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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655461/metabolomics-and-lipidomics-of-ischemic-stroke
#1
Anthony Au
Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653202/clinicopathological-feature-and-outcome-of-pythiosis
#2
Maria Nina Chitasombat, Noppadol Larbcharoensub, Ariya Chindamporn, Theerapong Krajaejun
OBJECTIVES: Vascular pythiosis is a life-threatening infection, caused by Pythium insidiosum. We presented the clinical presentation, serodiagnosis, pathology, and outcome from our institution. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with proven vascular pythiosis at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand from January 2006 to December 2016. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were analyzed, eight thalassemias. Five had aplastic anemia, myelodysplasia, acute leukemia, cirrhosis, and alcoholism...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652661/combined-brain-and-heart-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-systemic-vasculitides-fiction-or-real-need
#3
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Kitas, Hildo J Lamb, Klearchos Psychoyios, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Kyriaki Boki, Vasiliki Vartela, Genovefa Kolovou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Cees G Kallenberg, Loic Guillevin, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
Systemic vasculitides (SVs) is a group of diseases characterised by inflammation/necrosis of the blood vessel wall in various organs. Simultaneous brain and heart involvement is a cause of increased morbidity/mortality in SV. We aimed to present evidence of concurrent brain/heart involvement in SV and the role of a combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their risk stratification. Cerebral vasculitis (CV) can be presented as focal deficits, seizures, headache, neuropsychiatric manifestations or cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as myocardial/vascular inflammation, perfusion/function defects and fibrosis...
April 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652306/-assessment-of-clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-of-post-stroke-depression-in-young-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#4
M L Chukhlovina, A A Chukhlovin
AIM: To consider clinical manifestations and treatment of post-stroke depression in young patients with carotid ischemic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients, 24 women and 16 men, aged from 18 to 45 years old, diagnosed with ICD-10 post-stroke depression were examined. All patients underwent neurological examination, brain MRI and MR-angiography of cerebral vessels. The following psychometric tests were used: MMSE, Hamilton depression scale, CES-D depression scale, a questionnaire on nocturnal sleep assessment, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651951/inflammatory-events-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-sah
#5
U C Schneider, R Xu, P Vajkoczy
Acute SAH from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm contributes for 30% of all hemorrhagic strokes. The bleeding itself occurs in the subarachnoid space. Nevertheless, injury to the brain parenchyma occurs as a consequence of the bleeding, directly, via several well-defined mechanisms and pathways, but also indirectly, or secondarily. This secondary brain injury following SAH has a variety of causes and possible mechanisms. Amongst others, inflammatory events have been shown to occur in parallel to, to contribute to, or even to initiate programmed cell death (PCD) within the central nervous system (CNS) in human and animal studies alike...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651950/roles-of-traf6-in-central-nervous-system
#6
Yang Dou, Xiaodi Tian, Jian Zhang, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) is an important binding protein of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and the toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, which play an important role in innate immunity and acquired immunity. TRAFs family has 7 members (TRAF1-7), and TRAF6 has its special facture and biological function. TRAF6 has two special domains: C-terminal domain and N-terminal domain, which could integrate with multiple kinases and regulate signaling pathway function as E3 ubiquitin ligase...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651914/inflammatory-pathways-are-central-to-posterior-cerebrovascular-artery-remodelling-prior-to-the-onset-of-congenital-hypertension
#7
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Eva von Linstow Roloff, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Julian Fr Paton
