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Asthma endotype phenotype

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797075/arginine-metabolic-endotypes-related-to-asthma-severity
#1
Weiling Xu, Suzy A A Comhair, Allison J Janocha, Abigail Lara, Lori A Mavrakis, Carole D Bennett, Satish C Kalhan, Serpil C Erzurum
AIMS: Arginine metabolism via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 2 (ARG2) is higher in asthmatics than in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that a sub-phenotype of asthma might be defined by the magnitude of arginine metabolism categorized on the basis of high and low fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). METHODS: To test this hypothesis, asthmatics (n = 52) were compared to healthy controls (n = 51) for levels of FENO, serum arginase activity, and airway epithelial expression of iNOS and ARG2 proteins, in relation to clinical parameters of asthma inflammation and airway reactivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791280/oxidative-stress-and-bronchial-asthma-in-children-causes-or-consequences
#2
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Maria Zelieskova, Eva Babusikova
Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. In the pathogenesis of this disease, the interplay among the genes, intrinsic, and extrinsic factors are crucial. Various combinations of the involved factors determine and modify the final clinical phenotype/endotype of asthma. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and the capacity of antioxidant defense mechanisms. It was shown that oxidative damage of biomolecules is strongly involved in the asthmatic inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780940/diagnosis-and-management-of-anaphylaxis-in-precision-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Mariana Castells
Anaphylaxis is the most severe and frightening of the allergic reactions, placing patients at high risk and demanding prompt recognition and immediate management by health care providers. Yet because its symptoms imitate those of other diseases, such as asthma and urticaria, current data suggest that its diagnosis is often missed, with underuse of tryptase measurement; its treatment is delayed, with little use of epinephrine; and its underlying cause or causes are poorly investigated. Deaths from anaphylaxis are difficult to investigate because of miscoding...
August 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721208/new-perspectives-on-the-regulation-of-type-ii-inflammation-in-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Mireya Becerra-Díaz, Marsha Wills-Karp, Nicola M Heller
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs which has been thought to arise as a result of inappropriately directed T helper type-2 (Th2) immune responses of the lungs to otherwise innocuous inhaled antigens. Current asthma therapeutics are directed towards the amelioration of downstream consequences of type-2 immune responses (i.e. β-agonists) or broad-spectrum immunosuppression (i.e. corticosteroids). However, few approaches to date have been focused on the primary prevention of immune deviation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689840/severe-asthma-phenotypes-how-should-they-guide-evaluation-and-treatment
#5
Anne M Fitzpatrick, Wendy C Moore
Although patients with "severe" asthma tend to be characterized by ongoing symptoms and airway inflammation despite treatment with high doses of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, there is increasing recognition of marked phenotypic heterogeneity within affected patients. Although "precision medicine" approaches for patients with severe asthma are needed, there are many hurdles that must be overcome in daily practice. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has been at the forefront of phenotype discovery in severe asthma for the past decade...
July 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686637/endotypes-of-difficult-to-control-asthma-in-inner-city-african-american-children
#6
K R Brown, R Z Krouse, A Calatroni, C M Visness, U Sivaprasad, C M Kercsmar, E C Matsui, J B West, M M Makhija, M A Gill, H Kim, M Kattan, D Pillai, J E Gern, W W Busse, A Togias, A H Liu, G K Khurana Hershey
African Americans have higher rates of asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in comparison with other racial groups. We sought to characterize endotypes of childhood asthma severity in African American patients in an inner-city pediatric asthma population. Baseline blood neutrophils, blood eosinophils, and 38 serum cytokine levels were measured in a sample of 235 asthmatic children (6-17 years) enrolled in the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)-sponsored Asthma Phenotypes in the Inner City (APIC) study (ICAC (Inner City Asthma Consortium)-19)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683596/reslizumab-in-the-treatment-of-inadequately-controlled-asthma-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-elevated-blood-eosinophils-clinical-trial-evidence-and-future-prospects
#7
Jorge Máspero
Eosinophils have long been implicated as playing a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma in many patients, and eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important asthma endotype. Eosinophil differentiation, maturation, migration, and survival are primarily under the control of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Reslizumab is a humanized monoclonal (immunoglobulin G4/κ) antibody that binds with high affinity to circulating human IL-5 and downregulates the IL-5 signaling pathway, potentially disrupting the maturation and survival of eosinophils...
