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maternal tolerance

Yutong Su, Xiuli Jiang, Yanli Li, Feng Li, Yulong Cheng, Ying Peng, Dalong Song, Jie Hong, Guang Ning, Yanan Cao, Weiqing Wang
The mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility of type 2 diabetes in offspring of maternal malnutrition is poorly determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that functional microRNAs (miRNAs) mediated the maternal low protein (LP) isocaloric diet induced pancreatic β-cell impairment. We performed miRNA profiling in the islets from offspring of LP and control diet mothers to explore the potential functional miRNAs responsible for β-cell dysfunction. We found that LP offspring exhibited impaired glucose tolerance due to decreased β-cell mass and insulin secretion...
October 18, 2016: Endocrinology
Flávio Andrade Francisco, Luiz Felipe Barella, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Kelly Valério Prates, Vander Silva Alves, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Laize Peron Tófolo, Ananda Malta, Elaine Vieira, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Audrei Pavanello, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Rodrigo Mello Gomes
PURPOSE: Environmental and nutritional disorders during perinatal period cause metabolic dysfunction in the progeny and impair human health. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are primarily produced during metabolism of excess blood glucose, which is observed in diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a precursor for the generation of endogenous AGEs, which disturbs the metabolism. This work aimed to investigate whether the maternal MG treatment during lactation programs the progeny to metabolic dysfunction later in life...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Jacomine E Hogewind-Schoonenboom, Lyanne W W Rövekamp-Abels, Daphne P M de Wijs-Meijler, Margaux D Maduro, Marijke C Jansen-van der Weide, Johannes B van Goudoever, Jessie M Hulst
OBJECTIVE: Early growth rates and feeding advancement rates of preterm infants are thought to influence later health. Feeding advancement is often difficult due to feeding intolerance. Exclusive human milk feeding improves tolerance, but can result in a lower weight gain rate. The addition of human milk fortifier has advantages for growth, but there are concerns that it may nullify the beneficial effect of human milk on tolerance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the amount of fortified human milk or formula and feeding tolerance and growth in preterm infants...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
E A Huhn, T Fischer, C S Göbl, M Todesco Bernasconi, M Kreft, M Kunze, A Schoetzau, E Dölzlmüller, W Eppel, P Husslein, N Ochsenbein-Koelble, R Zimmermann, E Bäz, H Prömpeler, E Bruder, S Hahn, I Hoesli
INTRODUCTION: As the accurate diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is of increasing importance; new diagnostic approaches for the assessment of GDM in early pregnancy were recently suggested. We evaluate the diagnostic power of an 'early' oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 75 g and glycosylated fibronectin (glyFn) for GDM screening in a normal cohort. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In a prospective cohort study, 748 singleton pregnancies are recruited in 6 centres in Switzerland, Austria and Germany...
October 12, 2016: BMJ Open
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Monika Żurawska-Kliś, Marcin Kosiński, Ewa Wender-Ożegowska, Łukasz Bartyzel, Elżbieta Matysiak, Bogusława Olak-Białoń, Beata Królikowska-Kobierska, Iwona Towpik, Katarzyna Cypryk
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare the obstetric results in women with GDM in a Polish population based on the criterion for the diagnosis of GDM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a questionnaire study covering the data of 2853 patients with GDM treated in centers nationwide in the years 2011-2013. The principles of self-control, glycemic targets and treatment were based on the then-current PDA guidelines. Analysis of the collected data included an assessment of obstetric results based on the diagnostic criteria for GDM...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Pei-Chao Lin, Chich-Hsiu Hung, Te-Fu Chan, Kuan-Chia Lin, Yu-Yun Hsu, Ya-Ling Tzeng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for developing GDM among Taiwanese pregnant women. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort and case-control study. SETTING: At a medical centre in Southern Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: The hospitalised pregnant women who were diagnosed with either GDM or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) between 1997 and 2011. The glucose tolerance test results were interpreted according to criteria established by the National Diabetes Data Group for GDM...
September 22, 2016: Midwifery
Diane Farrar
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical conditions in pregnancy, and the prevalence is growing with increasing rates of women of advanced age becoming pregnant and the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity and inactivity. GDM is associated with an increased risk of maternal and infant short- and long-term ill-health. There is a positive linear association between increasing maternal glucose at oral glucose tolerance testing and risk of important perinatal outcomes, including cesarean section, large for gestational age, and infant adiposity...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Liangjian Lu, Albert Koulman, Clive J Petry, Benjamin Jenkins, Lee Matthews, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Ken K Ong, David B Dunger
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between early second trimester serum lipidomic variation and maternal glycemic traits at 28 weeks, and to identify predictive lipid biomarkers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective study of 817 pregnant women (discovery cohort, n = 200; validation cohort, n = 617) who provided an early second trimester serum sample, and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28 weeks...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Care
Roberta Rizzo, Liliana Gabrielli, Daria Bortolotti, Valentina Gentili, Giulia Piccirilli, Angela Chiereghin, Claudia Pavia, Silvia Bolzani, Brunella Guerra, Giuliana Simonazzi, Francesca Cervi, Maria Grazia Capretti, Enrico Fainardi, Dario Di Luca, Maria Paola Landini, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I antigen that is expressed during pregnancy contributing to maternal-fetal tolerance. HLA-G can be expressed as membrane-bound and soluble forms. HLA-G expression increases strongly during viral infections such as congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, with functional consequences in immunoregulation. In this work we investigated the expression of soluble (s)HLA-G and beta-2 microglobulin (component of HLA) molecules in correlation with the risk of transmission and severity of congenital HCMV infection...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Claire L Meek
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy disorder which is generally managed with diet, exercise, metformin or insulin treatment and which usually resolves after delivery of the infant. Identifying and treating GDM improves maternal and fetal outcomes, and allows for health promotion to reduce the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. However, there remains considerable controversy about the optimal method of identification and diagnosis of women with GDM. The NICE-2015 diagnostic criteria (75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 0 hr ⩾5...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Majid Valizadeh, Zahra Piri, Farnaz Mohammadian, Koorosh Kamali, Hamid Reza Amir Moghadami
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in many observational studies. OBJECTIVES: We report the first study of the impact of prenatal vitamin D supplementation on postpartum dysglycemia in GDM patients in a randomized clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with GDM at 12 - 32 weeks of gestation were assigned randomly to either the intervention group (in which serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25OHD] levels were measured immediately, n = 48) or the control group (in which the serum was stored and assayed at 6 - 12 weeks post-partum, n = 48)...
