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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776398/primary-bacterial-ventriculitis-in-adults-an-emergent-diagnosis-challenge-report-of-a-meningoccal-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Anaïs Lesourd, Nicolas Magne, Anaïs Soares, Caroline Lemaitre, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Isabelle Gueit, Michel Wolff, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Defined by an infection of the ventricular system of the brain, ventriculitis is usually known as a health-care associated infection. In contrast, primary pyogenic ventriculitis complicating community-acquired meningitis is uncommon, and mainly described in infants. Only seven cases that have occured in adults have been found in the international literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a new case due to Neisseria meningitidis occurring in an 85 year-old-man...
May 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773561/postnatal-brain-growth-assessed-by-sequential-cranial-ultrasonography-in-infants-born-30-weeks-gestational-age
#2
R Cuzzilla, A J Spittle, K J Lee, S Rogerson, F M Cowan, L W Doyle, J L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain growth in the early postnatal period following preterm birth has not been well described. This study of infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age and without major brain injury aimed to accomplish the following: 1) assess the reproducibility of linear measures made from cranial ultrasonography, 2) evaluate brain growth using sequential cranial ultrasonography linear measures from birth to term-equivalent age, and 3) explore perinatal predictors of postnatal brain growth...
May 17, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#3
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770117/clinical-application-of-epilepsy-genetics-in-africa-is-now-the-time
#4
Alina I Esterhuizen, Gemma L Carvill, Rajkumar S Ramesar, Symon M Kariuki, Charles R Newton, Annapurna Poduri, Jo M Wilmshurst
Over 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- to middle-income countries where epilepsy is often undiagnosed and untreated due to limited resources and poor infrastructure. In Africa, the burden of epilepsy is exacerbated by increased risk factors such as central nervous system infections, perinatal insults, and traumatic brain injury. Despite the high incidence of these etiologies, the cause of epilepsy in over 60% of African children is unknown, suggesting a possible genetic origin. Large-scale genetic and genomic research in Europe and North America has revealed new genes and variants underlying disease in a range of epilepsy phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769809/managing-infants-born-to-mothers-who-have-used-opioids-during-pregnancy
#5
Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Pat O'Flaherty
The incidence of infant opioid withdrawal has grown rapidly in many countries, including Canada, in the last decade, presenting significant health and early brain development concerns. Increased prenatal exposure to opioids reflects rising prescription opioid use as well as the presence of both illegal opiates and opioid-substitution therapies. Infants are at high risk for experiencing symptoms of abstinence or withdrawal that may require assessment and treatment. This practice point focuses specifically on the effect(s) of opioid withdrawal and current management strategies in the care of infants born to mothers with opioid dependency...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769663/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-influence-the-response-to-baby-schema-in-the-female-brain
#6
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Roland Pfister, Alexander T El Gammal, Eugen Bellon, Esther K Diekhof
Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769515/complications-following-general-anaesthesia-in-paediatric-patients
#7
A K Khan, S R Quddus, H K Khan, M S Ali, M Kamruzzaman, M R Hasan, M Hasan, R H Moon
Complications in paediatric anaesthesia can be conveniently classified as minor or major. Major morbidity includes cardiac arrest, brain damage and death. Minor morbidity can be assessed by clinical audits with smell patient samples. Major morbidity is rare. It is best assessed by very large clinical studies and by review of cases malpractice claims. Both minor & major complication occurs most commonly in infants and children under three especially those with severe co-morbidities. Knowledge of risk profiles in paediatric anaesthesia is a starting point for the reduction of risk complication...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768092/are-only-infants-held-more-often-on-the-left-if-so-why-testing-the-attention-emotion-hypothesis-with-an-infant-a-vase-and-two-chimeric-tests-one-emotional-one-not
#8
Lauren Julius Harris, Rodrigo A Cárdenas, Nathaniel D Stewart, Jason B Almerigi
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and dolls but not books or packages on the left side. One reason may be that attention is more often leftward in response to infants, unlike emotionally neutral objects like books and packages. Women's stronger bias may reflect greater responsiveness to infants. Previously, we tested the attention hypothesis by comparing women's side-of-hold of a doll, book, and package with direction-of-attention on the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT) [Harris, L. J., Cárdenas, R. A...
