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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931035/neuroprotection-with-hypothermia-and-allopurinol-in-an-animal-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-is-it-a-gender-question
#1
Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Cristina Durán Fernández-Feijóo, Míriam Lopez-Abad, Maria Goretti Lopez Ramos, Rafael Balada Caballé, Soledad Alcántara-Horillo, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most important causes of neonatal brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard treatment for term newborns after perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury (HI). Despite this, TH does not provide complete neuroprotection. Allopurinol seems to be a good neuroprotector in several animal studies, but it has never been tested in combination with hypothermia. Clinical findings show that male infants with (HI) fare more poorly than matched females in cognitive outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928544/role-of-anesthesiologist-in-the-management-of-a-child-with-cerebral-palsy
#2
REVIEW
Safiya Imtiaz Shaikh, Ganapati Hegade
Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a spectrum of nonprogressive neurological disorders with disturbances in posture and movement, resulting from perinatal intrauterine insult to developing infant brain. Many conditions associated with CP require surgery. Such cases pose important gastrointestinal, respiratory, and other perioperative considerations. Anesthetic management in these cases is delicate. Intraoperative complications including hypovolemia, hypothermia, muscle spasms, seizures, and delayed recovery might complicate the anesthetic management...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928195/reach-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-trial-of-rehabilitation-very-early-in-congenital-hemiplegia
#3
Roslyn N Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose
OBJECTIVES: Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP). Children with unilateral CP show signs of upper limb asymmetry by 8 months corrected age (ca) but are frequently not referred to therapy until after 12 months ca. This study compares the efficacy of infant-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy (Baby mCIMT) to infant friendly bimanual therapy (Baby BIM) on upper limb, cognitive and neuroplasticity outcomes in a multisite randomised comparison trial...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927641/gentle-touch-perception-from-early-childhood-to-adolescence
#4
Ilona Croy, Isac Sehlstedt, Helena Backlund Wasling, Rochelle Ackerley, Håkan Olausson
Affective touch plays an important role in children's social interaction and is involved in shaping the development of the social brain. The positive affective component of touch is thought to be conveyed via a group of unmyelinated, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, known as C-tactile fibers that are optimally activated by gentle, slow, stroking touch. Touch targeting these C-tactile fibers has been shown to decrease the heart rate in infants. The current study investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to affective touch...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925896/allopurinol-old-drug-new-indication-in-neonates
#5
Kim V Annink, Axel R Franz, Jan B Derks, Mario Rüdiger, Frank van Bel, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of neonatal mortality and neurological morbidity, even despite hypothermia treatment. Neuronal damage in these infants is partly caused by the production of superoxides via the xanthine-oxidase pathway and concomitant free radical formation. Allopurinol is a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor and can potentially reduce the formation of these superoxides that lead to brain damage in HIE. METHODS: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the animal and clinical data about the neuroprotective effect of allopurinol in HIE and the relevant mechanisms leading to brain injury in HIE...
September 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925578/combined-fetal-inflammation-and-postnatal-hypoxia-causes-myelin-deficits-and-autism-like-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#6
Erik van Tilborg, E J Marijke Achterberg, Caren M van Kammen, Annette van der Toorn, Floris Groenendaal, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Cobi J Heijnen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Manon N J L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults and fluctuating cerebral oxygenation. However, the exact mechanisms underlying diffuse WMI are not fully understood and no treatment options are currently available. The use of clinically relevant animal models is crucial to advance knowledge on the pathophysiology of diffuse WMI, allowing the definition of novel therapeutic targets...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#7
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923560/computed-tomography-findings-in-young-children-with-minor-head-injury-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-greater-than-24h-post-injury
#8
Renana Gelernter, Giora Weiser, Eran Kozer
BACKGROUND: Large studies which developed decision rules for the use of Computed tomography (CT) in children with minor head trauma excluded children with late presentation (more than 24h). OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of significant traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CT in infants with head trauma presenting to the emergency department (ED) more than 24h from the injury. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of infants less than 24 months old referred for head CT because of traumatic brain injury from January 2004 to December 2014 in Assaf-Harofeh medical center was conducted...
