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Asthma endotype phenotype

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718738/treatment-of-severe-uncontrolled-eosinophilic-asthma-where-we-are-heading
#1
Jonathan A Bernstein, Reynold Panettieri
OBJECTIVE: We sought to highlight how our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma has evolved over time and discuss the role of biomarkers in treatment advances and emerging new therapies. DATA SOURCES: Nonsystematic PubMed literature search. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were selected based on areas of relevance to the classification of asthma by endotype, with an emphasis on the evolution of current treatment guidelines for severe asthma...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705381/high-dimensional-immune-biomarkers-demonstrate-differences-in-phenotypes-and-endotypes-in-food-allergy-and-asthma
#2
R Sharon Chinthrajah, Natasha Purington, Vanitha Sampath, Sandra Andorf, Monali Manohar, Mary Prunicki, Xiaoying Zhou, Dana Tupa, Kari C Nadeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611440/new-biologics-for-allergic-diseases
#3
Laurie A Manka, Michael E Wechsler
Allergic conditions such as asthma and atopic dermatitis have a high prevalence but represent a heterogeneous group of diseases despite similar clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology. A better understanding of the phenotypes and endotypes of these diseases has driven rapid development of biologic medications targeting many steps of the inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: There are 2 major inflammatory pathways that drive allergic diseases: Type-2 (Th-2) inflammation and non-type 2 inflammation...
April 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606855/benralizumab-in-the-treatment-of-severe-asthma-design-development-and-potential-place-in-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Corrado Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella, Andrea Bruni, Rosa Terracciano, Girolamo Pelaia
Asthma is a widespread and heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the airways, which is characterized by several different phenotypes and endotypes. In particular, eosinophilic airway inflammation is a common pathologic trait of both allergic and nonallergic asthma. The key cytokine responsible for maturation, activation, recruitment, and survival of eosinophils is interleukin (IL)-5, which is mainly produced by T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Therefore, for uncontrolled patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, who are not fully responsive to corticosteroids, IL-5 represents a very important molecular target for add-on biological therapies...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601354/phenotypes-endotypes-driven-treatment-in-asthma
#5
Fulvio Braido, Angelica Tiotiu, Krzysztof Kowal, Stefan Mihaicuta, Plamena Novakova, Ipek Kivilcim Oguzulgen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Target therapy is the necessary step towards personalized medicine. The definition of asthma phenotypes and underlying mechanisms (endotypes) represent a key point in the development of new asthma treatments. Big data analysis, biomarker research and the availability of monoclonal antibodies, targeting specific cytokines is leading to the rapid evolution of knowledge. In this review, we sought to outline many of the recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Several attempts have been made to identify asthma phenotypes, sometimes with contrasting results...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564208/subtyping-of-polyposis-nasi-phenotypes-endotypes-and-comorbidities
#6
REVIEW
Michael Koennecke, Ludger Klimek, Joaquim Mullol, Philippe Gevaert, Barbara Wollenberg
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous, multifactorial inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. It has not been possible to date to develop an internationally standardized, uniform classification for this disorder. A phenotype classification according to CRS with (CRSwNP) and without polyposis (CRSsNP) is usually made. However, a large number of studies have shown that there are also different endotypes of CRS within these phenotypes, with different pathophysiologies of chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa...
