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food environment Pacific

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807091/cohort-profile-pacific-islands-families-pif-growth-study-auckland-new-zealand
#1
E Rush, M Oliver, L D Plank, S Taylor, L Iusitini, S Jalili-Moghaddam, F Savila, J Paterson, E Tautolo
PURPOSE: This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. PARTICIPANTS: From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613495/monitoring-and-accountability-for-the-pacific-response-to-the-non-communicable-diseases-crisis
#2
Hilary Tolley, Wendy Snowdon, Jillian Wate, A Mark Durand, Paula Vivili, Judith McCool, Rachel Novotny, Ofa Dewes, Damian Hoy, Colin Bell, Nicola Richards, Boyd Swinburn
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the Pacific. In 2011, Pacific Forum Leaders declared "a human, social and economic crisis" due to the significant and growing burden of NCDs in the region. In 2013, Pacific Health Ministers' commitment to 'whole of government' strategy prompted calls for the development of a robust, sustainable, collaborative NCD monitoring and accountability system to track, review and propose remedial action to ensure progress towards the NCD goals and targets...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548430/the-search-for-causative-environmental-factors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Gerhard Rogler, Jonas Zeitz, Luc Biedermann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group...
2016: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488138/draft-genome-of-an-iconic-red-sea-reef-fish-the-blacktail-butterflyfish-chaetodon-austriacus-current-status-and-its-characteristics
#4
Joseph D DiBattista, Xin Wang, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Marek J Piatek, Manuel Aranda, Michael L Berumen
Butterflyfish are among the most iconic of the coral reef fishes and represent a model system to study general questions of biogeography, evolution, and population genetics. We assembled and annotated the genome sequence of the blacktail butterflyfish (Chaetodon austriacus), an Arabian region endemic species that is reliant on coral reefs for food and shelter. Using available bony fish (superclass Osteichthyes) genomes as a reference, a total of 28,926 high-quality protein-coding genes were predicted from 13,967 assembled scaffolds...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439703/parasite-fauna-of-antarctic-macrourus-whitsoni-gadiformes-macrouridae-in-comparison-with-closely-related-macrourids
#5
Julian Münster, Judith Kochmann, Sven Klimpel, Regina Klapper, Thomas Kuhn
BACKGROUND: The extreme, isolated environment within the Antarctic Convergence has fuelled the evolution of a highly endemic fauna with unique adaptations. One species known from this area is the Whitson's grenadier Macrourus whitsoni (Regan, 1913). While closely related species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere were targets of a variety of studies, knowledge on M. whitsoni is scarce, including not only its ecology but also its parasite fauna. Parasites, an often overlooked but important component of every ecosystem, can provide important insights into host ecology, including feeding habits, food web interactions and distribution patterns...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349260/understanding-pasifika-youth-and-the-obesogenic-environment-auckland-and-wellington-new-zealand
#6
Ridvan Tupai-Firestone, Hana Tuisano, Moana Manukia, Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Sunia Foliaki, Te Kani Kingi, Rozanne Kruger, Bernhard Breier, Angelique O'Connell, Rozanne Kruger, Barry Borman, Lis Ellison-Loschmann
AIM: In New Zealand, the burden of obesity is greatest among Pacific people, especially in children and adolescents. We investigated the factors of the obesogenic environment that were indigenous to Pasifika youths' social-cultural context, their food purchasing behaviours, and associated anthropometric measures. METHODS: An exploratory study of 30 Pasifika youth aged 16-24 years in Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand. RESULTS: A large proportion of the participants were obese (mean body mass index: 31...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278568/risk-and-protective-factors-for-suicidal-behaviors-among-pacific-youth-in-new-zealand
#7
Tasileta Teevale, Arier Chi-Lun Lee, Jemaima Tiatia-Seath, Terryann Coralie Clark, Simon Denny, Pat Bullen, Terry Fleming, Roshini Janet Peiris-John
BACKGROUND: New Zealand has the second highest youth suicide rate in the OECD and particularly among Pacific New Zealanders, who have a threefold higher risk of suicide attempt compared with the general population. AIMS: Protective and risk factors for suicide attempts among New Zealand Pacific adolescents were assessed using data from Youth'12, an adolescent health and well-being survey. METHOD: This randomly selected nationally representative sample of New Zealand secondary school students included 1,445 Pacific high school students aged 12-17 years...
September 2016: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242815/development-of-a-worldwide-consortium-on-evolutionary-participatory-breeding-in-quinoa
#8
Kevin M Murphy, Didier Bazile, Julianne Kellogg, Maryam Rahmanian
Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa's wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145620/size-and-condition-dependent-predation-a-seabird-disproportionately-targets-substandard-individual-juvenile-salmon
#9
Strahan Tucker, J Mark Hipfner, Marc Trudel
Selection of prey that are small and in poor body condition is a widespread phenomenon in terrestrial predator-prey systems and may benefit prey populations by removing substandard individuals. Similar selection is widely assumed to operate in aquatic systems. Indeed, size-selective predation is a longstanding and central tenet of aquatic food web theory. However, it is not known if aquatic predators select prey based on their condition or state, compared to their size. Surprisingly, no comparable information is available for marine systems because it is exceedingly difficult to make direct observations in this realm...