May 16, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768082/mary-jane-hogue-1883-1962-a-pioneer-in-human-brain-tissue-culture
#9
Steven J Zottoli, Ernst-August Seyfarth
The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765429/the-potentials-and-caveats-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-in-the-preterm-infant
#10
REVIEW
Judith Gronbach, Tayyab Shahzad, Sarah Radajewski, Cho-Ming Chao, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Tobias Reicherzer, Harald Ehrhardt
Preponderance of proinflammatory signals is a characteristic feature of all acute and resulting long-term morbidities of the preterm infant. The proinflammatory actions are best characterized for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is the chronic lung disease of the preterm infant with lifelong restrictions of pulmonary function and severe consequences for psychomotor development and quality of life. Besides BPD, the immature brain, eye, and gut are also exposed to inflammatory injuries provoked by infection, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen toxicity...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763673/the-distribution-of-pain-activity-across-the-human-neonatal-brain-is-sex-dependent
#11
Madeleine Verriotis, Laura Jones, Kimberley Whitehead, Pureza Laudiano-Dray, Ismini Panayotidis, Hemani Patel, Judith Meek, Lorenzo Fabrizi, Maria Fitzgerald
In adults, there are differences between male and female structural and functional brain connectivity, specifically for those regions involved in pain processing. This may partly explain the observed sex differences in pain sensitivity, tolerance, and inhibitory control, and in the development of chronic pain. However, it is not known if these differences exist from birth. Cortical activity in response to a painful stimulus can be observed in the human neonatal brain, but this nociceptive activity continues to develop in the postnatal period and is qualitatively different from that of adults, partly due to the considerable cortical maturation during this time...
May 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763437/postnatal-colonization-with-human-infant-type-bifidobacterium-species-alters-behavior-of-adult-gnotobiotic-mice
#12
Berkley Luk, Surabi Veeraragavan, Melinda Engevik, Miriam Balderas, Angela Major, Jessica Runge, Ruth Ann Luna, James Versalovic
Accumulating studies have defined a role for the intestinal microbiota in modulation of host behavior. Research using gnotobiotic mice emphasizes that early microbial colonization with a complex microbiota (conventionalization) can rescue some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in mice that grow to adulthood completely devoid of bacteria (germ-free mice). However, the human infant and adult microbiomes vary greatly, and effects of the neonatal microbiome on neurodevelopment are currently not well understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761954/-research-on-brain-white-matter-network-in-cerebral-palsy-infant
#13
Jun Li, Cheng Yang, Yuanjun Wang, Shengdong Nie
Present study used diffusion tensor image and tractography to construct brain white matter networks of 15 cerebral palsy infants and 30 healthy infants that matched for age and gender. After white matter network analysis, we found that both cerebral palsy and healthy infants had a small-world topology in white matter network, but cerebral palsy infants exhibited abnormal topological organization: increased shortest path length but decreased normalize clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761256/quantitative-analysis-of-cranial-orbital-changes-in-infants-with-anterior-synostotic-plagiocephaly
#14
Rosalinda Calandrelli, Fabio Pilato, Luca Massimi, Marco Panfili, Concezio Di Rocco, Cesare Colosimo
PURPOSE: The effects of premature fusion of one coronal suture cause skull and orbital alterations in term of side-to-side asymmetry. This study aimed to quantify the cranio-orbital complex changes related to the severity of skull base dysmorphology in patients with unicoronal synostosis. METHODS: Twenty-four infants affected by unicoronal synostosis were subdivided in three subgroups according to the severity of skull base deformity and their high-resolution CT images were quantitatively analyzed (groups IIa, IIb, III)...
May 14, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761117/genomic-analysis-identifies-masqueraders-of-full-term-cerebral-palsy
#15
Yusuke Takezawa, Atsuo Kikuchi, Kazuhiro Haginoya, Tetsuya Niihori, Yurika Numata-Uematsu, Takehiko Inui, Saeko Yamamura-Suzuki, Takuya Miyabayashi, Mai Anzai, Sato Suzuki-Muromoto, Yukimune Okubo, Wakaba Endo, Noriko Togashi, Yasuko Kobayashi, Akira Onuma, Ryo Funayama, Matsuyuki Shirota, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Shigeo Kure
Objective: Cerebral palsy is a common, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that causes movement and postural disabilities. Recent studies have suggested genetic diseases can be misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy. We hypothesized that two simple criteria, that is, full-term births and nonspecific brain MRI findings, are keys to extracting masqueraders among cerebral palsy cases due to the following: (1) preterm infants are susceptible to multiple environmental factors and therefore demonstrate an increased risk of cerebral palsy and (2) brain MRI assessment is essential for excluding environmental causes and other particular disorders...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753727/gender-dependent-changes-in-physical-development-bdnf-content-and-gsh-redox-system-in-a-model-of-acute-neonatal-hypoxia-in-rats
#16
Iu A Sukhanova, E A Sebentsova, D D Khukhareva, D M Manchenko, N Yu Glazova, P A Vishnyakova, L S Inozemtseva, O V Dolotov, M Y Vysokikh, N G Levitskaya
Perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia is one of the leading factors that negatively influence the development of the central nervous system. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sex on the outcomes of acute neonatal hypoxia (ANH) in rat pups. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to a hypoxic condition (8% oxygen for 120 min) at postnatal day 2 (P2). Immediately after ANH an increase in HIF1-α gene expression was observed in the rat brains, independently of sex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glutathione peroxidase-4 gene expression was increased in female animals only...