September 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923356/subcutaneous-injections-of-aluminum-at-vaccine-adjuvant-levels-activate-innate-immune-genes-in-mouse-brain-that-are-homologous-with-biomarkers-of-autism
#9
Dan Li, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by immune dysfunction. It is manifested in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immunostimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed. To investigate Al's immune and neurotoxic impact in vivo, we tested the expression of 17 genes which are implicated in both autism and innate immune response in brain samples of Al-injected mice in comparison to control mice...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922350/stem-cells-and-cell-based-therapies-for-cerebral-palsy-a-call-for-rigor
#10
REVIEW
Lauren L Jantzie, Joseph Scafidi, Shenandoah Robinson
Cell-based therapies hold significant promise for infants at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) from perinatal brain injury (PBI). PBI leading to CP results from multi-faceted damage to neural cells. Complex developing neural networks are injured by neural cell damage plus unique perturbations in cell signaling. Given that cell-based therapies can simultaneously repair multiple injured neural components during critical neurodevelopmental windows, these interventions potentially offer efficacy for patients with CP...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#11
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916469/activity-changes-in-the-left-superior-temporal-sulcus-reflect-the-effects-of-childcare-training-on-young-female-students-perceptions-of-infants-negative-facial-expressions
#12
Ayahito Ito, Katsuko Niwano, Motoko Tanabe, Yosuke Sato, Toshikatsu Fujii
In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916447/perception-of-caucasian-and-african-faces-in-5-to-9-month-old-caucasian-infants-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#13
Susanna Timeo, Sabrina Brigadoi, Teresa Farroni
Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915232/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-growth-on-brain-volumes-white-matter-microstructure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-newborns
#14
Caterina Coviello, Kristin Keunen, Karina J Kersbergen, Floris Groenendaal, Alexander Leemans, Barbara Peels, Ivana Isgum, Max A Viergever, Linda S de Vries, Giuseppe Buonocore, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age(TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age(CA), in preterm infants. METHODS: 131 infants born at a gestational age(GA)<31weeks with MRI at TEA were studied. Cortical gray matter volumes(CGM), basal ganglia and thalami(BGT) volumes, cerebellar volumes and total brain volume(TBV) were computed...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915132/clinical-update-regarding-general-anesthesia-associated-neurotoxicity-in-infants-and-children
#15
M Ruth Graham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) recently released a warning stating that 'repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children's brains' (www.fda.gov/ucm582356.htm). The goal of this article is to review the most recent clinical studies which provide evidence that these concerns may be overstated for the majority of healthy young children who require surgery and anesthesia...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913326/improvement-in-white-matter-tract-reconstruction-with-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-and-track-density-mapping-in-low-angular-resolution-data-a-pediatric-study-and-literature-review
#16
Benedetta Toselli, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Gabriele Arnulfo, Andrea Canessa, Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi, Marco Massimo Fato
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) allows noninvasive investigation of brain structure in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a frequently used application of DW-MRI that assumes a single main diffusion direction per voxel, and is therefore not well suited for reconstructing crossing fiber tracts. Among the solutions developed to overcome this problem, constrained spherical deconvolution with probabilistic tractography (CSD-PT) has provided superior quality results in clinical settings on adult subjects; however, it requires particular acquisition parameters and long sequences, which may limit clinical usage in the pediatric age group...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906496/urinary-nt-probnp-levels-and-echocardiographic-parameters-for-patent-ductus-arteriosus
#17
S S Khan, T Sithisarn, H S Bada, M Vranicar, P M Westgate, M Hanna
OBJECTIVE: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in preterm infants and is associated with significant morbidities. B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized in the ventricles secondary to volume overload and excreted as urinary N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). STUDY DESIGN: We report an observational prospective study of 64 preterm infants with birth weight ⩽1000 g. Echocardiographic parameters were obtained from clinical echocardiograms performed in the first week of life...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906338/a-pharmacokinetics-efficacy-and-safety-study-of-gadoterate-meglumine-in-pediatric-subjects-aged-younger-than-2-years
#18
Mario Scala, Meriam Koob, Sophie de Buttet, Philippe Bourrinet, Mathieu Felices, Elzbieta Jurkiewicz
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine in pediatric patients younger than 2 years; the secondary objectives were to document its efficacy and safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a Phase IV open-label, prospective study conducted in 9 centers (4 countries). Forty-five patients younger than 2 years with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate and scheduled to undergo routine gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of any organ were included and received a single intravenous injection of gadoterate meglumine (0...
September 12, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905126/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-haptic-object-processing-combined-evidence-from-tractography-and-functional-neuroimaging
#19
Haemy Lee Masson, Hyeok-Mook Kang, Laurent Petit, Christian Wallraven
Touch delivers a wealth of information already from birth, helping infants to acquire knowledge about a variety of important object properties using their hands. Despite the fact that we are touch experts as much as we are visual experts, surprisingly, little is known how our perceptual ability in touch is linked to either functional or structural aspects of the brain. The present study, therefore, investigates and identifies neuroanatomical correlates of haptic perceptual performance using a novel, multi-modal approach...
September 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903722/eeg-power-at-3%C3%A2-months-in-infants-at-high-familial-risk-for-autism
#20
April R Levin, Kandice J Varcin, Heather M O'Leary, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain development during infancy may precede the behavioral manifestation of developmental disorders. Infants at increased risk for autism are also at increased risk for other developmental disorders, including, quite commonly, language disorders. Here we assess the extent to which electroencephalographic (EEG) differences in infants at high versus low familial risk for autism are present by 3 months of age, and elucidate the functional significance of EEG power at 3 months in predicting later development...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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