July 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658564/a-clustering-approach-to-identify-and-characterize-the-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-overlap-phenotype
#8
Keita Hirai, Toshihiro Shirai, Masayuki Suzuki, Taisuke Akamatsu, Takahito Suzuki, Ichiro Hayashi, Akito Yamamoto, Takefumi Akita, Satoru Morita, Kazuhiro Asada, Daiki Tsuji, Kazuyuki Inoue, Kunihiko Itoh
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous diseases. The phenotypes that have clinical features of both asthma and COPD are still incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the best discriminators of the asthma-COPD overlap phenotype from asthma and COPD subgroups using a clustering approach. METHODS: This study assessed pathophysiological parameters, including mRNA expression levels of T helper cell-related transcription factors, namely, TBX21 (Th1), GATA3 (Th2), RORC (Th17), and FOXP3 (Treg), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma patients (n = 152) and in COPD patients (n = 50)...
June 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658552/mechanisms-and-treatments-for-severe-steroid-resistant-allergic-airway-disease-and-asthma
#9
REVIEW
Philip M Hansbro, Richard Y Kim, Malcolm R Starkey, Chantal Donovan, Kamal Dua, Jemma R Mayall, Gang Liu, Nicole G Hansbro, Jodie L Simpson, Lisa G Wood, Jeremy A Hirota, Darryl A Knight, Paul S Foster, Jay C Horvat
Severe, steroid-resistant asthma is clinically and economically important since affected individuals do not respond to mainstay corticosteroid treatments for asthma. Patients with this disease experience more frequent exacerbations of asthma, are more likely to be hospitalized, and have a poorer quality of life. Effective therapies are urgently required, however, their development has been hampered by a lack of understanding of the pathological processes that underpin disease. A major obstacle to understanding the processes that drive severe, steroid-resistant asthma is that the several endotypes of the disease have been described that are characterized by different inflammatory and immunological phenotypes...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635659/divergent-how-ige-axis-contributes-to-the-continuum-of-allergic-asthma-and-anti-ige-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Óscar Palomares, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Ignacio Dávila, Luis Prieto, Luis Pérez de Llano, Marta Lleonart, Christian Domingo, Antonio Nieto
Asthma is an airway disease characterised by chronic inflammation with intermittent or permanent symptoms including wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough, which vary in terms of their occurrence, frequency, and intensity. The most common associated feature in the airways of patients with asthma is airway inflammation. In recent decades, efforts have been made to characterise the heterogeneous clinical nature of asthma. The interest in improving the definitions of asthma phenotypes and endotypes is growing, although these classifications do not always correlate with prognosis nor are always appropriate therapeutic approaches...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622052/biologic-treatment-eligibility-for-real-world-patients-with-severe-asthma-the-ideal-study
#11
Frank C Albers, Hana Müllerová, Necdet B Gunsoy, Ji-Yeon Shin, Linda M Nelsen, Eric S Bradford, Sarah M Cockle, Robert Y Suruki
OBJECTIVES: Severe asthma comprises several distinct phenotypes. Consequently, patients with severe asthma can be eligible for more than one biologic treatment targeting Th2 inflammation, such as anti-interleukin (IL)-5 and anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) E. The objective of this study was to describe treatment eligibility and overlap in treatment eligibility for mepolizumab (anti-IL-5), omalizumab (anti-IgE) and reslizumab (anti-IL-5) in patients with severe asthma, who were recruited from clinical practice...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583261/cellular-and-noncellular-bloodborne-biomarkers-in-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Hannah Sinz, Harald Renz, Chrysanthi Skevaki
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of studied cellular and noncellular blood-derived asthma biomarkers. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles discussing cellular and noncellular bloodborne asthma biomarkers. RESULTS: Discussed asthma biomarkers include peripheral blood cell counts of T cells, fibrocytes, or granulocytes, as well as levels of cytokines, periostin, IgE, and lipid mediators with or without stimulation...
