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food environment Pacific

Tom D Dillehay, Steve Goodbred, Mario Pino, Víctor F Vásquez Sánchez, Teresa Rosales Tham, James Adovasio, Michael B Collins, Patricia J Netherly, Christine A Hastorf, Katherine L Chiou, Dolores Piperno, Isabel Rey, Nancy Velchoff
Simple pebble tools, ephemeral cultural features, and the remains of maritime and terrestrial foods are present in undisturbed Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits underneath a large human-made mound at Huaca Prieta and nearby sites on the Pacific coast of northern Peru. Radiocarbon ages indicate an intermittent human presence dated between ~15,000 and 8000 calendar years ago before the mound was built. The absence of fishhooks, harpoons, and bifacial stone tools suggests that technologies of gathering, trapping, clubbing, and exchange were used primarily to procure food resources along the shoreline and in estuarine wetlands and distant mountains...
May 2017: Science Advances
Omar Arellano-Aguilar, Miguel Betancourt-Lozano, Gabriela Aguilar-Zárate, Claudia Ponce de Leon-Hill
The state of Sinaloa in Mexico is an industrialized agricultural region with a documented pesticide usage of 700 t year(-1); which at least 17 of the pesticides are classified as moderately to highly toxic. Pollutants in the water column of rivers and drains are of great concern because the water flows into coastal lagoons and nearshore waters and thereby affects aquatic organisms. This study was done in four municipalities in the state of Sinaloa that produce food intensively. To investigate the link between pollution in the lagoons and their proximity to agricultural sites, water was sampled in three coastal lagoons and in the rivers and drains that flow into them...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Désirée Tommasi, Charles A Stock, Kathleen Pegion, Gabriel A Vecchi, Richard D Methot, Michael A Alexander, David M Checkley
Populations of small pelagic fish are strongly influenced by climate. The inability of managers to anticipate environment-driven fluctuations in stock productivity or distribution can lead to overfishing and stock collapses, inflexible management regulations inducing shifts in the functional response to human predators, lost opportunities to harvest populations, bankruptcies in the fishing industry, and loss of resilience in the human food supply. Recent advances in dynamical global climate prediction systems allow for sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly predictions at a seasonal scale over many shelf ecosystems...
October 12, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, U Rashid Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health, and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate, and effects, are likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation, or culture...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
Salma Shariff-Marco, Julie Von Behren, Peggy Reynolds, Theresa H M Keegan, Andrew Hertz, Marilyn L Kwan, Janise M Roh, Catherine Thomsen, Candyce H Kroenke, Christine Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi, Scarlett Lin Gomez
Background: As social and built environment factors have been shown to be associated with physical activity, dietary patterns, and obesity in the general population, they likely also influence these health behaviors among cancer survivors and thereby impact survivorship outcomes.Methods: Enhancing the rich, individual-level survey and medical record data from 4,505 breast cancer survivors in the Pathways Study, a prospective cohort drawn from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we geocoded baseline residential addresses and appended social and built environment data...
April 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
Tanja Hoffmann, Natasha Lyons, Debbie Miller, Alejandra Diaz, Amy Homan, Stephanie Huddlestan, Roma Leon
Humans use a variety of deliberate means to modify biologically rich environs in pursuit of resource stability and predictability. Empirical evidence suggests that ancient hunter-gatherer populations engineered ecological niches to enhance the productivity and availability of economically significant resources. An archaeological excavation of a 3800-year-old wetland garden in British Columbia, Canada, provides the first direct evidence of an engineered feature designed to facilitate wild plant food production among mid-to-late Holocene era complex fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Northwest Coast...
December 2016: Science Advances
Kyle H Elliott, John E Elliott
Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin that can be particularly harmful to top predators because it biomagnifies through the food web. Due to variation in the food web structure, variation in Hg exposure in predators may represent variation in diet rather than Hg availability. We measured Hg in eggs from six seabird species (N = 537) over 47 years. In contrast to expectation, storm-petrels feeding partially on invertebrates had the highest Hg burden while herons feeding on large fish had the lowest Hg burden. A multiple regression showed that Hg correlated with δ(34)S (R(2) = 0...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
E Rush, M Oliver, L D Plank, S Taylor, L Iusitini, S Jalili-Moghaddam, F Savila, J Paterson, E Tautolo
PURPOSE: This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. PARTICIPANTS: From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
Hilary Tolley, Wendy Snowdon, Jillian Wate, A Mark Durand, Paula Vivili, Judith McCool, Rachel Novotny, Ofa Dewes, Damian Hoy, Colin Bell, Nicola Richards, Boyd Swinburn
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the Pacific. In 2011, Pacific Forum Leaders declared "a human, social and economic crisis" due to the significant and growing burden of NCDs in the region. In 2013, Pacific Health Ministers' commitment to 'whole of government' strategy prompted calls for the development of a robust, sustainable, collaborative NCD monitoring and accountability system to track, review and propose remedial action to ensure progress towards the NCD goals and targets...
