-of-minerals-and-trace-elements-homeostasis
#16
Azliana Jusnida Ahmad Jafri, Natasha Najwa Nor Arfuzir, Lidawani Lambuk, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal, Norhafiza Razali, Anna Krasilnikova, Maria Kharitonova, Vasily Demidov, Evgeny Serebryansky, Anatoly Skalny, Alexander Spasov, Ahmad Pauzi Md Yusof, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been recognized as a final common outcome in pathological conditions involving death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Overstimulation of NMDA receptors results in influx of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) ions and efflux of potassium (K). NMDA receptors are blocked by magnesium (Mg). Such changes due to NMDA overstimulation are also associated with not only the altered levels of minerals but also that of trace elements and redox status...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907841/bacterial-e3-ligase-effectors-exploit-host-ubiquitin-systems
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashida, Chihiro Sasakawa
Ubiquitination is a crucial post-translational protein modification involved in regulation of various cellular processes in eukaryotes. In particular, ubiquitination is involved in multiple aspects of bacterial infection and host defense mechanisms. In parallel with the identification of ubiquitination as a component of host defense systems, recently accumulated evidence shows that many bacterial pathogens exploit host ubiquitin systems to achieve successful infection. Here, we highlight the strategies by which bacteria subvert host ubiquitin systems by mimicking E3 ubiquitin ligase activity...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907832/modeling-of-the-catalytic-core-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-dicer-like-4-protein-and-its-complex-with-double-stranded-rna
#18
Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Joanna Sarzyńska, Maciej Miłostan, Anna Kurzyńska-Kokorniak, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Piotr Łukasiak, Tadeusz Kuliński, Marek Figlerowicz, Jacek Błażewicz
Plant Dicer-like proteins (DCLs) belong to the Ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzyme family. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression and antiviral defense through RNA interference pathways. A model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana encodes four DCL proteins (AtDCL1-4) that produce different classes of small regulatory RNAs. Our studies focus on AtDCL4 that processes double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) into 21 nucleotide trans-acting small interfering RNAs. So far, little is known about the structures of plant DCLs and the complexes they form with dsRNA...
November 17, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907166/vaccinia-virus-protein-c6-inhibits-type-i-ifn-signalling-in-the-nucleus-and-binds-to-the-transactivation-domain-of-stat2
#19
Jennifer H Stuart, Rebecca P Sumner, Yongxu Lu, Joseph S Snowden, Geoffrey L Smith
The type I interferon (IFN) response is a crucial innate immune signalling pathway required for defense against viral infection. Accordingly, the great majority of mammalian viruses possess means to inhibit this important host immune response. Here we show that vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve protein C6, is a dual function protein that inhibits the cellular response to type I IFNs in addition to its published function as an inhibitor of IRF-3 activation, thereby restricting type I IFN production from infected cells...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907095/phenotypic-plasticity-epigenetic-or-genetic-modifications-in-relation-to-the-duration-of-cd-exposure-within-a-microevolution-time-range-in-the-beet-armyworm
#20
Maria Augustyniak, Anna Płachetka-Bożek, Alina Kafel, Agnieszka Babczyńska, Monika Tarnawska, Agnieszka Janiak, Anna Loba, Marta Dziewięcka, Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka
In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations) exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed) were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent) or PBS (reference)...
2016: PloS One
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