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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045497/ceftriaxone-and-n-acetylcysteine-induced-brain-tolerance-to-ischemia-influence-on-glutamate-levels-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#1
Weronika Krzyżanowska, Bartosz Pomierny, Beata Bystrowska, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamioło, Małgorzata Filip, Bogusława Budziszewska, Joanna Pera
One of the major players in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is disrupted homeostasis of glutamatergic neurotransmission, resulting in elevated extracellular glutamate (Glu) concentrations and excitotoxicity-related cell death. In the brain, Glu concentrations are regulated by Glu transporters, including Glu transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/Glu antiporter (system xc-). Modulation of these transporters by administration of ceftriaxone (CEF, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 days before focal cerebral ischemia may induce brain tolerance to ischemia by significantly limiting stroke-related damage and normalizing Glu concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045030/drug-delivery-to-the-brain-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-using-nanomaterials
#2
REVIEW
Yung-Hao Tsou, Xue-Qing Zhang, He Zhu, Sahla Syed, Xiaoyang Xu
A major obstacle facing brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, and strokes is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB prevents the passage of certain molecules and pathogens from the circulatory system into the brain. Therefore, it is nearly impossible for therapeutic drugs to target the diseased cells without the assistance of carriers. Nanotechnology is an area of growing public interest; nanocarriers, such as polymer-based, lipid-based, and inorganic-based nanoparticles can be engineered in different sizes, shapes, and surface charges, and they can be modified with functional groups to enhance their penetration and targeting capabilities...
October 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044603/comorbid-masticatory-impairment-delays-recovery-from-acute-cerebral-ischemia-and-locomotor-hypoactivity-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mice
#3
Ikuho Kojima, Tatsushi Mutoh, Kazumasu Sasaki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Yasuyuki Taki, Tatsuya Ishikawa
Tooth loss and related changes in the functionality may lead to worse outcome of stroke patients, but the link involved in this pathway remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of comorbid masticatory impairment on acute cerebral ischemia and neurobehavioral outcome after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Thirty C57BL/6 mice with (molar-less) or without (control) prior treatment of cutting off the upper molars (separated by at least one week), were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation...
October 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043996/clinical-therapeutic-strategy-of-recombinant-human-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-dopamine-in-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-4-patients-combined-with-hypotension
#4
Bing Han, Hua Li, Qiaoli Ma
Aim of the present study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) and dopamine combination treatment in patients with cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS4) combined with hypotension. A total of 160 CRS4 patients admitted to our hospital from July 2010 to December 2014 were recruited, and were randomly divided into two groups, the observational group (n=80) and the control group (n=80). CRS4 patients treated with dopamine were recruited into the control group...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043143/focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-associated-with-mitochondrial-disease
#5
Kenneth Lim, David Steele, Andrew Fenves, Ravi Thadhani, Eliot Heher, Amel Karaa
Primary mitochondrial diseases (MD) are complex, heterogeneous inherited diseases caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Glomerular diseases in MD have been reported with tRNA mutation m.3243A>G causing a syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). We describe here a case of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) associated with a new tRNA mutation site. A 34-year-old man with a history of living related kidney transplantation, diabetes, hearing loss, and developmental delay presented to the outpatient clinic with complaints of new behavioral difficulties, worsening symptoms, and brain involvement on imaging...
2017: Clin Nephrol Case Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043002/humanin-analogue-s14g-humanin-has-neuroprotective-effects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-by-reactivating-jak2-stat3-signaling-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#6
Guang-Sheng Gao, Yun Li, Heng Zhai, Jing-Wen Bi, Fu-Sen Zhang, Xiao-Ying Zhang, Shao-Hua Fan
Stroke, characterized by a disruption of blood supply to the brain, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although humanin, a 24-amino acid polypeptide, has been identified to have multiple neuroprotective functions, the level of humanin in plasma has been demonstrated to decrease with age, which likely limits the effects against stroke injury. A potent humanin analogue, S14G-humanin (HNG), generated by replacement of Ser14 with glycine, has been demonstrated to have 1,000-fold stronger biological activity than humanin...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042375/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-interventions-for-management-of-chronic-central-neuropathic-pain-a-scoping-review-protocol
#7
Mei Lin Chen, Lin Yao, Jennifer Boger, Kathryn Mercer, Benjamin Thompson, Ning Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Pain can affect people regardless of age, gender or ethnicity. Chronic central neuropathic pain (CCNP) is a debilitating condition that affects populations such as stroke survivors, amputees, spinal cord injury patients and patients with multiple sclerosis, with prevalence rates between 30% and 80%. This condition can be caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system. CCNP is notoriously drug resistant, and few effective CCNP treatment or management strategies exist...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042299/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-spasticity-in-adults-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#8
REVIEW
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Djamel Bensmail, Alain Yelnik
OBJECTIVES: Spasticity causes significant long-term disability-burden, requiring comprehensive management. This review evaluates evidence from published systematic reviews of clinical trials for effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for improved spasticity outcomes. METHODS: Data sources: A literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library) databases for published systematic reviews up to 15(th) June 2017...
