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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944520/human-activities-as-a-driver-of-spatial-variation-in-the-trophic-structure-of-fish-communities-on-pacific-coral-reefs
#1
Jonathan L W Ruppert, Laurent Vigliola, Michel Kulbicki, Pierre Labrosse, Marie-Josée Fortin, Mark G Meekan
Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, pollution and fishing impact the trophic structure of coral reef fishes, which can influence ecosystem health and function. Although these impacts may be ubiquitous, they are not consistent across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Using an extensive database of fish biomass sampled using underwater visual transects on coral reefs, we modelled the impact of human activities on food webs at Pacific-wide and regional (1,000s-10,000s km) scales. We found significantly lower biomass of sharks and carnivores, where there were higher densities of human populations (hereafter referred to as human activity); however, these patterns were not spatially consistent as there were significant differences in the trophic structures of fishes among biogeographic regions...
September 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919592/the-study-on-the-lives-and-health-conditions-of-internees-in-santo-thomas-camp-of-philippines-based-on-mcanlis-s-the-war-in-manila-1941-1945
#2
Jueyeon Lee, Youngsoo Cho
When Japan invaded the Philippines, two missionary dentists (Dr. McAnlis and Dr. Boots) who were forced to leave Korea were captured and interned in the Santo Thomas camp in Manila. Japan continued to bombard and plunder the Philippines in the wake of the Pacific War following the Great East Asia policy, leading to serious inflation and material deficiency. More than 4,000 Allied citizens held in Santo Thomas camp without basic food and shelter. Santo Thomas Camp was equipped with the systems of the Japanese military medical officers and Western doctors of captivity based on the Geneva Conventions(1929)...
August 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898503/using-appreciative-inquiry-methodology-to-develop-a-weight-management-program-for-obese-children-in-new-zealand
#3
Tasileta Teevale, Joseph K Kaholokula
OBJECTIVES: Paediatric obesity predicts adult obesity, and alarming new data in New Zealand reveals that obesity among the young continues to rise. In this study, we used a novel solution-focused paradigm, or appreciative inquiry perspective, to explore the factors that influence not just obese but non-obese states (that is, healthy weight as well as obesity), in Pacific adolescents (aged 13-17) living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. METHODS: Sixty-eight parents and adolescents from 30 families were recruited and interviewed, resulting in 15 obese and 15 healthy weight adolescents participating in the study...
September 12, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882212/diet-composition-and-trophic-ecology-of-northeast-pacific-ocean-sharks
#4
Joseph J Bizzarro, Aaron B Carlisle, Wade D Smith, Enric Cortés
Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865384/widespread-detection-of-a-brominated-flame-retardant-hexabromocyclododecane-in-expanded-polystyrene-marine-debris-and-microplastics-from-south-korea-and-the-asia-pacific-coastal-region
#5
Mi Jang, Won Joon Shim, Gi Myung Han, Manviri Rani, Young Kyoung Song, Sang Hee Hong
The role of marine plastic debris and microplastics as a carrier of hazardous chemicals in the marine environment is an emerging issue. This study investigated expanded polystyrene (EPS, commonly known as styrofoam) debris, which is a common marine debris item worldwide, and its additive chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To obtain a better understanding of chemical dispersion via EPS pollution in the marine environment, intensive monitoring of HBCD levels in EPS debris and microplastics was conducted in South Korea, where EPS is the predominant marine debris originate mainly from fishing and aquaculture buoys...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863888/marine-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-improves-the-immune-responses-in-pacific-red-snapper-lutjanus-peru-leukocytes
#6
Erika Alamillo, Martha Reyes-Becerril, Alberto Cuesta, Carlos Angulo
The climatic conditions in saltern saline environments allows the growth of microorganisms adapted to these peculiar ambient and could represent a promising source of new bioactive compounds that could have applications on as animal food supplements, including aquaculture. In this study, we evaluated the role of Yarrowia lipolytica N-6 isolate, from a hypersaline natural environment (Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico), as immunostimulant of the non-specific immune response of head-kidney and spleen Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) leukocytes after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus...