April 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Junhong Leng, Peng Wang, Ping Shao, Cuiping Zhang, Weiqin Li, Nan Li, Leishen Wang, Hairong Nan, Zhijie Yu, Gang Hu, Juliana Cn Chan, Xilin Yang
BACKGROUND: Passive smoking increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk but it is uncertain whether it also increased gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. We aimed to examine the association of passive smoking during pregnancy and its interaction with maternal obesity for GDM. METHODS: From 2010 to 2012, 12,786 Chinese women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 weeks of gestation and further underwent a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if the GCT result was ≥7...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Priscila Vianna, Andressa Mondadori, Moises E Bauer, Dinara Dornfeld, Jose Artur Chies
During pregnancy the maternal immune system is tolerant to fetal antigens via the engagement of immune regulatory mechanisms. Failure in regulating the maternal immunity to fetal antigens may lead to preeclampsia (PE). We addressed the role of HLAG gene polymorphisms and protein expression as well as regulatory T cells and Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in healthy and pathological pregnancies. Blood samples from 26 pregnant women with PE, 25 non-PE and 7 strictly healthy pregnant women were assessed. PBMCs were phenotyped for early activation markers (CD25 and CD69), regulatory T cell markers (CD8+CD28- and CD4+CD25highFoxp3+), ILT-2 (HLA-G receptor) and HLA-G...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Aimee G Kim, Jesse D Vrecenak, Matthew M Boelig, Linda Eissenberg, Michael P Rettig, John S Riley, Matthew S Holt, Michael A Conner, Stavros P Loukogeorgakis, Haiying Li, John F DiPersio, Alan W Flake, William H Peranteau
In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) is a novel nonmyeloablative approach that results in donor specific tolerance and mixed allogeneic chimerism. Clinical application is limited by low levels of donor cell engraftment. Competition from endogenous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for limited "space" in fetal hematopoietic organs remains a significant barrier to successful IUHCT. AMD3100, a CXCR4 inhibitor, and firategrast, an α4β1 and α4β7 integrin inhibitor (α4β1/7) have been shown to disrupt HSC retention in the postnatal hematopoietic niche (HN)...
September 20, 2016: Blood
Bettina Mavrommatis, Lucie Baudino, Prisca Levy, Julia Merkenschlager, Urszula Eksmond, Tiziano Donnarumma, George Young, Jonathan Stoye, George Kassiotis
Elucidation of the immune requirements for control or elimination of retroviral infection remains an important aim. We studied the induction of adaptive immunity to neonatal infection with a murine retrovirus, under conditions leading to immunological tolerance. We found that the absence of either maternal or offspring adaptive immunity permitted efficient vertical transmission of the retrovirus. Maternal immunodeficiency allowed the retrovirus to induce central Th cell tolerance in the infected offspring. In turn, this compromised the offspring's ability to mount a protective Th cell-dependent B cell response...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
L R De Souza, H Berger, R Retnakaran, P A Vlachou, J L Maguire, A B Nathens, P W Connelly, J G Ray
Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11-14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
: We have previously showed that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero via the mother's diet, may impair insulin tolerance and cause behavioral deficits in adulthood via mechanisms which are incompletely understood. The role of the CNS in regulating glucose homeostasis has been highlighted by recent delineation of the gut-brain axis, in which N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) are important in maintaining glucose homeostasis, in addition to regulating certain aspects of behavior...
September 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Thaddeus P Waters, Alan R Dyer, Denise M Scholtens, Sharon L Dooley, Elaine Herer, Lynn P Lowe, Jeremy J N Oats, Bengt Persson, David A Sacks, Boyd E Metzger, Patrick M Catalano
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of adverse outcomes for women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria using data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis from the North American HAPO studycenters. Glucose measurements from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were used to group participants into three nonoverlapping categories: GDM based on Carpenter-Coustan (CC) criteria (also GDM based on IADPSG criteria), GDM diagnosed based on IADPSG criteria but not CC criteria, and no GDM...
September 15, 2016: Diabetes Care
Maximilian Neugebauer, Jana K Böcker, Julian C J Matern, Shmuel Pietrokovski, Henning D Mootz
Protein splicing by inteins has found diverse applications in biotechnology, protein chemistry and chemical biology. Inteins display a wide range of efficiencies and rates unpredictable from their amino acid sequences. Here, we identified positions T22S and S35 in the LacZα peptide as intein insertion sites that strictly require protein splicing, in contrast to cleavage side-reactions, to allow for complementation of β-galactosidase activity. Both the cis-variant of the M86 mutant of the Ssp DnaB intein and a split form undergoing protein trans-splicing gave rise to formation of blue colonies in the β-galactosidase read-out...
September 15, 2016: Biological Chemistry
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