October 14, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040971/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-vertebrobasilar-artery-dissection-with-accompanied-atherosclerosis
#9
Chun Chien, Feng-Chi Chang, Hui-Chi Huang, Jui-Yao Tsai, Chih-Ping Chung
BACKGROUND: With the popularity of MRI use, vertebrobasilar artery dissection (VBD) has been found more frequently in patients with posterior circulation ischemic stroke (PCS). The relationship between VBD and atherosclerosis is unknown. The present study aimed to prove the hypothesis that PCS with pure VBD (p-VBD) and with VBD and accompanied cervical or cerebral artery atherosclerosis (a-VBD) have distinct manifestations. METHODS: Patients with VBD-related PCS who were prospectively enrolled in the Taipei Veterans General Hospital Stroke Registry between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2014 were recruited for the present study...
October 17, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040874/surface-functionalized-exosomes-as-targeted-drug-delivery-vehicles-for-cerebral-ischemia-therapy
#10
Tian Tian, Hui-Xin Zhang, Chun-Peng He, Song Fan, Yan-Liang Zhu, Cui Qi, Ning-Ping Huang, Zhong-Dang Xiao, Zu-Hong Lu, Bakhos A Tannous, Jun Gao
The safe and effective delivery of drugs is a major obstacle in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Exosomes hold great promise as an endogenous drug delivery nanosystem for the treatment of cerebral ischemia given their unique properties, including low immunogenicity, innate stability, high delivery efficiency, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, exosome insufficient targeting capability limits their clinical applications. In this study, the c(RGDyK) peptide has been conjugated to the exosome surface by an easy, rapid, and bio-orthogonal chemistry...
October 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040773/treatment-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial-of-unruptured-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-eligible-unruptured-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-patients
#11
Min Lang, Nina Z Moore, Peter A Rasmussen, Mark D Bain
BACKGROUND: The guideline for treating unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ubAVMs) remains controversial. A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) reported lower risk of stroke or death with conservative management compared to interventional treatment. There were numerous limitations to the study, including short follow-up period and disproportionate number of patients treated with surgery and embolization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether treatment of ARUBA-eligible patients have acceptable outcomes at our institution...
October 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039513/birc5-is-a-novel-target-of-peroxisome-proliferator%C3%A2-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-in-brain-microvascular-endothelium-cells-during-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Mingjing Xu, Xianli Yang, Qing Zeng, He He, Pengcheng Lu, Guozhi Huang
Cerebral ischemia is a leading cause of ischemic stroke, which may lead to severe disability and mortality worldwide. There are some key factors concerned in cardioprotection, such as peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a ligand binding transcription factor involved in various biological functions including atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction and hypertension, and baculoviral IAP repeat‑containing 5 (BIRC5), which may protect human brain endothelial cells from ischemia‑induced apoptosis...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039449/crosstalk-between-tlr2-and-sphk1-in-microglia-in-the-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammatory-response
#13
Wei Sun, Zhaoming Ding, Shengjie Xu, Zhiqiang Su, Hulun Li
Stroke is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and much remains unknown about the injury-related mechanisms that occur following reperfusion. This study aimed to explore the roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) in microglial cells in inflammatory responses induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). For this purpose, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: the sham-operated group, the I/R group, the I/R group treated with TLR2 antibody, and the I/R group treated with N,N-dimethylsphingosine...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038971/the-implementation-of-targeted-temperature-management-an-evidence-based-guideline-from-the-neurocritical-care-society
#14
Lori Kennedy Madden, Michelle Hill, Teresa L May, Theresa Human, Mary McKenna Guanci, Judith Jacobi, Melissa V Moreda, Neeraj Badjatia
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is often used in neurocritical care to minimize secondary neurologic injury and improve outcomes. TTM encompasses therapeutic hypothermia, controlled normothermia, and treatment of fever. TTM is best supported by evidence from neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, although it has also been explored in ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and intracranial hemorrhage patients. Critical care clinicians using TTM must select appropriate cooling techniques, provide a reasonable rate of cooling, manage shivering, and ensure adequate patient monitoring among other challenges...
