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maternal tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218737/effects-of-fetal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-or-maternal-hyperglycemia-on-l-arginine-and-nitric-oxide-metabolism-in-lung
#1
C Grasemann, R Herrmann, J Starschinova, M Gertsen, M R Palmert, H Grasemann
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Alterations in the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) metabolism contribute to diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and airway dysfunction. The impact of early-life exposures on the L-arginine/NO metabolism in lung later in life is not well understood. The objective of this work was to study the effects of intrauterine exposures to maternal hyperglycemia and high-fat diet (HFD) on pulmonary L-arginine/NO metabolism in mice. METHODS: We used two murine models of intrauterine exposures to maternal (a) hyperglycemia and (b) HFD to study the effects of these exposures on the L-arginine/NO metabolism in lung in normal chow-fed offspring...
February 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216912/pregnancy-outcomes-and-maternal-and-perinatal-complications-of-pregnancies-following-in-vitro-fertilization-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-using-own-oocytes-donor-oocytes-and-vitrified-embryos-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#2
Manish Banker, Vidhisha Mehta, Dipesh Sorathiya, Mira Dave, Sandeep Shah
BACKGROUND: Several global studies have assessed maternal and perinatal outcomes and complications with the type of embryo transfer (ET) following in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). The present study assessed the incidence of maternal and perinatal outcomes and complications following IVF/ICSI associated with the type of embryo transferred. METHODOLOGY: A total of 2112 ETs were performed in 2092 female patients aged 21-50 years between January 1 and December 31, 2014 (Group A: Fresh ET using self-oocytes: 691; Group B: Fresh ET using donor oocytes: 810; and Group C: Thaw ET using vitrified-warmed embryos: 611)...
October 2016: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213434/malaria-during-pregnancy
#3
Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy
One hundred and twenty-five million women in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant each year (see Dellicour et al. PLoS Med7: e1000221 [2010]) and require protection from infection to avoid disease and death for themselves and their offspring. Chloroquine prophylaxis was once a safe approach to prevention but has been abandoned because of drug-resistant parasites, and intermittent presumptive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, which is currently used to protect pregnant women throughout Africa, is rapidly losing its benefits for the same reason...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203773/effects-of-acute-exposure-to-a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-on-gestational-glucose-tolerance-and-subsequent-maternal-health-in-mice%C3%A2
#4
Kathleen A Pennington, Nicola van der Walt, Kelly E Pollock, Omonseigho O Talton, Laura C Schulz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196346/organochlorine-pesticides-ocps-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-human-breast-milk-and-associated-health-risks-to-nursing-infants-in-northern-tanzania
#5
M H B Müller, A Polder, O B Brynildsrud, M Karimi, E Lie, W B Manyilizu, R H Mdegela, F Mokiti, M Murtadha, H E Nonga, J U Skaare, J L Lyche
This is the first study to report organochlorines (OCs), including chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Tanzania. The main aims of this study were to assess the level of contamination and the possible health risks related to OC exposure in nursing infants from the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five healthy mother-infant couples attending Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha, Tanzania, were assessed for associations between maternal/infant characteristics, i...
February 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194635/using-the-slug-mucosal-irritation-assay-to-investigate-the-tolerability-of-tablet-excipients-on-human-skin-in-the-context-of-the-use-of-a-nipple-shield-delivery-system
#6
Richard Kendall, Joke Lenoir, Stephen Gerrard, Rebekah L Scheuerle, Nigel K H Slater, Catherine Tuleu
PURPOSE: Neonates are particularly challenging to treat. A novel patented drug delivery device containing a rapidly disintegrating tablet held within a modified nipple shield (NSDS) was designed to deliver medication to infants during breastfeeding. However concerns exist around dermatological nipple tolerability with no pharmaceutical safety assessment guidance to study local tissue tolerance of the nipple and the areola. This is the first Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) study to evaluate irritancy potential of GRAS excipients commonly used to manufacture rapidly disintegrating immediate release solid oral dosage form METHODS: Zinc sulphate selected as the antidiarrheal model drug that reduces infant mortality, was blended with functional excipients at traditional levels [microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate]...
