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Asthma endotype phenotype

Jenna MacNeil, Robyn H Loves, Shawn D Aaron
Asthma is diagnosed based on patients' respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, chest tightness and/or dyspnea together with physiologic evidence of variable and reversible expiratory airflow limitation. A high prevalence of overdiagnosis, underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of adult asthma has been reported in the literature. Areas covered: Misdiagnosis of asthma in adults can occur in the community due to physicians' failure to confirm airflow limitation using spirometry, the relatively poor sensitivity of spirometry to absolutely rule in asthma, the complexity of multiple asthma phenotypes and endotypes, and the inherent day to day variability of asthma symptoms and airflow limitation...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Anne M Fitzpatrick, Susan T Stephenson, Milton R Brown, Khristopher Nguyen, Shaneka Douglas, Lou Ann S Brown
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma in children is a heterogeneous disorder associated with variable responses to corticosteroid treatment. Criterion standards for corticosteroid responsiveness assessment in children are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to characterize systemic corticosteroid responses in children with severe asthma after treatment with intramuscular triamcinolone and to identify phenotypic and molecular predictors of an intramuscular triamcinolone response...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Kanchan Pyasi, Ellen Tufvesson, Subhabrata Moitra
Leukotrienes (LTs) initiate a cascade of reactions that cause bronchoconstriction and inflammation in asthma. LT-modifying drugs have been proved very effective to reduce inflammation and associated exacerbation however despite some illustrious clinical trials the usage of these drugs remains overlooked because the evidence to support their utility in asthma management has been mixed and varied between studies. Although, there are plenty of evidences which suggest that the leukotriene-modifying drugs provide consistent improvement even after just the first oral dose and reduce asthma exacerbations, the beneficial effect of these drugs has remained sparse and widely debated...
September 17, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Michael C Peters, Michelle-Linh T Nguyen, Eleanor M Dunican
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decade, the most important advance in the field of asthma has been the widespread recognition that asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by multiple molecular processes. RECENT FINDINGS: The most well-established molecular mechanism in asthma is increased airway type-2 inflammation, and consequently, non-invasive biomarkers of increased airway type-2 inflammation, such as blood eosinophil counts or blood periostin levels, have proven important in stratifying asthma patients in clinical trials of type-2 cytokine inhibitors...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Francesco Menzella, Mirco Lusuardi, Carla Galeone, Nicola Facciolongo, Luigi Zucchi
Despite several therapeutic choices, 10-20% of patients with severe uncontrolled asthma do not respond to maximal best standard treatments, leading to a healthcare expenditure of up to 80% of overall costs for asthma. Today, there are new important therapeutic strategies, both pharmacological and interventional, that can result in improvement of severe asthma management, such as omalizumab, bronchial thermoplasty and other biological drugs, for example, mepolizumab, reslizumab and benralizumab. The availability of these new treatments and the increasing knowledge of the different asthmatic phenotypes and endotypes makes correct patient selection increasingly complex and important...
September 9, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Matea Deliu, Matthew Sperrin, Danielle Belgrave, Adnan Custovic
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease comprising a number of subtypes which may be caused by different pathophysiologic mechanisms (sometimes referred to as endotypes) but may share similar observed characteristics (phenotypes). The use of unsupervised clustering in adult and paediatric populations has identified subtypes of asthma based on observable characteristics such as symptoms, lung function, atopy, eosinophilia, obesity, and age of onset. Here we describe different clustering methods and demonstrate their contributions to our understanding of the spectrum of asthma syndrome...
2016: Pulm Ther
Bo Lund Krogsgaard Chawes
Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate...
August 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Katja Landgraf-Rauf, Bettina Anselm, Bianca Schaub
Asthma represents the most common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Whereas preschool children present with wheezing triggered by different factors (multitrigger and viral wheeze), clinical asthma manifestation in school children has previously been classified as allergic and non-allergic asthma. For both, the underlying immunological mechanisms are not yet understood in depth in children. Treatment is still prescribed regardless of underlying mechanisms, and children are not always treated successfully...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
Eileen Wang, Flavia C L Hoyte
Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations...