August 30, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560337/simple-technologies-and-diverse-food-strategies-of-the-late-pleistocene-and-early-holocene-at-huaca-prieta-coastal-peru
#7
Tom D Dillehay, Steve Goodbred, Mario Pino, Víctor F Vásquez Sánchez, Teresa Rosales Tham, James Adovasio, Michael B Collins, Patricia J Netherly, Christine A Hastorf, Katherine L Chiou, Dolores Piperno, Isabel Rey, Nancy Velchoff
Simple pebble tools, ephemeral cultural features, and the remains of maritime and terrestrial foods are present in undisturbed Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits underneath a large human-made mound at Huaca Prieta and nearby sites on the Pacific coast of northern Peru. Radiocarbon ages indicate an intermittent human presence dated between ~15,000 and 8000 calendar years ago before the mound was built. The absence of fishhooks, harpoons, and bifacial stone tools suggests that technologies of gathering, trapping, clubbing, and exchange were used primarily to procure food resources along the shoreline and in estuarine wetlands and distant mountains...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510105/agrochemical-loading-in-drains-and-rivers-and-its-connection-with-pollution-in-coastal-lagoons-of-the-mexican-pacific
#8
Omar Arellano-Aguilar, Miguel Betancourt-Lozano, Gabriela Aguilar-Zárate, Claudia Ponce de Leon-Hill
The state of Sinaloa in Mexico is an industrialized agricultural region with a documented pesticide usage of 700 t year(-1); which at least 17 of the pesticides are classified as moderately to highly toxic. Pollutants in the water column of rivers and drains are of great concern because the water flows into coastal lagoons and nearshore waters and thereby affects aquatic organisms. This study was done in four municipalities in the state of Sinaloa that produce food intensively. To investigate the link between pollution in the lagoons and their proximity to agricultural sites, water was sampled in three coastal lagoons and in the rivers and drains that flow into them...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221708/improved-management-of-small-pelagic-fisheries-through-seasonal-climate-prediction
#9
Désirée Tommasi, Charles A Stock, Kathleen Pegion, Gabriel A Vecchi, Richard D Methot, Michael A Alexander, David M Checkley
Populations of small pelagic fish are strongly influenced by climate. The inability of managers to anticipate environment-driven fluctuations in stock productivity or distribution can lead to overfishing and stock collapses, inflexible management regulations inducing shifts in the functional response to human predators, lost opportunities to harvest populations, bankruptcies in the fishing industry, and loss of resilience in the human food supply. Recent advances in dynamical global climate prediction systems allow for sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly predictions at a seasonal scale over many shelf ecosystems...
October 12, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-toward-a-conceptual-framework
#10
REVIEW
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, U Rashid Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health, and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate, and effects, are likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation, or culture...
October 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154107/impact-of-social-and-built-environment-factors-on-body-size-among-breast-cancer-survivors-the-pathways-study
#11
EDITORIAL
Salma Shariff-Marco, Julie Von Behren, Peggy Reynolds, Theresa H M Keegan, Andrew Hertz, Marilyn L Kwan, Janise M Roh, Catherine Thomsen, Candyce H Kroenke, Christine Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi, Scarlett Lin Gomez
Background: As social and built environment factors have been shown to be associated with physical activity, dietary patterns, and obesity in the general population, they likely also influence these health behaviors among cancer survivors and thereby impact survivorship outcomes.Methods: Enhancing the rich, individual-level survey and medical record data from 4,505 breast cancer survivors in the Pathways Study, a prospective cohort drawn from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we geocoded baseline residential addresses and appended social and built environment data...