February 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107109/enumeration-of-parasitic-chytrid-zoospores-in-the-columbia-river-via-quantitative-pcr
#10
Michelle A Maier, Tawnya D Peterson
UNLABELLED: Through lethal infection, fungal parasites of phytoplankton ("chytrids") repackage organic material from the large, effectively inedible, colonial diatoms they infect into much smaller zoospores, which are easier for zooplankton to consume. However, their small size and lack of distinguishing morphological features render it difficult to distinguish zoospores from other small flagellates in mixed assemblages in the natural environment. In this study, we developed and tested a method to quantify chytrid zoospores in field studies using quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region within the rRNA gene cluster...
July 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26854697/conifer-density-within-lake-catchments-predicts-fish-mercury-concentrations-in-remote-subalpine-lakes
#11
Collin A Eagles-Smith, Garth Herring, Branden Johnson, Rick Graw
Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk...
May 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791613/stimulation-of-dopamine-d%C3%A2-receptor-improves-learning-capacity-in-cooperating-cleaner-fish
#12
João P M Messias, Teresa P Santos, Maria Pinto, Marta C Soares
Accurate contextual decision-making strategies are important in social environments. Specific areas in the brain are tasked to process these complex interactions and generate correct follow-up responses. The dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the telencephalon in the teleost fish brain are neural substrates modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), and are part of an important neural circuitry that drives animal behaviour from the most basic actions such as learning to search for food, to properly choosing partners and managing decisions based on context...
January 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610971/does-primary-productivity-turn-up-the-volume-exploring-the-relationship-between-chlorophyll-a-and-the-soundscape-of-coral-reefs-in-the-pacific
#13
Pollyanna I Fisher-Pool, Marc O Lammers, Jamison Gove, Kevin B Wong
Chlorophyll is the basis for ecosystem productivity in most marine environments. We report on an ongoing effort to examine whether ambient sounds are tied to chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that an increase in food-web available energy will be distributed across trophic levels, eventually reaching sound-producing animals and increasing acoustic levels. To test our hypothesis, we compared reef environments to explore links between soundscapes and chlorophyll a concentrations. The study sites resided in disparate oceanographic regimes that experienced substantially different oceanographic conditions...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26194303/mercury-in-forage-fish-from-mexico-and-central-america-implications-for-fish-eating-birds
#14
John E Elliott, David A Kirk, Kyle H Elliott, Jessica Dorzinsky, Sandi Lee, Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza, Kimberly M T Cheng, Tony Scheuhammer, Patrick Shaw
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of aquatic food chains. Aquatic birds, such as the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), with migratory populations breeding in Canada and the northern United States and wintering in the Central and South America, can be exposed to mercury on both the breeding and wintering ranges. We examined Hg levels in 14 fish taxa from 24 osprey wintering sites identified from satellite telemetry. Our main goal was to determine whether fish species that feature in the diet of overwintering and resident fish-eating birds reached toxicity thresholds for Hg...
November 2015: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26166922/size-matters-at-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-different-diversity-and-habitat-fidelity-patterns-of-meio-and-macrofauna
#15
Sabine Gollner, Breea Govenar, Charles R Fisher, Monika Bright
Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50' N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats...
February 3, 2015: Marine Ecology Progress Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26135308/spatial-patterns-and-temperature-predictions-of-tuna-fatty-acids-tracing-essential-nutrients-and-changes-in-primary-producers
#16
Heidi R Pethybridge, Christopher C Parrish, John Morrongiello, Jock W Young, Jessica H Farley, Rasanthi M Gunasekera, Peter D Nichols
Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT) of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 fatty acids (EFA) measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26070950/status-of-137-cs-contamination-in-marine-biota-along-the-pacific-coast-of-eastern-japan-derived-from-a-dynamic-biological-model-two-years-simulation-following-the-fukushima-accident
#17
Yutaka Tateda, Daisuke Tsumune, Takaki Tsubono, Kazuhiro Misumi, Masatoshi Yamada, Jota Kanda, Takashi Ishimaru
Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima...
January 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26065930/radiocesium-biokinetics-in-olive-flounder-inhabiting-the-fukushima-accident-affected-pacific-coastal-waters-of-eastern-japan
#18
Yutaka Tateda, Daisuke Tsumune, Takaki Tsubono, Tatsuo Aono, Jota Kanda, Takashi Ishimaru
Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP) has contaminated coastal waters and been subsequently transferred to the marine biota along the Pacific coastal region of eastern Japan. To clarify the mechanism of radiocesium biokinetics in olive flounder, a commercially valuable and piscivorous predator, the biokinetics of (137)Cs was simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model and then validated with the measured concentrations in available monitoring data...
September 2015: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26030067/species-distribution-models-of-tropical-deep-sea-snappers
#19
Céline Gomez, Ashley J Williams, Simon J Nicol, Camille Mellin, Kim L Loeun, Corey J A Bradshaw
Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25931598/metagenome-sequencing-of-a-coastal-marine-microbial-community-from-monterey-bay-california
#20
Ryan S Mueller, Sam Bryson, Brandon Kieft, Zhou Li, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Francisco Chavez, Robert L Hettich, Chongle Pan, Xavier Mayali
Heterotrophic microbes are critical components of aquatic food webs. Linkages between populations and the substrates they utilize are not well defined. We present the metagenome of microbial communities from the coastal Pacific Ocean exposed to various nutrient additions in order to better understand substrate utilization and partitioning in this environment.
2015: Genome Announcements
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