October 16, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038494/a-study-of-the-brain-abnormalities-of-post-stroke-depression-in-frontal-lobe-lesion
#15
Yu Shi, Yanyan Zeng, Lei Wu, Wei Liu, Ziping Liu, Shanshan Zhang, Jianming Yang, Wen Wu
Post stroke depression (PSD) is a serious complication of stroke. Brain imaging is an important method of studying the mechanism of PSD. However, few studies have focused on the single lesion location. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain mechanism of frontal lobe PSD using combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In total, 30 first-time ischemic frontal lobe stroke patients underwent T1 weighted MRI and resting-state fMRI scans. Clinical assessments included the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and the Mini-Mental State Examination...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037758/the-association-of-vertebrobasilar-calcification-with-etiological-subtypes-stroke-recurrence-and-outcome-in-acute-brainstem-ischemic-stroke
#16
Elif Gökçal, Elvin Niftaliyev, Tuğçe Özdemir, Mehmet Kolukısa, Talip Asil
Arterial calcification (AC), a frequent finding on imaging studies, has been reported as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. However few studies have explored the association of AC with etiological subtypes and prognostic implications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of AC with demograhics, risk factors and etiological subtypes and to determine whether it predicts stroke recurrence and functional outcome in patients with acute brainstem ischemic stroke. We analyzed our database consisting of patients who were diagnosed as acute brainstem ischemic stroke admitted within 24hours of onset...
October 9, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037436/which-imaging-before-reperfusion-strategy
#17
REVIEW
J M Olivot
The ischemic penumbra is a transient and potentially reversible condition. Therefore, infarct progression and its counterpart penumbral salvage are highly variable and result from the interaction of 3 major factors: collateral flow, revascularization delay and success. Multimodal brain imaging now offers in clinical practice an exhaustive characterization of the acute ischemic injury: vessel site occlusion, infarction/critical hypoperfusion volume, and collateral flow. From 1995 to 2015, IV alteplase administered within 4...
October 13, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037241/the-potassium-channel-kca3-1-constitutes-a-pharmacological-target-for-astrogliosis-associated-with-ischemia-stroke
#18
Mengni Yi, Tianjiao Wei, Yanxia Wang, Qin Lu, Gaoxian Chen, Xiaoling Gao, Herbert M Geller, Hongzhuan Chen, Zhihua Yu
BACKGROUND: Reactive astrogliosis is one of the significantly pathological features in ischemic stroke accompanied with changes in gene expression, morphology, and proliferation. KCa3.1 was involved in TGF-β-induced astrogliosis in vitro and also contributed to astrogliosis-mediated neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration disease. METHODS: Wild type mice and KCa3.1(-/-) mice were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) to evaluate the infarct areas by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium hydrochloride staining and neurological deficit...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037014/deep-into-the-brain-artificial-intelligence-in-stroke-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Eun-Jae Lee, Yong-Hwan Kim, Namkug Kim, Dong-Wha Kang
Artificial intelligence (AI), a computer system aiming to mimic human intelligence, is gaining increasing interest and is being incorporated into many fields, including medicine. Stroke medicine is one such area of application of AI, for improving the accuracy of diagnosis and the quality of patient care. For stroke management, adequate analysis of stroke imaging is crucial. Recently, AI techniques have been applied to decipher the data from stroke imaging and have demonstrated some promising results. In the very near future, such AI techniques may play a pivotal role in determining the therapeutic methods and predicting the prognosis for stroke patients in an individualized manner...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037011/visibility-of-ct-early-ischemic-change-is-significantly-associated-with-time-from-stroke-onset-to-baseline-scan-beyond-the-first-3-hours-of-stroke-onset
#20
Jian Gao, Mark W Parsons, Hiroyuki Kawano, Christopher R Levi, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Longting Lin, Andrew Bivard
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-contrast brain computed tomography (NCCT) remains the most common imaging modality employed to select patients for thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. The current study used the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) to identify early ischemic changes on brain NCCT imaging with the aim to investigate whether a relationship exists between time from symptoms onset to NCCT with the presence of early ischaemic change quantified by ASPECTS. METHODS: We studied 1,329 ischemic stroke patients who had NCCT within 8 hours of stroke onset...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
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