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maternal tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647674/in-pregnancy-increased-maternal-stai-trait-stress-score-shows-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-increased-stress-hormones
#1
Georgios Valsamakis, Dimitrios C Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Chalarakis, N Nikolaos Vrachnis, Elpida J Sidiropoulou, Maria Manolikaki, Aimilia Mantzou, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, George Mastorakos
INTRODUCTION: Chronic or acute stressors influence maternal and fetal Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axes (HPA) during pregnancy. In this study, the effect of maternal stress into maternal insulin sensitivity was investigated during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two pregnant women [aged 27.1±2.5 (mean±SD) yrs; BMI=25±2.2kg/m(2)] had at the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimesters anthropometry, fasting blood samples (cortisol, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), active amylin, Interleukin (IL6)), Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) for glucose and insulin, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) trait and state questionnaires (for stress assessment)...
June 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645262/acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-pregnancy-clinical-experience-from-a-single-center-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Nicola Stefano Fracchiolla, Mariarita Sciumè, Francesco Dambrosi, Francesca Guidotti, Manuela Wally Ossola, Giovanna Chidini, Umberto Gianelli, Daniela Merlo, Agostino Cortelezzi
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for more than two thirds of leukemia during pregnancy and has an incidence of 1 in 75,000 to 100,000. Its clinical management remains a challenging therapeutic task both for patient and medical team, given to the therapy-attributable risks for mother and fetus and the connected counseling regarding pregnancy continuation. METHODS: We provided a review of updated literature and a comprehensive description of five maternal/fetal outcomes of AML cases diagnosed concomitantly to pregnancy and treated at our Institution from 2006 to 2012...
June 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641783/abnormal-levels-of-adipokines-in-adolescent-offspring-of-women-with-type-1-diabetes-results-from-the-epicom-study
#3
Zuzana Lohse, Birgitte Bytoft, Sine Knorr, Tine D Clausen, Rikke Beck Jensen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Anne Pernille Hermann, Peter Oturai, Jan Frystyk, Peter Damm, Claus H Gravholt, Kurt Højlund, Dorte M Jensen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate long-term consequences of diabetes during pregnancy, we determined adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescents born by women with type 1 diabetic (T1D) or non-diabetic mothers, and determined associations between adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescence and the magnitude of intrauterine hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin and leptin and calculated leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) in 271 offspring of T1D women (index offspring) (13-20years), and 297 matched control offspring...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639391/an-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-and-memory-t-follicular-helper-cells
#4
Xiaorui Luan, Xiaomin Kang, Weiping Li, Qian Dong
PROBLEM: Immune tolerance with respect to a semi-allogeneic fetus plays a key role in the establishment of a pregnancy. Memory T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have a central role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Much of our knowledge of memory Tfh cells' function comes from immune-related diseases. However, the true physiological characteristics of memory Tfh cells and their mode of action in pregnancy remain unclear. METHODS OF STUDY: Deciduas and blood were obtained from 25 recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) patients undergoing surgical abortion and 19 normal women in early pregnancy undergoing elective termination...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637889/targeted-metabolomics-demonstrates-distinct-and-overlapping-maternal-metabolites-associated-with-bmi-glucose-and-insulin-sensitivity-during-pregnancy-across-four-ancestry-groups
#5
Saya Jacob, Michael Nodzenski, Anna C Reisetter, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Robert D Stevens, Olga R Ilkayeva, Lynn P Lowe, Boyd E Metzger, Christopher B Newgard, Denise M Scholtens, William L Lowe
OBJECTIVE: We used targeted metabolomics in pregnant mothers to compare maternal metabolite associations with maternal BMI, glycemia, and insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Targeted metabolomic assays of clinical metabolites, amino acids, and acylcarnitines were performed on fasting and 1-h postglucose serum samples from European ancestry, Afro-Caribbean, Thai, and Mexican American mothers (400 from each ancestry group) who participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at ∼28 weeks gestation...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636758/fetal-overnutrition-and-offspring-insulin-resistance-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-the-exploring-perinatal-outcomes-among-children-epoch-study
#6
K A Sauder, C W Hockett, B M Ringham, D H Glueck, D Dabelea
AIMS: To examine the associations of intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and obesity with offspring insulin resistance, β-cell function and oral disposition index in a longitudinal observational study of ethnically diverse offspring. METHODS: A total of 445 offspring who were exposed (n=81) or not exposed (n=364) to maternal diabetes in utero completed two fasting blood measurements at mean (sd) ages of 10.5 (1.5) and 16.5 (1.2) years, respectively, and an oral glucose tolerance test at the second visit...