February 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190874/maternal-consumption-of-a-cafeteria-diet-during-lactation-in-rats-leads-the-offspring-to-a-thin-outside-fat-inside-phenotype
#7
C A Pomar, R van Nes, J Sánchez, C Picó, J Keijer, A Palou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The suckling period is a critical phase of development, in which maternal over-nutrition may program the susceptibility of developing chronic diseases and disorders, such as obesity and metabolic alterations, in adult life. Here, we questioned whether the consumption of a cafeteria diet throughout lactation in rats affects the macronutrient composition of milk and whether it results in permanent metabolic effects in the offspring. METHODS: Nursing rats were fed a control diet or a cafeteria diet during lactation...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188592/redirecting-reproductive-immunology-research-toward-pregnancy-as-a-period-of-temporary-immune-tolerance
#8
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David H Barad
Referring to two recent publications, we here propose that clinical reproductive immunology has for decades stagnated because reproductive medicine, including assisted reproduction (AR), has failed to accept embryo implantation as an immune system-driven process, dependent on establishment of maternal tolerance toward the implanting fetal semi-allograft (and complete allograft in cases of oocyte donation). Pregnancy represents a biologically unique period of temporary (to the period of gestation restricted) tolerance, otherwise only known in association with parasitic infections...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168021/refuge-or-predation-risk-alternate-ways-to-perceive-hiker-disturbance-based-on-maternal-state-of-female-caribou
#9
Frédéric Lesmerises, Chris J Johnson, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Human presence in natural environments is often a source of stress that is perceived by large ungulates as an increased risk of predation. Alternatively, disturbance induced by hikers creates a relatively predator-free space that may serve as a refuge. We measured the behavioral responses of female caribou to disturbance associated with the presence of hikers during summer in the Gaspésie National Park. We used those data to determine whether caribou responded negatively to human activity (i.e., the predation risk hypothesis) or whether human activity resulted in a decrease in the magnitude of perceived risk (i...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166246/soluble-human-leukocyte-antigen-g-during-pregnancy-and-infancy-in-benin-mother-child-resemblance-and-association-with-the-risk-of-malaria-infection-and-low-birth-weight
#10
Tania C d'Almeida, Ibrahim Sadissou, Jacqueline Milet, Gilles Cottrell, Amandine Mondière, Euripide Avokpaho, Laure Gineau, Audrey Sabbagh, Achille Massougbodji, Kabirou Moutairou, Eduardo A Donadi, Benoit Favier, Edgardo Carosella, Philippe Moreau, Nathalie Rouas-Freiss, David Courtin, André Garcia
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) G is a tolerogenic molecule involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance phenomenon. Its expression during some infectious diseases leading to immune evasion has been established. A first study conducted in Benin has shown that the production of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) during the first months of life is strongly correlated with the maternal level at delivery and associated with low birth weight and malaria. However sHLA-G measurements during pregnancy were not available for mothers and furthermore, to date the evolution of sHLA-G in pregnancy is not documented in African populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161067/description-and-characterization-of-a-unique-human-immunoglobulin-g1-kappa-idiotype-found-in-placental-tissue
#11
Craig D Scoville, Devon Rasmussen
Does maternal IgG found in placental tissue provide the fetus with more than just humoral immunity? To address this question, the IgGs from twelve placentas were studied and four of these samples were examined using mass spectrometry which revealed an IgG1k idiotype. A special dodecapeptide portion of the 3rd framework region of the VH chain sequence was identified as an idiotypic determinant in these placental- IgG1k (p-IgG1k) and referred to as peptideX2 and found to have biological activity. Antiserum to peptideX2 was made and then used with Western Immunoblotting to show that this unique H chain (containing peptideX2) appears to be present in all p-IgG tested and in all subjects tested...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149511/the-development-and-role-of-microbial-host-interactions-in-gut-mucosal-immune-development
#12
REVIEW
C R Stokes
At birth the piglet's immune system is immature and it is dependent upon passive maternal protection until weaning. The piglet's mucosal immune system develops over the first few weeks but has not reached maturity at weaning ages which are common on commercial farms. At weaning piglets are presented with a vast and diverse range of microbial and dietary/environmental antigens. Their ability to distinguish between antigens and mount a protective response to potential pathogens and to develop tolerance to dietary antigens is critical to their survival and failure to do so is reflected in the high incidence of morbidity and mortality in the post-weaning period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134707/low-milk-supply-and-the-pediatrician
#13
Sarah W Riddle, Laurie A Nommsen-Rivers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, and provides many diverse and well described benefits for both mother and infant. Low milk supply, whether perceived or actual, is one of the most common reasons why mothers stop breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers often seek out the guidance and support of their pediatrician in evaluating and resolving milk production concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence supports the importance of breastfeeding for maternal and child health in both developing and developed countries...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131957/the-role-of-methylation-dna-polymorphisms-and-micrornas-on-hla-g-expression-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