May 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753700/spectrum-and-prevalence-of-genetic-predisposition-in-medulloblastoma-a-retrospective-genetic-study-and-prospective-validation-in-a-clinical-trial-cohort
#17
Sebastian M Waszak, Paul A Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, Giles W Robinson, Christian Sutter, Susanne Groebner, Kerstin B Grund, Laurence Brugières, David T W Jones, Kristian W Pajtler, A Sorana Morrissy, Marcel Kool, Dominik Sturm, Lukas Chavez, Aurelie Ernst, Sebastian Brabetz, Michael Hain, Thomas Zichner, Maia Segura-Wang, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Tobias Rausch, Balca R Mardin, Xin Zhou, Cristina Baciu, Christian Lawerenz, Jennifer A Chan, Pascale Varlet, Lea Guerrini-Rousseau, Daniel W Fults, Wiesława Grajkowska, Peter Hauser, Nada Jabado, Young-Shin Ra, Karel Zitterbart, Suyash S Shringarpure, Francisco M De La Vega, Carlos D Bustamante, Ho-Keung Ng, Arie Perry, Tobey J MacDonald, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Anne E Bendel, Daniel C Bowers, Geoffrey McCowage, Murali M Chintagumpala, Richard Cohn, Timothy Hassall, Gudrun Fleischhack, Tone Eggen, Finn Wesenberg, Maria Feychting, Birgitta Lannering, Joachim Schüz, Christoffer Johansen, Tina V Andersen, Martin Röösli, Claudia E Kuehni, Michael Grotzer, Kristina Kjaerheim, Camelia M Monoranu, Tenley C Archer, Elizabeth Duke, Scott L Pomeroy, Redmond Shelagh, Stephan Frank, David Sumerauer, Wolfram Scheurlen, Marina V Ryzhova, Till Milde, Christian P Kratz, David Samuel, Jinghui Zhang, David A Solomon, Marco Marra, Roland Eils, Claus R Bartram, Katja von Hoff, Stefan Rutkowski, Vijay Ramaswamy, Richard J Gilbertson, Andrey Korshunov, Michael D Taylor, Peter Lichter, David Malkin, Amar Gajjar, Jan O Korbel, Stefan M Pfister
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED)...
May 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752287/-rnaset2-knockout-rats-exhibit-hippocampal-neuropathology-and-deficits-in-memory
#18
Kerstin W Sinkevicius, Thomas R Morrison, Praveen Kulkarni, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Sade Iriah, Samantha Malmberg, Julia Sabrick, Jennifer A Honeycutt, Kim L Askew, Malav Trivedi, Craig F Ferris
RNASET2 deficiency in humans is associated with infant cystic leukoencephalopathy, which causes psychomotor impairment, spasticity, and epilepsy. A zebrafish mutant model suggests that loss of RNASET2 function leads to neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of non-degraded RNA in the lysosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the first rodent model of RNASET2 deficiency. The brains of 3- and 12-month-old RNaseT2 knockout rats were studied using multiple magnetic resonance imaging modalities and behavioral tests...
May 10, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751200/biosensor-based-selective-detection-of-zika-virus-specific-antibodies-in-infected-individuals
#19
Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Ana R Cardoso, Luis C S Ferreira, M Goreti F Sales, Martin F Bachmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) recently emerged as a global threat subsequent to its global spread because it induces microencephaly and other brain damages in infants born to infected mothers. Epidemiological monitoring of infection has been hampered by the absence of reliable serological tests capable to distinguish between ZIKV and other Flavivirus infections, in particular Dengue virus (DENV). As both viruses are transmitted by the same mosquito-species, their distributions largely overlap and reliable serological distinction between the viruses is essential...
May 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751176/il-4-mediates-the-delayed-neurobehavioral-impairments-induced-by-neonatal-hepatitis-b-vaccination-that-involves-the-down-regulation-of-the-il-4-receptor-in-the-hippocampus
#20
Xiao Wang, Junhua Yang, Zhiwei Xing, Hongyang Zhang, Yaru Wen, Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Jie Xu, Zhibin Yao
We have previously verified that neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and behavior impairments in mice. However, the exact mechanism of these effects remain unclear. In this study, we observed that neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine response lasting for 4-5 weeks in both the serum and the hippocampus, primarily indicated by elevated IL-4 levels. Three weeks after the vaccination schedule, however, hepatitis B vaccine (HBV)-mice showed delayed hippocampal neuroinflammation...
May 8, 2018: Cytokine
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