June 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633489/effects-of-early-pregnancy-on-uterine-lymphocytes-and-endometrial-expression-of-immune-regulatory-molecules-in-dairy-heifers1
#7
Sreelakshmi Vasudevan, Manasi M Kamat, Sadhat S Walusimbi, Joy L Pate, Troy L Ott
Natural killer (NK) cells are essential for establishment of human and rodent pregnancies. The function of these and other cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is controlled by stimulatory and inhibitory signaling. A role for cytotoxic cells during early pregnancy in cattle has not been described, but regulation of their function at the fetal-maternal interface is thought to be critical for conceptus survival. The hypothesis that the relative abundance of CTL and expression of inhibitory signaling molecules is increased by the conceptus during early pregnancy was tested...
June 19, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632178/an-increased-dietary-supply-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-during-early-weaning-in-rodents-prevents-excessive-fat-accumulation-in-adulthood
#8
Bert J M van de Heijning, Annemarie Oosting, Diane Kegler, Eline M van der Beek
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD). Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA) or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN) day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat) until PN day 98...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628847/the-importance-of-declining-insulin-requirements-during-pregnancy-in-patients-with-pre-gestational-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Maya Ram, Larissa Feinmesser, Shiri Shinar, Sharon Maslovitz
OBJECTIVE: In patients with pre-gestational and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), insulin requirements often increase during the third trimester of pregnancy in order to maintain proper glycemic control. However, a fraction of patients demonstrate a significant decrease in insulin requirements in late gestation. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of decreasing insulin requirements in patients with pre-gestational diabetes and GDM with respect to fetal wellbeing and pregnancy outcome...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624818/maternal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-ultrasound-thickness-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-at-24-28-weeks-gestation
#10
Francesco D'Ambrosi, Francesca Crovetto, Enrico Colosi, Isabella Fabietti, Floriana Carbone, Beatrice Tassis, Silvia Motta, Alessandro Bulfoni, Luigi Fedele, Gabriele Rossi, Nicola Persico
OBJECTIVE: To compare the sonographic measurement of maternal subcutaneous and visceral adipose thickness between pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and patients with nondiabetic pregnancies. METHODS: Adipose thickness was measured by transabdominal ultrasound in pregnant women attending our antenatal clinics at 24-28 weeks' gestation. All patients underwent a 75-g oral glucose challenge as a diagnostic test for GDM. RESULTS: The study population comprised 56 women with a positive glucose challenge test and 112 nondiabetic pregnancies...
June 17, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614294/human-fetal-dendritic-cells-promote-prenatal-t-cell-immune-suppression-through-arginase-2
#11
Naomi McGovern, Amanda Shin, Gillian Low, Donovan Low, Kaibo Duan, Leong Jing Yao, Rasha Msallam, Ivy Low, Nurhidaya Binte Shadan, Hermi R Sumatoh, Erin Soon, Josephine Lum, Esther Mok, Sandra Hubert, Peter See, Edwin Huang Kunxiang, Yie Hou Lee, Baptiste Janela, Mahesh Choolani, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, Yiping Fan, Tony Kiat Hon Lim, Dedrick Kok Hong, Ker-Kan Tan, John Kit Chung Tam, Christopher Schuster, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Xiao-Nong Wang, Venetia Bigley, Matthew Collin, Muzlifah Haniffa, Andreas Schlitzer, Michael Poidinger, Salvatore Albani, Anis Larbi, Evan W Newell, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Florent Ginhoux
During gestation the developing human fetus is exposed to a diverse range of potentially immune-stimulatory molecules including semi-allogeneic antigens from maternal cells, substances from ingested amniotic fluid, food antigens, and microbes. Yet the capacity of the fetal immune system, including antigen-presenting cells, to detect and respond to such stimuli remains unclear. In particular, dendritic cells, which are crucial for effective immunity and tolerance, remain poorly characterized in the developing fetus...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609144/therapeutic-benefit-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-pregnant-rats-with-angiotensin-receptor-agonistic-autoantibody-induced-hypertension-implications-for-immunomodulation-and-cytoprotection
#12
Dan Zhang, Lihua Fu, Leilei Wang, Lin Lin, Lihong Yu, Lijun Zhang, Tao Shang
Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is potentially important for maintaining peripheral tolerance. Preeclampsia may be due to maternal immune rejection of the genetically foreign fetus. This study aimed to investigate the biological function of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HU-MSCs) for the treatment of angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibody (AT1-AA)-induced hypertension during pregnancy. HU-MSCs were isolated, cultured, and labeled in vitro. AT1-AA and HU-MSCs were administered to pregnant rats...
June 13, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608544/use-of-intravenous-iron-polymaltose-in-the-management-of-iron-deficiency-in-pregnancy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Alaa Qassim, Rosina G Gergis, Bill Jeffries, Rosalie M Grivell, Luke E Grzeskowiak
BACKGROUND: Intravenous iron polymaltose (IPM) is commonly utilised in pregnancy when oral treatment is not tolerated or where rapid replenishment of iron stores is required, but data on use in pregnancy is scarce. AIM: To examine the use, safety and efficacy of intravenous IPM in pregnancy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of pregnant women administered intravenous IPM between January 2014 and January 2016 at a Tertiary teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia...