Cerebral artery hypoperfusion may provide the basis for linking ischemic stroke with hypertension. Brain hypoperfusion may induce hypertension that may serve as an auto-protective mechanism to prevent ischemic stroke. We hypothesised that hypertension is caused by remodelling of the cerebral arteries, which is triggered by inflammation. We used a congenital rat model of hypertension and examined age-related changes in gene expression of the cerebral arteries using RNA sequencing. Prior to hypertension, we found changes in signalling pathways associated with the immune system and fibrosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651748/improved-reperfusion-and-vasculoprotection-by-the-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitor-pj34-after-stroke-and-thrombolysis-in-mice
#8
Mohamad El Amki, Dominique Lerouet, Marie Garraud, Fei Teng, Virginie Beray-Berthat, Bérard Coqueran, Benoît Barsacq, Charlotte Abbou, Bruno Palmier, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Isabelle Margaill
Benefits from thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischemic stroke remain limited due to a narrow therapeutic window, low reperfusion rates, and increased risk of hemorrhagic transformations (HT). Experimental data showed that rt-PA enhances the post-ischemic activation of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) which in turn contributes to blood-brain barrier injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether PJ34, a potent PARP inhibitor, improves poor reperfusion induced by delayed rt-PA administration, exerts vasculoprotective effects, and finally increases the therapeutic window of rt-PA...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651510/-vomiting-and-collapse-of-a-28-year-old-male-long-distance-runner-in-middle-european-summer
#9
J Herold, A Mitrasch, E Lorenz, U Lodes, I Tanev, R Braun-Dullaeus, F Meyer
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia often ends fatally and must therefore be promptly recognized and adequately treated. CASE: A 28-year-old man participated in a long-distance race (3 km) on a hot summer day (28 °C). The runner collapsed, had to vomit but continued the run and reached the finish. Neurologically, the patient presented with intermittent cerebral seizures. External cooling batteries were immediately applied and cold infusions were started. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit of the university hospital (body temperature 40...
April 12, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651208/role-of-brain-biomarker-in-predicting-clinical-outcome-in-hypertensive-cerebrovascular-ischemic-stroke
#10
Anuradha Bharosay, Vivek Vikram Bharosay, Kiran Saxena, Meena Varma
This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) in prediction of disability and neurological worsening in hypertensive ischemic cerebrovascular stroke. 80 hypertensive ischemic stroke patients diagnosed by a neurologist as per WHO definition along with radiological findings suggestive of cerebrovascular stroke and differentiating from hemorrhagic stroke and 60 controls having essential hypertension coming to hospital because of regular checkup or headache but with no neurological disease were included in the study...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650593/human-neural-stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-improve-recovery-in-a-porcine-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#11
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Brian J Jurgielewicz, Samantha Spellicy, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Raymond L Swetenburg, David C Hess, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO...
April 12, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650001/prediction-of-autonomic-dysreflexia-during-urodynamics-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Matthias Walter, Stephanie C Knüpfer, Jacquelyn J Cragg, Lorenz Leitner, Marc P Schneider, Ulrich Mehnert, Andrei V Krassioukov, Martin Schubert, Armin Curt, Thomas M Kessler
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition in patients with spinal cord injury, as it can lead to myocardial ischemia, brain hemorrhage, or even death. Urodynamic investigation is the gold standard to assess neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal cord injury and reveal crucial pathological findings, such as neurogenic detrusor overactivity. However, neurogenic detrusor overactivity and urodynamic investigation are known to be leading triggers of autonomic dysreflexia...
April 13, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649974/delayed-and-repeated-intranasal-delivery-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-increases-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#13
Monica J Chau, Todd C Deveau, Xiaohuan Gu, Yo Sup Kim, Yun Xu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are limited treatments available. Intranasal administration is a novel non-invasive strategy to deliver cell therapy into the brain. Cells delivered via the intranasal route can migrate from the nasal mucosa to the ischemic infarct and show acute neuroprotection as well as functional benefits. However, there is little information about the regenerative effects of this transplantation method in the delayed phase of stroke...
