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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#1
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095390/hydrogen-sulfide-promotes-learning-and-memory-and-suppresses-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-repetitive-febrile-seizures
#2
Fei Zhuang, Xuhong Zhou, Hong Li, Xiaochun Yang, Zewu Dong, Wendi Zhou, Jian Chen
OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a novel gasotransmitter, plays important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in different types of brain disorders but not in repetitive febrile seizure (febrile status epilepticus; FSE) models. This study aims to test whether a donor of H2S sodium sulfhydrate (NaHS) is also effective for FSE in rats. METHODS: FSE was induced in rat pups on postnatal day 10 in water at 45...
January 18, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#3
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094019/the-first-model-of-keeping-energy-balance-and-optimal-psycho-affective-development-breastfed-infants
#4
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Ludovica Leone, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Breastfed infants follow a peculiar growth fashion characterized by a rapid weight gain in the first weeks of life, then followed by a fast decrease in growth rates, a capacity to self-regulate the sense of hungry and satiety, and a minor propensity towards overweight and obesity later on, in parallel with a better neurodevelopmental performance. METHODS: We searched studies investigating the relationship between the feeding mode in infancy and the energy balance, so the possible associations with total energy expenditure and intake regulation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089767/the-correlation-between-a-short-term-conventional-electroencephalography-in-the-first-day-of-life-and-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-newborns-undergoing-hypothermia-for-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#5
Rawad Obeid, Yoshimi Sogawa, Satyanarayana Gedela, Monica Naik, Vince Lee, Richard Telesco, Jessica Wisnowski, Christine Magill, Michael J Painter, Ashok Panigrahy
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalograph recorded in the first day of life in newborns treated with hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy could be utilized as a predictive tool for the severity of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: This work was a retrospective study of newborns who were admitted for therapeutic hypothermia due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. All enrolled infants underwent encephalography within the first 24 hours of life and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging after rewarming...
November 3, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081026/the-effect-of-nebulized-glycopyrrolate-on-posterior-drooling-in-patients-with-brain-injury-two-cases-of-different-brain-lesions
#7
Zee-Ihn Lee, Kwang Jae Yu, Dae Hee Lee, Seong Kyung Hong, Seung Beom Woo, Jong Min Kim, Donghwi Park
Posterior drooling, which can lead to substantial respiratory morbidity, including unexplained lung diseases and recurrent pneumonia, is an important issue in the rehabilitation unit. There are various treatment options for posterior drooling, including pharmacologic therapy, oral motor or behavioral therapy, biofeedback, local glandular injection of botulinum toxin, irradiation, and surgery. Among them, nebulized glycopyrrolate has the following advantages: It is noninvasive and is relatively free of central adverse effects because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier unlike other anticholinergics...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079874/cerebral-modulation-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-term-infants
#8
N Schneebaum Sender, R B Govindan, M T Whitehead, A N Massaro, M Metzler, J Wang, Y I Cheng, A J du Plessis
OBJECTIVE: Central topography of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has yet to be fully deciphered. In adults it has been shown to lateralize sympathetic and parasympathetic influence predominantly to the right and left cerebral hemispheres, respectively. We examined functional topography of central ANS in newborn subjects utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), an established measure of ANS function. STUDY DESIGN: We studied newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy participating in a prospective study undergoing a therapeutic hypothermia protocol...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076856/mri-differences-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-preterm-infants
#9
Christie J Bruno, Shreyans Bengani, William A Gomes, Mariana Brewer, Melissa Vega, Xianhong Xie, Mimi Kim, Mamta Fuloria
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) further increases this risk. Brain imaging studies are often utilized at or near term-equivalent age to determine later prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intrauterine growth and regional brain volume on MRI scans performed in preterm infants at or near term-equivalent age. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study of 24 infants born at gestational age ≤30 weeks and cared for in a large, inner-city, academic neonatal intensive-care unit from 2012 to 2013...