June 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550983/the-influence-of-asthma-and-or-hay-fever-on-pregnancy-data-from-the-1995-national-survey-of-family-growth
#13
Paul C Turkeltaub, Jooyoung Cheon, Erika Friedmann, Richard F Lockey
BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. At the same time there is a worldwide increase in asthma and hay fever. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses whether asthma and/or hay fever adversely influence pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth that include a history of diagnosed asthma, hay fever, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in 10,847 women representative of the US population aged 15 to 44 years were analyzed...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503545/relationship-of-allergy-with-asthma-there-are-more-than-the-allergy-eggs-in-the-asthma-basket
#14
REVIEW
George V Guibas, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Marina Tsoumani, Sophia Tsabouri
Asthma and allergy share a similar and very close course, especially through childhood. Considerable research effort has been put in untangling these associations; however, it is now becoming obvious that this is an exceedingly difficult task. In fact, each research breakthrough further perplexes this picture, as we are steadily moving toward the era of personalized medicine and we begin to appreciate that what we thought to be a single disease, asthma, is in fact an accumulation of distinct entities. In the context of this "syndrome," which is characterized by several, as of yet poorly defined endotypes and phenotypes, the question of the link of "asthma" with allergy probably becomes non-relevant...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497916/emerging-endotypes-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-its-application-to-precision-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Dae Woo Kim, Seong H Cho
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease with various underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms which translate to endotypes, in contrast to clinical phenotypes or histological subtypes. Defining endotypes can help clinicians predict disease prognosis, select subjects suitable for a specific therapy, and assess risks for comorbid conditions, including asthma. Therefore, with recent advancement of biologicals in CRS clinical trials, endotyping can be a breakthrough in treating recalcitrant CRS...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489455/micrornas-profiling-in-asthma-potential-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#16
Enrico Heffler, Alessandro Allegra, Giovanni Pioggia, Giuseppe Picardi, Caterina Musolino, Sebastiano Gangemi
Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease in which different endotypes contribute to define clinical-inflammatory phenotypes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous 22-25 nt RNA molecules that bind to specific mRNAs to inhibit translation and promote mRNA degradation. miRNAs function in post-transcriptional regulation and control physiological and pathological processes in various diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the function of miRNAs in asthma, focusing the attention particularly on their biological properties, pathophysiologic roles, and potential use as biomarkers and/or therapies for asthma...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479327/a-review-of-metabolomics-approaches-and-their-application-in-identifying-causal-pathways-of-childhood-asthma
#17
Kedir N Turi, Lindsey Romick-Rosendale, Kelli K Ryckman, Tina V Hartert
Because asthma is a disease that results from host-environment interactions, an approach that allows assessment of the effect of the environment on the host is needed to understand the disease. Metabolomics has appealing potential as an application to study pathways to childhood asthma development. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of metabolomics methods and their application to understanding host-environment pathways in asthma development. We reviewed recent literature on advances in metabolomics and their application to study pathways to childhood asthma development...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422351/clinical-phenotypes-in-asthma-during-childhood
#18
REVIEW
J Just, M Bourgoin-Heck, F Amat
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by numerous phenotypes relating to age of onset, triggers, comorbidities, severity (assessed by multiple exacerbations, lung function pattern) and finally the inflammatory cells involved in the pathophysiologic pathway. These phenotypes can vary over time in relation to changes in the principal triggers involved in the aetiology of the disease. Nevertheless, in a patient with multiple allergies and early-onset disease (defined as multiple sensitizations and allergic comorbidities), the prognosis of asthma is poor with a high risk of persistence and severity of the disease during childhood...
July 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387160/long-term-treatment-in-pediatric-asthma-an-update-on-chemical-pharmacotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Carolina Vitale, Angelantonio Maglio, Corrado Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, affecting approximately 10% of all children, and is the leading cause of hospitalization in developed countries. In this paper we aimed to review the evidence on chemical pharmacotherapy for long-term treatment of pediatric asthma, according to the latest updates. Area covered: Long-term treatment, essential for controlling symptoms and reducing future risks including exacerbations and decline in lung function, includes control agents such as inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, and leukotriene modifiers...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348726/targeting-patients-with-asthma-for-omalizumab-therapy-choosing-the-right-patient-to-get-the-best-value-for-money
#20
REVIEW
Abir Al Said, Breda Cushen, Richard W Costello
The asthma syndrome has many manifestations, termed phenotypes, that arise by specific cellular and molecular mechanisms, termed endotypes. Understanding an individual's asthma phenotype helps clinicians make rational therapeutic decisions while the understanding of endotypes has led to the development of specific precision medications. Allergic asthma is an example of an asthma phenotype and omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E, is a specific targeted treatment which was developed as a result of an understanding of the endotype of allergic asthma...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
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