2018: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550078/nasal-polyposis-pathophysiology-endotype-and-phenotype-open-issues
#7
REVIEW
Giuseppe Brescia, Claudia Zanotti, Daniela Parrino, Umberto Barion, Gino Marioni
PURPOSE: Endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) poses a challenge for rhinologists nowadays. Phenotyping CRSwNP proved inappropriate as an approach to their classification because of their common clinical features. Endotyping, being based on the pathogenic mechanism, provides a precise picture more appropriate for use in clinical practice. Patients' treatment and follow-up can thus be tailored to cope with the degree of aggressiveness of a specific CRSwNP endotype...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398922/severe-bronchial-asthma-in-children-a-review-of-novel-biomarkers-used-as-predictors-of-the-disease
#8
REVIEW
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Adaeze C Ayuk, Joy N Eze
Severe asthma or therapy-resistant asthma in children is a heterogeneous disease that affects all age-groups. Given its heterogeneity, precision in diagnosis and treatment has become imperative, in order to achieve better outcomes. If one is thus able to identify specific patient phenotypes and endotypes using the appropriate biomarkers, it will assist in providing the patient with more personalized and appropriate treatment. However, there appears to be a huge diagnostic gap in severe asthma, as there is no single test yet that accurately determines disease phenotype...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318959/novel-biological-therapies-in-severe-asthma-targeting-the-right-trait
#9
Gilda Varricchi, Giancarlo Marone, Giuseppe Spadaro, Michele Russo, Francescopaolo Granata, Arturo Genovese, Gianni Marone
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation that results in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Patients with severe asthma represent a substantial share of consumption of healthcare resources and hospitalization. Moreover, these patients are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, several phenotypes and endotypes of asthma have been identified. The identification of specific subtypes of asthma is fundamental for optimizing the clinical benefit of novel treatments...
January 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307657/a-decade-of-research-on-the-17q12-21-asthma-locus-piecing-together-the-puzzle
#10
Michelle M Stein, Emma E Thompson, Nathan Schoettler, Britney A Helling, Kevin M Magnaye, Catherine Stanhope, Catherine Igartua, Andréanne Morin, Charles Washington, Dan Nicolae, Klaus Bønnelykke, Carole Ober
Chromosome 17q12-21 remains the most highly replicated and significant asthma locus. Genotypes in the core region defined by the first genome-wide association study correlate with expression of 2 genes, ORM1-like 3 (ORMDL3) and gasdermin B (GSDMB), making these prime candidate asthma genes, although recent studies have implicated gasdermin A (GSDMA) distal to and post-GPI attachment to proteins 3 (PGAP3) proximal to the core region as independent loci. We review 10 years of studies on the 17q12-21 locus and suggest that genotype-specific risks for asthma at the proximal and distal loci are not specific to early-onset asthma and mediated by PGAP3, ORMDL3, and/or GSDMA expression...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279053/unraveling-the-conundrum-of-asthma-phenotypes-and-endotypes
#11
Joseph A Bellanti, Russell A Settipane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229196/impact-of-allergy-on-phenotypic-and-endotypic-profiles-of-nasal-polyposis
#12
G Mortuaire, I Gengler, M Balden, M Capron, G Lefèvre
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of allergy on clinical presentations (phenotypes) and inflammatory patterns (endotypes) of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). METHODS: A single-center prospective study was conducted over an 18-month period. Fifty-seven patients with refractory CRSwNP were included. The diagnosis of allergy was based on concordant skin prick tests and symptoms. Phenotypes were determined on symptom severity score, polyp size classification and Lund-Mackay CT staging...