August 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Dennis K Ledford, Richard F Lockey
Aspirin (ASA)-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by upper airway congestion due to eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal and sinus membranes and nasal polyposis, associated with increased leukotriene production that is further accentuated by ASA or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ingestion. It occurs in 5% to 10% of subjects with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and in 15% to 40% of those with nasal polyposis. Although AERD with CRS is usually associated with asthma, this is not always the case...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Sumit Bose, Leslie C Grammer, Anju T Peters
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammatory disease that affects a multitude of people worldwide. The pathogenesis of CRS involves many factors including genetics, status of the sinonasal microbiome, infections, and environmental influences. Comorbidities associated with CRS include asthma, allergic rhinitis, bronchiectasis, and certain kinds of immunodeficiency. CRS can be divided into different subtypes based on endotypes and phenotypes. Infectious CRS is one such category. The etiology of infectious CRS is usually secondary to chronic bacterial infection that commonly begins with a viral upper respiratory tract infection...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani
The association of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the same patient, which is designated as mixed asthma-COPD phenotype or overlap syndrome (ACOS), remains a controversial issue. This is primarily because many conflicting aspects in the definition of ACOS remain, and it is extremely difficult to summarize the distinctive features of this syndrome. Furthermore, we are realizing that asthma, COPD, and ACOS are not single diseases but rather syndromes consisting of several endotypes and phenotypes and, consequently, comprising a spectrum of diseases...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Magdy Mohamed Zedan, Amal Mohamed Osman, Wafaa Nabil Laimon, Mohamed Magdy Zedan, Nermin Youssef Abo-Elkheir, Ahmed Zaki
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, in which asthmatic patients present with different clinical phenotypes, variable endotypes, and different response to asthma medicines. Thus, we are faced with an asthma paradox; asthma is diagnosed subjectively by clinical history and treated with biologically active drugs. To solve this paradox, we need objective airway biomarkers to tailor the proper medications to the proper patient. Biomarkers should have one or more of the following characteristics:1) A biomarker that could differentiate poor symptoms perceivers from over perceivers, 2) A biomarker that could predict disease activity and hence disease outcome, 3) A biomarker that could clarify responders from non-responders asthma phenotypes, and finally 4) A biomarker that could characterize different clinical asthma phenotypes...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Ioana Agache, Cezmi A Akdis
Discoveries from basic science research in the last decade have brought significant progress in knowledge of pathophysiologic processes of allergic diseases, with a compelling impact on understanding of the natural history, risk prediction, treatment selection or mechanism-specific prevention strategies. The view of the pathophysiology of allergic diseases developed from a mechanistic approach, with a focus on symptoms and organ function, to the recognition of a complex network of immunological pathways. Several subtypes of inflammation and complex immune-regulatory networks and the reasons for their failure are now described, that open the way for the development of new diagnostic tools and innovative targeted-treatments...
July 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Camille Taillé, Arnaud Bourdin, Gilles Garcia
Identifying new biomarkers in asthma is attractive but requires assessing their relevance and their reliability to clinical practice. Beyond fashion, the improvement in identification of new candidate biomarkers benefited of scientific and biologic progresses, biobanks and platforms robustly backed on longitudinal cohorts and registries. Paradoxically, the main issue is now to stress up the good question, in other words to correctly characterize the unmet needs in asthma that might benefit of a biomarker. Chronicity, variability, weakness of diagnostic tools and the heterogeneity of the disease are features of asthma claiming for identifying new biomarkers...
May 25, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Alalia Berry, William W Busse
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with multiple phenotypes that have variable risk factors and responses to therapeutics. Mild-to-moderate asthma often responds to traditional medications, whereas severe disease can be refractory to inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting β-agonists, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. There is robust research into the variable phenotypes of asthma. Biomarkers help define the specific pathophysiology of different asthma phenotypes and identify potential therapeutic targets...
May 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mauli Desai, John Oppenheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
P E Silkoff, M Laviolette, D Singh, J M FitzGerald, S Kelsen, V Backer, C Porsbjerg, P O Girodet, P Berger, J N Kline, S Khatri, P Chanez, V S Susulic, E S Barnathan, F Baribaud, M J Loza
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a biologically heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. There is uncertainty regarding the stability of clinical characteristics and biomarkers in asthma over time. This report presents the longitudinal stability over 12 months of clinical characteristics and clinically accessible biomarkers from ADEPT. METHODS: Mild, moderate, and severe asthma subjects were assessed at 5 visits over 12 months...
2016: Respiratory Research
Nadine Mokhallati, Theresa W Guilbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma guidelines recognize the presence of different asthma endotypes and phenotypes but treatment recommendations are limited to age groups rather than phenotypes, as the phenotype literature is regarded as emerging evidence. This review will examine the current evidence regarding the management of asthma in school age children (5-18 years old) by endotype and phenotype. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of studies have examined the effect of endotypes and phenotypes on response to conventional asthma therapy, omalizumab and specific allergen immunotherapy, and response in children with severe asthma...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Hannah K Bayes, Douglas C Cowan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is heterogeneous with different endotypes/phenotypes. Response to corticosteroids is variable and novel biological therapies are proving useful. Biomarkers allow individualization of treatment. This review provides an update on available data regarding asthma biomarkers with focus on their utility for prediction of response to steroidal and new biological therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Blood eosinophils are a biomarker with acceptable accuracy as a surrogate for sputum eosinophilia, are associated with relevant outcomes, and are more readily measureable...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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