A Verloes, C Spits, M Vercammen, M Geens, J LeMaoult, K Sermon, W Coucke, H Van de Velde
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene seems to play a pivotal role in maternal tolerance to the fetus. Little is known about HLA-G expression and its molecular control during in vivo human embryogenesis. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) provide an interesting in vitro model to study early human development. Different studies reported discrepant findings on whether HLA-G mRNA and protein are present or absent in hESC. Several lines of evidence indicate that promoter CpG methylation and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) polymorphisms may influence HLA-G expression...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129477/higher-maternal-serum-prolactin-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-glucose-tolerance-during-pregnancy
#15
Elif I Ekinci, Niloufar Torkamani, Sabashini K Ramchand, Leonid Churilov, Ken A Sikaris, Zhong X Lu, Christine A Houlihan
It is unknown if high prolactin levels during pregnancy contribute to the development of gestational diabetes. We hypothesized that higher prolactin levels are associated with reduced glucose tolerance, as determined by higher 2-hour glucose level from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnancy. 75 gram OGTT was performed at 28 weeks of gestation in 69 participants. A multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between serum prolactin and 2-hour glucose levels. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated an independent and significant relationship between third trimester prolactin and 2-hour glucose levels post OGTT...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127622/differential-methylation-of-genes-in-individuals-exposed-to-maternal-diabetes-in-utero
#16
Peng Chen, Paolo Piaggi, Michael Traurig, Clifton Bogardus, William C Knowler, Leslie J Baier, Robert L Hanson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals exposed to maternal diabetes in utero are more likely to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. This may be partially attributable to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We performed an epigenome-wide association study to examine whether differential DNA methylation, a major source of epigenetic regulation, can be observed in offspring of mothers with type 2 diabetes during the pregnancy (OMD) compared with offspring of mothers with no diabetes during the pregnancy (OMND)...
January 26, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121643/peripartum-care-of-the-jehovah-s-witness-patient
#17
Efrain Riveros-Perez, Rachel Kacmar
Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) refuse allogeneic blood transfusion, and thus treatment of hemorrhagic complications in this patient population is complex. Recognition and respect for religious beliefs are essential when caring for the JW parturient and several ethical and legal considerations must be taken into account. Interdisciplinary teamwork and communication as well as active patient participation are critical in the decision-making process for JW patients...
January 24, 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110753/cell-and-tissue-based-models-for-study-of-placental-development
#18
W R Huckle
Decades of research into the molecular mechanisms by which the placenta forms and functions have sought to improve prevention, diagnosis, and management of disorders of this vital tissue. This research has included development of experimental models intended to replicate behavior of the native placenta in both health and disease. Animal models devised in rodents, sheep, cattle, or other domestic animal species have the advantage of being biologically "complete," but all differ to some degree in developmental timing and anatomical details compared to the human, suggesting subtle differences in molecular mechanism...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108477/quantitative-microscopy-uncovers-ploidy-changes-during-mitosis-in-live-drosophila-embryos-and-their-effect-on-nuclear-size
#19
Wee Choo Puah, Rambabu Chinta, Martin Wasser
Time-lapse microscopy is a powerful tool to investigate cellular and developmental dynamics. In Drosophila melanogaster, it can be used to study division cycles in embryogenesis. To obtain quantitative information from 3D time-lapse data and track proliferating nuclei from the syncytial stage until gastrulation, we developed an image analysis pipeline consisting of nuclear segmentation, tracking, annotation and quantification. Image analysis of maternal-haploid (mh) embryos revealed that a fraction of haploid syncytial nuclei fused to give rise to nuclei of higher ploidy (2n, 3n, 4n)...
January 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105546/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-gdm-relationship-between-higher-cutoff-values-for-100%C3%A2-g-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-ogtt-and-insulin-requirement-during-pregnancy
#20
Jessica Ares, Alicia Martín-Nieto, Lucía Díaz-Naya, Teresa Tartón, Teresa Menéndez-Prada, Cecilia S Ragnarsson, Elías Delgado-Álvarez, Edelmiro Menéndez-Torre
Objectives To study if there is any relationship about higher cutoff values for 100 g oral glucose tolerance test and the need for insulin in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective population-based study of 201 women diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) between January 2012 and June 2014 in the area of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. According to diagnostic criteria recommended by GEDE, NDDG, gestational diabetes is diagnosed if two or more plasma glucose levels meet or exceed the following threshold: fasting glucose of 105 mg/dl, 1-h 190 mg/dl, 2-h 165 mg/dl, or 3-h 145 mg/dl...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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