2016: BMC Public Health
Gerhard Rogler, Jonas Zeitz, Luc Biedermann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Joseph D DiBattista, Xin Wang, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Marek J Piatek, Manuel Aranda, Michael L Berumen
Butterflyfish are among the most iconic of the coral reef fishes and represent a model system to study general questions of biogeography, evolution, and population genetics. We assembled and annotated the genome sequence of the blacktail butterflyfish (Chaetodon austriacus), an Arabian region endemic species that is reliant on coral reefs for food and shelter. Using available bony fish (superclass Osteichthyes) genomes as a reference, a total of 28,926 high-quality protein-coding genes were predicted from 13,967 assembled scaffolds...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Julian Münster, Judith Kochmann, Sven Klimpel, Regina Klapper, Thomas Kuhn
BACKGROUND: The extreme, isolated environment within the Antarctic Convergence has fuelled the evolution of a highly endemic fauna with unique adaptations. One species known from this area is the Whitson's grenadier Macrourus whitsoni (Regan, 1913). While closely related species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere were targets of a variety of studies, knowledge on M. whitsoni is scarce, including not only its ecology but also its parasite fauna. Parasites, an often overlooked but important component of every ecosystem, can provide important insights into host ecology, including feeding habits, food web interactions and distribution patterns...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ridvan Tupai-Firestone, Hana Tuisano, Moana Manukia, Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Sunia Foliaki, Te Kani Kingi, Rozanne Kruger, Bernhard Breier, Angelique O'Connell, Rozanne Kruger, Barry Borman, Lis Ellison-Loschmann
AIM: In New Zealand, the burden of obesity is greatest among Pacific people, especially in children and adolescents. We investigated the factors of the obesogenic environment that were indigenous to Pasifika youths' social-cultural context, their food purchasing behaviours, and associated anthropometric measures. METHODS: An exploratory study of 30 Pasifika youth aged 16-24 years in Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand. RESULTS: A large proportion of the participants were obese (mean body mass index: 31...
May 6, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Tasileta Teevale, Arier Chi-Lun Lee, Jemaima Tiatia-Seath, Terryann Coralie Clark, Simon Denny, Pat Bullen, Terry Fleming, Roshini Janet Peiris-John
BACKGROUND: New Zealand has the second highest youth suicide rate in the OECD and particularly among Pacific New Zealanders, who have a threefold higher risk of suicide attempt compared with the general population. AIMS: Protective and risk factors for suicide attempts among New Zealand Pacific adolescents were assessed using data from Youth'12, an adolescent health and well-being survey. METHOD: This randomly selected nationally representative sample of New Zealand secondary school students included 1,445 Pacific high school students aged 12-17 years...
September 2016: Crisis
Kevin M Murphy, Didier Bazile, Julianne Kellogg, Maryam Rahmanian
Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa's wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Strahan Tucker, J Mark Hipfner, Marc Trudel
Selection of prey that are small and in poor body condition is a widespread phenomenon in terrestrial predator-prey systems and may benefit prey populations by removing substandard individuals. Similar selection is widely assumed to operate in aquatic systems. Indeed, size-selective predation is a longstanding and central tenet of aquatic food web theory. However, it is not known if aquatic predators select prey based on their condition or state, compared to their size. Surprisingly, no comparable information is available for marine systems because it is exceedingly difficult to make direct observations in this realm...
February 2016: Ecology
Michelle A Maier, Tawnya D Peterson
UNLABELLED: Through lethal infection, fungal parasites of phytoplankton ("chytrids") repackage organic material from the large, effectively inedible, colonial diatoms they infect into much smaller zoospores, which are easier for zooplankton to consume. However, their small size and lack of distinguishing morphological features render it difficult to distinguish zoospores from other small flagellates in mixed assemblages in the natural environment. In this study, we developed and tested a method to quantify chytrid zoospores in field studies using quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region within the rRNA gene cluster...
July 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Collin A Eagles-Smith, Garth Herring, Branden Johnson, Rick Graw
Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk...
May 2016: Environmental Pollution
João P M Messias, Teresa P Santos, Maria Pinto, Marta C Soares
Accurate contextual decision-making strategies are important in social environments. Specific areas in the brain are tasked to process these complex interactions and generate correct follow-up responses. The dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the telencephalon in the teleost fish brain are neural substrates modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), and are part of an important neural circuitry that drives animal behaviour from the most basic actions such as learning to search for food, to properly choosing partners and managing decisions based on context...
January 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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