January 11, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076368/functional-laterality-of-task-evoked-activation-in-sensorimotor-cortex-of-preterm-infants-an-optimized-3-t-fmri-study-employing-a-customized-neonatal-head-coil
#10
Lukas Scheef, Jurek A Nordmeyer-Massner, Adam Pr Smith-Collins, Nicole Müller, Gaby Stegmann-Woessner, Jacob Jankowski, Jürgen Gieseke, Mark Born, Hermann Seitz, Peter Bartmann, Hans H Schild, Klaas P Pruessmann, Axel Heep, Henning Boecker
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075691/complexity-of-brain-signals-is-associated-with-outcome-in-preterm-infants
#11
Cristine Sortica da Costa, Michal M Placek, Marek Czosnyka, Brenno Cabella, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Topun Austin, Peter Smielewski
A characteristic feature of complex healthy biological systems is the ability to react and adapt to minute changes in the environment. This 'complexity' manifests itself in highly irregular patterns of various physiological measurements. Here, we apply Multiscale Entropy (MSE) analysis to assess the complexity of systemic and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals in a cohort of 61 critically ill preterm infants born at median (range) gestational age of 26 (23-31) weeks, before 24 h of life. We further correlate the complexity of these parameters with brain injury and mortality...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075370/effect-of-carotenoid-supplemented-formula-on-carotenoid-bioaccumulation-in-tissues-of-infant-rhesus-macaques-a-pilot-study-focused-on-lutein
#12
Sookyoung Jeon, Martha Neuringer, Emily E Johnson, Matthew J Kuchan, Suzette L Pereira, Elizabeth J Johnson, John W Erdman
Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group)...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073330/the-eyes-as-windows-into-other-minds
#13
Tobias Grossmann
Eyes have been shown to play a key role during human social interactions. However, to date, no comprehensive cross-discipline model has provided a framework that can account for uniquely human responses to eye cues. In this review, I present a framework that brings together work on the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and neural bases of perceiving and responding to eyes. Specifically, I argue for a two-process model: a first process that ensures privileged attention to information encoded in the eyes and is important for the detection of other minds and a second process that permits the decoding of information contained in the eyes concerning another person's emotional and mental states...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072399/organization-of-high-level-visual-cortex-in-human-infants
#14
Ben Deen, Hilary Richardson, Daniel D Dilks, Atsushi Takahashi, Boris Keil, Lawrence L Wald, Nancy Kanwisher, Rebecca Saxe
How much of the structure of the human mind and brain is already specified at birth, and how much arises from experience? In this article, we consider the test case of extrastriate visual cortex, where a highly systematic functional organization is present in virtually every normal adult, including regions preferring behaviourally significant stimulus categories, such as faces, bodies, and scenes. Novel methods were developed to scan awake infants with fMRI, while they viewed multiple categories of visual stimuli...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071721/assessment-of-phospholipid-synthesis-related-biomarkers-for-perinatal-asphyxia-a-piglet-study
#15
Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Rønnaug Solberg, Isabel Lliso, Leonid Pankratov, Guillermo Quintás, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Máximo Vento, Julia Kuligowski
The prompt and reliable identification of infants at risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to perinatal asphyxia in the first critical hours is important for clinical decision-making and yet still remains a challenge. This work strives for the evaluation of a panel of metabolic biomarkers that have been associated with the hypoxic-ischemic insult in the perinatal period. Plasma and urine samples from a consolidated newborn piglet model of hypoxia and withdrawn before and at different time points after a hypoxic insult were analyzed and compared to a control group...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066825/a-blinded-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-investigating-the-efficacy-of-morphine-analgesia-for-procedural-pain-in-infants-trial-protocol
#16
Rebeccah Slater, Caroline Hartley, Fiona Moultrie, Eleri Adams, Ed Juszczak, Richard Rogers, Jane E Norman, Chetan Patel, Kayleigh Stanbury, Amy Hoskin, Gabrielle Green
Infant pain has both immediate and long-term negative consequences, yet in clinical practice it is often undertreated. To date, few pain-relieving drugs have been tested in infants. Morphine is a potent analgesic that provides effective pain relief in adults, but there is inconclusive evidence for its effectiveness in infants. The purpose of this study is to establish whether oral morphine provides effective analgesia for procedural pain in infants. A blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized, phase II, clinical trial will be undertaken to determine whether morphine sulphate administered orally prior to clinically-required retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and heel lancing provides effective analgesia...
November 15, 2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063687/the-longitudinal-effects-of-persistent-apnea-on-cerebral-oxygenation-in-infants-born-preterm
#17
Rosemary S C Horne, Annie C H Fung, Scott NcNeil, Karinna L Fyfe, Alexsandria Odoi, Flora Y Wong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and impact of persistent apnea on heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and brain tissue oxygenation index (TOI) over the first 6 months after term equivalent age in ex-preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four preterm infants born between 27 and 36 weeks of gestational age were studied with daytime polysomnography at 2-4 weeks, 2-3 months, and 5-6 months post-term corrected age. Apneas lasting ≥3 seconds were included and maximal percentage changes (nadir) in HR, SpO2, and tissue oxygenation index (TOI, NIRO-200 Hamamatsu) from baseline were analyzed...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062893/prenatal-alcohol-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-rat-brain-cerebral-cortex-protective-effect-of-folic-acid-and-betaine
#18
Ibrahim Sogut, Onur Uysal, Aysegul Oglakci, Ferruh Yucel, Kazim Kartkaya, Gungor Kanbak
PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the infant. This study aims to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure related neuroapoptosis on the cerebral cortex tissues of newborn rats and possible neuroprotective effects of betaine, folic acid, and combined therapy. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into five experimental groups: control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + folic acid, and ethanol + betaine + folic acid combined therapy groups...
January 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062515/joint-attention-and-brain-functional-connectivity-in-infants-and-toddlers
#19
Adam T Eggebrecht, Jed T Elison, Eric Feczko, Alexandre Todorov, Jason J Wolff, Sridhar Kandala, Chloe M Adams, Abraham Z Snyder, John D Lewis, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N Botteron, Robert C McKinstry, John N Constantino, Alan Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Stephen Dager, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Guido Gerig, Samir Das, Penelope Kostopoulos, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett
Initiating joint attention (IJA), the behavioral instigation of coordinated focus of 2 people on an object, emerges over the first 2 years of life and supports social-communicative functioning related to the healthy development of aspects of language, empathy, and theory of mind. Deficits in IJA provide strong early indicators for autism spectrum disorder, and therapies targeting joint attention have shown tremendous promise. However, the brain systems underlying IJA in early childhood are poorly understood, due in part to significant methodological challenges in imaging localized brain function that supports social behaviors during the first 2 years of life...
January 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062175/intranasal-c3a-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#20
Javier Morán, Anna Stokowska, Frederik R Walker, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Marcela Pekna
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults...
January 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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