December 8, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221581/biomarkers-for-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Steven W Yancey, Oliver N Keene, Frank C Albers, Hector Ortega, Stewart Bates, Eugene R Bleecker, Ian Pavord
The last decade has seen the approval of several new biologics for the treatment of severe asthma-targeting specific endotypes and phenotypes. This review will examine how evidence generated from the mepolizumab clinical development program showed that blood eosinophil counts, rather than sputum or tissue eosinophil counts, evolved as a pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker for the efficacy of treatment with mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Based on the available evidence and combined with clinical judgement, a baseline blood eosinophil threshold of 150 cells/μL or greater or a historical blood eosinophil threshold of 300 cells/μL or greater will allow selection of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who are most likely to achieve clinically significant reductions in the rate of exacerbations with mepolizumab treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189350/asthma-personalized-and-precision-medicine
#14
Giorgio W Canonica, Matteo Ferrando, Ilaria Baiardini, Francesca Puggioni, Francesca Racca, Giovanni Passalacqua, Enrico Heffler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we herein describe the progress in management of severe asthma, evolving from a 'blockbuster approach' to a more personalized approach targeted to the utilization of endotype-driven therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Severe asthma characterization in phenotypes and endotypes, by means of specific biomarkers, have led to the dichotomization of the concepts of 'personalized medicine' and 'precision medicine', which are often used as synonyms, but actually have conceptual differences in meaning...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106996/chronic-rhinosinusitis-endotypes-biomarkers-and-treatment-response
#15
Jose Gurrola, Larry Borish
It is increasingly recognized that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) comprises a spectrum of different diseases with distinct clinical presentations and pathogenic mechanisms. Defining the distinct phenotypes and endotypes of CRS affects prognosis and, most importantly, is necessary as the basis for making therapeutic decisions. The need for individualized definitions of pathogenic mechanisms before initiating therapy extends to virtually all therapeutic considerations. This is clearly crucial with antibiotics, where, barring an influence from their off-target anti-inflammatory pharmacologic effects, an understanding of the role of the individual biome predicts likelihood of therapeutic benefit...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077521/new-approaches-for-identifying-and-testing-potential-new-anti-asthma-agents
#16
Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli, Ilaria Brambilla, Alessia Marseglia, Maria Angela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Giorgio Ciprandi
Asthma is a chronic disease with significant heterogeneity in clinical features, disease severity, pattern of underlying disease mechanisms, and responsiveness to specific treatments. While the majority of asthmatic patients are controlled by standard pharmacological strategies, a significant subgroup has limited therapeutic options representing a major unmet need. Ongoing asthma research aims to better characterize distinct clinical phenotypes, molecular endotypes, associated reliable biomarkers, and also to develop a series of new effective targeted treatment modalities...
October 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059087/controversies-and-opportunities-in-severe-asthma
#17
Marc Humbert, William Busse, Nicola A Hanania
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite currently available treatments, many asthma patients remain inadequately controlled, but identifying distinct patient populations (phenotypes/endotypes) may optimize their management. This review discusses some of the controversies and opportunities for improved disease control in severe asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently approved anti-immunoglobulin E and anti-interleukin 5 biologics, which target specific pathways instead of using a 'one size fits all' strategy, are efficacious and well tolerated therapies for severe asthma...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051276/precision-medicine-in-airway-diseases-moving-to-clinical-practice
#18
Alvar Agustí, Mona Bafadhel, Richard Beasley, Elisabeth H Bel, Rosa Faner, Peter G Gibson, Renaud Louis, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter J Sterk, Mike Thomas, Claus Vogelmeier, Ian D Pavord
On February 21, 2017, a European Respiratory Society research seminar held in Barcelona discussed how to best apply precision medicine to chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is now clear that both are complex and heterogeneous diseases, that often overlap and that both require individualised assessment and treatment. This paper summarises the presentations and discussions that took place during the seminar. Specifically, we discussed the need for a new taxonomy of human diseases, the role of different players in this scenario (exposome, genes, endotypes, phenotypes, biomarkers and treatable traits) and a number of unanswered key questions in the field...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049049/treatable-traits-of-chronic-airways-disease
#19
James Fingleton, Jo Hardy, Richard Beasley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the rationale on which the treatable traits approach to the management of airways disease is based and the issues that need to be considered for its implementation in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: In clinical practice, treatable traits can be classified according to both endotypes and phenotypes, broadly grouped within pulmonary, extrapulmonary, environmental and behavioural factors. Specific investigations and treatments are undertaken for each of the traits rather than a 'one size fits all' stepwise approach to pharmacological treatment which currently represents the core of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040053/periostin-as-a-biomarker-for-nasal-polyps-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#20
Alice Z Maxfield, Lukas D Landegger, Christopher D Brook, Ashton E Lehmann, Adam P Campbell, Regan W Bergmark, Konstantina M Stankovic, Ralph Metson
Objective Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is elevated in the sinonasal tissues of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum periostin could serve as a molecular biomarker of nasal polyp burden in sinonasal disease. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Serum periostin levels were measured by ELISA on blood samples collected from patients undergoing sinus surgery for CRS (n = 71), further stratified by phenotype as defined by nasal polyps and asthma...
January 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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