April 12, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649783/radiation-dose-reduction-in-perfusion-ct-imaging-of-the-brain-using-a-256-slice-ct-80-mas-versus-160-mas
#14
Isabelle Riederer, Claus Zimmer, Daniela Pfeiffer, Silke Wunderlich, Holger Poppert, Ernst J Rummeny, Armin Huber
PURPOSE: To examine CTP of the brain in real patient data after reducing tube current down to 80 mAs to decrease radiation dose. METHODS: CTP was acquired in 60 suspected stroke patients with 80 (n: 30) or 160 (n: 30) mAs. Data were analyzed retrospectively by two independent readers. SNR, perfusion maps and image quality were compared in hypoperfused and non-affected areas. RESULTS: SNR was significantly higher in CTP with 160 mAs compared to 80 mAs (p < 0...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649514/endogenous-neuronal-replacement-in-the-juvenile-brain-following-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Krista M Rodgers, Jared T Ahrendsen, Olivia P Patsos, Frank A Strnad, Joan C Yonchek, Richard J Traystman, Wendy B Macklin, Paco S Herson
Replacement of dead neurons following ischemia, either via enhanced endogenous neurogenesis or stem cell therapy, has long been sought. Unfortunately, while various therapies that enhance neurogenesis or stem cell therapies have proven beneficial in animal models, they have all uniformly failed to truly replace dead neurons in the ischemic core to facilitate long-term recovery. Remarkably, we observe robust repopulation of medium-spiny neurons within the ischemic core of juvenile mice following experimental stroke...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648983/enhancement-of-brain-d-serine-mediates-recovery-of-cognitive-function-after-tbi
#16
Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Barbara Slusher, Dana Atrakchi-Baranes, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Yael Friedman Levi, Efrat Leah Kesner, Alcino J Silva, Anat Biegon, Esther Shohami
Cognitive deficits, especially memory loss, are common and devastating neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The deficits may persist for a long time and may be accompanied by increased risk of developing early onset dementia. Past attempts to reverse the neuropsychological effects of brain injury with glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists failed to show any benefits or worsened the outcome, suggesting activation, rather than blockage, of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) may be useful in the sub-acute period after TBI and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643832/corrigendum-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
Shaheen E Lakhan, Annette Kirchgessner, Deborah Tepper, Aidan Leonard
[This corrects the article on p. 32 in vol. 4, PMID: 23565108.].
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643709/delayed-formation-of-hematomas-with-ethanol-preconditioning-in-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage-rats
#18
Hung-Yu Cheng, Li-Chuan Huang, Hsiao-Fen Peng, Jon-Son Kuo, Hock-Kean Liew, Cheng-Yoong Pang
Objective: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10%-15% of all strokes and causes high mortality and morbidity. In the previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol could aggravate the severity of brain injury after ICH by increasing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we further investigate the acute effects of ethanol on brain injury within 24 h after ICH. Materials and Methods: Totally, 66 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly into two groups: saline pretreatment before ICH (saline + ICH), and ethanol pretreatment before ICH (ethanol + ICH)...
January 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643681/mismatch-in-brain-perfusion-and-metabolism-detected-with-99m-tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-moyamoya-disease
#19
Justo Serrano Vicente, Luis Fernández Prudencio, José Rafael Infante Torre, Juan Ignacio Rayo Madrid
We report a 47-year-old woman who developed an ischemic stroke with diplopia and dysarthria. Emergency computed tomography (CT) showed no pathological findings, and magnetic resonance (MR) showed mild ischemic-degenerative lesions. MR angiography and angiogram showed severe stenosis of both internal carotid and main intracranial arteries with plenty collateral vessels with "puff of smoke" suggesting a moyamoya disease (MMD). Brain perfusion single-photon emission CT showed global diminished perfusion in the brain lobes and a marked relative hyperperfusion in the cerebellum...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643584/effects-of-virtual-reality-intervention-on-upper-limb-motor-function-and-activity-of-daily-living-in-patients-with-lesions-in-different-regions-of-the-brain
#20
Sang-Mi Jung, Won-Ho Choi
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate whether a virtual reality (VR) intervention has an influence in improving the motor function and activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients with lesions in different regions of the brain. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven subjects with hemiplegic stroke were recruited in this study, which was conducted from January to February, 2017. They received a VR intervention once a day for 30 min, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were used to assess the post-stroke patients' motor function and ADLs, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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