April 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#12
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028536/engineered-feature-used-to-enhance-gardening-at-a-3800-year-old-site-on-the-pacific-northwest-coast
#13
Tanja Hoffmann, Natasha Lyons, Debbie Miller, Alejandra Diaz, Amy Homan, Stephanie Huddlestan, Roma Leon
Humans use a variety of deliberate means to modify biologically rich environs in pursuit of resource stability and predictability. Empirical evidence suggests that ancient hunter-gatherer populations engineered ecological niches to enhance the productivity and availability of economically significant resources. An archaeological excavation of a 3800-year-old wetland garden in British Columbia, Canada, provides the first direct evidence of an engineered feature designed to facilitate wild plant food production among mid-to-late Holocene era complex fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Northwest Coast...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993060/origin-of-sulfur-in-diet-drives-spatial-and-temporal-mercury-trends-in-seabird-eggs-from-pacific-canada-1968-2015
#14
Kyle H Elliott, John E Elliott
Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin that can be particularly harmful to top predators because it biomagnifies through the food web. Due to variation in the food web structure, variation in Hg exposure in predators may represent variation in diet rather than Hg availability. We measured Hg in eggs from six seabird species (N = 537) over 47 years. In contrast to expectation, storm-petrels feeding partially on invertebrates had the highest Hg burden while herons feeding on large fish had the lowest Hg burden. A multiple regression showed that Hg correlated with δ(34)S (R(2) = 0...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807091/cohort-profile-pacific-islands-families-pif-growth-study-auckland-new-zealand
#15
E Rush, M Oliver, L D Plank, S Taylor, L Iusitini, S Jalili-Moghaddam, F Savila, J Paterson, E Tautolo
PURPOSE: This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. PARTICIPANTS: From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613495/monitoring-and-accountability-for-the-pacific-response-to-the-non-communicable-diseases-crisis
#16
Hilary Tolley, Wendy Snowdon, Jillian Wate, A Mark Durand, Paula Vivili, Judith McCool, Rachel Novotny, Ofa Dewes, Damian Hoy, Colin Bell, Nicola Richards, Boyd Swinburn
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the Pacific. In 2011, Pacific Forum Leaders declared "a human, social and economic crisis" due to the significant and growing burden of NCDs in the region. In 2013, Pacific Health Ministers' commitment to 'whole of government' strategy prompted calls for the development of a robust, sustainable, collaborative NCD monitoring and accountability system to track, review and propose remedial action to ensure progress towards the NCD goals and targets...
September 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548430/the-search-for-causative-environmental-factors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Gerhard Rogler, Jonas Zeitz, Luc Biedermann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group...
2016: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488138/draft-genome-of-an-iconic-red-sea-reef-fish-the-blacktail-butterflyfish-chaetodon-austriacus-current-status-and-its-characteristics
#18
Joseph D DiBattista, Xin Wang, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Marek J Piatek, Manuel Aranda, Michael L Berumen
Butterflyfish are among the most iconic of the coral reef fishes and represent a model system to study general questions of biogeography, evolution, and population genetics. We assembled and annotated the genome sequence of the blacktail butterflyfish (Chaetodon austriacus), an Arabian region endemic species that is reliant on coral reefs for food and shelter. Using available bony fish (superclass Osteichthyes) genomes as a reference, a total of 28,926 high-quality protein-coding genes were predicted from 13,967 assembled scaffolds...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439703/parasite-fauna-of-antarctic-macrourus-whitsoni-gadiformes-macrouridae-in-comparison-with-closely-related-macrourids
#19
Julian Münster, Judith Kochmann, Sven Klimpel, Regina Klapper, Thomas Kuhn
BACKGROUND: The extreme, isolated environment within the Antarctic Convergence has fuelled the evolution of a highly endemic fauna with unique adaptations. One species known from this area is the Whitson's grenadier Macrourus whitsoni (Regan, 1913). While closely related species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere were targets of a variety of studies, knowledge on M. whitsoni is scarce, including not only its ecology but also its parasite fauna. Parasites, an often overlooked but important component of every ecosystem, can provide important insights into host ecology, including feeding habits, food web interactions and distribution patterns...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349260/understanding-pasifika-youth-and-the-obesogenic-environment-auckland-and-wellington-new-zealand
#20
Ridvan Tupai-Firestone, Hana Tuisano, Moana Manukia, Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Sunia Foliaki, Te Kani Kingi, Rozanne Kruger, Bernhard Breier, Angelique O'Connell, Rozanne Kruger, Barry Borman, Lis Ellison-Loschmann
AIM: In New Zealand, the burden of obesity is greatest among Pacific people, especially in children and adolescents. We investigated the factors of the obesogenic environment that were indigenous to Pasifika youths' social-cultural context, their food purchasing behaviours, and associated anthropometric measures. METHODS: An exploratory study of 30 Pasifika youth aged 16-24 years in Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand. RESULTS: A large proportion of the participants were obese (mean body mass index: 31...
May 6, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
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