June 13, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602253/understanding-interactive-inducible-defenses-of-daphnia-and-its-phytoplankton-prey
#14
Siddiq Akbar, Jingjing Du, Hong Lin, Xiangshi Kong, Shucun Sun, Xingjun Tian
Cyanobacterial and zooplankton inducible defenses are important but understudied process that regulate the trophic interactions of freshwater ecosystem. Daphnia due to its large size is considered an important zooplankton with the high potential to control cyanobacterial blooms. It has been shown that Daphnia through maternal induction transfer tolerance to their next generation against Microcystis toxicity. Maternal induction has been investigated in different Daphnia species without considering phenotypic plasticity of prey...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595952/trans-resveratrol-enriched-maternal-diet-protects-the-immature-hippocampus-from-perinatal-asphyxia-in-rats
#15
Sebastian Isac, Anca Maria Panaitescu, Ana Spataru, Mara Iesanu, Alexandra Totan, Amalia Udriste, Natalia Cucu, Gheorghe Peltecu, Leon Zagrean, Ana-Maria Zagrean
Trans-resveratrol (tRESV), a polyphenol with antioxidant properties, is common in many food sources, hence easily accessible for study as a maternal dietary supplement in perinatal asphyxia (PA). Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to PA affects especially vulnerable brain areas such as hippocampus and is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity. The purpose of this study is to identify new epigenetic mechanisms of brain inflammation and injury related to PA and to explore the benefit of tRESV enriched maternal diet...
June 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584602/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-metabolic-disorder-among-the-different-phenotypes-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Mahnaz Ashrafi, Fatemeh Sheikhan, Arezoo Arabipoor, Nicole Rouhana, Roya Hosseini, Zahra Zolfaghari
OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder related to several metabolic consequences. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the metabolic features of various phenotypes. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and metabolic disorders among the four different phenotypes of PCOS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in Royan Institute including 208 pregnant women with a history of infertility and PCOS...
May 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579233/a-phase-2-randomized-observer-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-ranging-trial-of-aluminum-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-particle-vaccine-formulations-in-healthy-women-of-childbearing-age
#17
Allison August, Gregory M Glenn, Eloi Kpamegan, Somia P Hickman, Dewal Jani, Hanxin Lu, D Nigel Thomas, Judy Wen, Pedro A Piedra, Louis F Fries
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. We are developing an RSV fusion (F) protein nanoparticle vaccine for immunization of third trimester pregnant women to passively protect infants through transfer of RSV-specific maternal antibodies. The present trial was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of several formulations of RSV F vaccine in 1-dose or 2-dose schedules. METHODS: Placebo, or vaccine with 60μg or 120μg RSV F protein and 0...
June 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572303/maternal-exercise-improves-glucose-tolerance-in-female-offspring
#18
Kristin I Stanford, Hirokazu Takahashi, Kawai So, Ana Barbara Alves-Wagner, Noah B Prince, Adam C Lehnig, Kristen M Getchell, Min-Young Lee, Michael F Hirshman, Laurie J Goodyear
Poor maternal diet can lead to metabolic disease in offspring whereas maternal exercise may have beneficial effects on offspring health. Here, we determined if maternal exercise could reverse the detrimental effects of maternal high fat feeding on offspring metabolism of female mice. C57BL/6 female mice were fed a chow (21%) or high-fat (60%) diet and further divided by housing in static cages or cages with running wheels for 2 weeks prior to breeding and throughout gestation. Females were bred with chow-fed sedentary C57BL/6 males...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569254/maternal-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-affects-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-early-life-of-offspring-rat
#19
Yanhong Huang, Tingting Ye, Chongxiao Liu, Fang Fang, Yuanwen Chen, Yan Dong
We investigated whether maternal over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affects the offspring's lipid metabolism at weaning by assessing liver lipid metabolic gene expressions and analysing its mechanisms on the development of metabolic abnormalities. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, and then continued feeding during gestation and lactation. The offspring whose dams were fed with HFD had a lower birth weight but an increased body weight with impaired glucose tolerance, higher serum cholesterol, and hepatic steatosis at weaning...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566122/necrotizing-enterocolitis-classification-and-two-initial-steps-towards-prevention
#20
Sandra Meinich Juhl
The premature infant suffers from immaturity of all organ systems, one of them being the gastrointestinal tract. When the infant is born, the immature gastrointestinal tract is exposed to milk and simultaneously colonized by high densities of bacteria. The combination of milk, microbiota and an immature gut, leaves the infant vulnerable to developing the dreaded intestinal emergency necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is often very aggressive and no cure exists, which means that prevention is an utmost important topic to researchers, physicians, parents - and infants...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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