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food culture

Martin Kornecki, Jochen Strube
Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP); however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA), aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess...
March 16, 2018: Bioengineering
Chuanhui Liao, Jin Hong, Dingtao Zhao, Shuang Zhang, Changhong Chen
Food waste is a worldwide problem due to its effects on carbon emission, water pollution, and arable lands. Previous studies of food waste generation and reduction focus on demographic, psychological, and situational factors, whereas the effects of culture in different countries have been ignored. This paper investigates the influence of Confucian culture on behaviors that waste food, considering additional factors of face saving and group conformity. We used an integrated behavioral intention model combining the TPB model and Lee's modified Fishbein model...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Quintin Borgersen, David T Bolick, Glynis L Kolling, Matthew Aijuka, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Richard L Guerrant, James P Nataro, Araceli E Santiago
Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) is associated with food-borne outbreaks of diarrhea and growth faltering among children in developing countries. A Shiga toxin-producing EAEC strain of serotype O104:H4 strain caused one of the largest outbreaks of a food-borne infection in Europe in 2011. The outbreak was traced to contaminated fenugreek sprouts, yet the mechanisms whereby such persistent contamination of sprouts could have occurred are not clear. We found that under ambient conditions of temperature and in minimal media, pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing EAEC O104:H4 227-11 and non-Shiga toxin-producing 042 strains both produce high levels of exopolysaccharide structures (EPS) that are released to the external milieu...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Per Strøman, Kim Ib Sørensen, Patrick M F Derkx, Ana Rute Neves
Biogenic amines have been widely studied because of their potential toxicity in fermented foods. Several lactic acid bacteria have the potential to decarboxylate the amino acid tyrosine to tyramine. In this work, we identified two strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lbc1 and Lbc2, endowed with the ability to produce tyramine, a metabolic feature that limits their application in starter cultures for fermented meat. To overcome this limitation, we set out to eliminate tyramine production from L. curvatus strains by using classical strain improvement...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Pamela Fergusson, Nicole Greenspan, Lukas Maitland, Rémy Huberdeau
Transgender people are an important group for whom access to healthcare is often problematic. Dietitians need to be aware of key issues in transgender health to provide culturally competent clinical nutritional care. This article serves as a primer, clarifying key terms and concepts, exploring the impact of stigma and discrimination on health and nutrition for people from transgender communities, and offering practical advice for nutritional and other related issues. Education for dietitians both pre- and postqualification is an important part of improving care and building skills and awareness of cultural humility...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Adam C Lipus, Juan S Leon, Susana C Calle, Karen L Andes
The objective of this article was to characterize how urbanization and indigenous identity shape nutrition attitudes and practices in El Alto, a rapidly urbanizing and predominantly indigenous (Aymara) community on Bolivia's Andean plateau. We took a qualitative ethnographic approach, interviewing health care providers ( n = 11) and conducting focus groups with mothers of young children ( n = 4 focus groups with 25 mothers total [age = 18-43 years, 60% Aymara]). Participants generally described their urban environment as being problematic for nutrition, a place where unhealthy "junk foods" and "chemicals" have supplanted healthy, "natural," "indigenous" foods from the countryside...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Chunhua Wang, Dongmei Lin, Quan Chen, Shuqian Lin, Songsheng Shi, Chunmei Chen
The Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) mushroom is one of the most extensively studied functional foods, known for its numerous health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The present study assessed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in human glioma U251 cells, which was purified from grass-cultured G. lucidum . GL-PP is a glycopeptide with an average molecular weight of 42,635 Da and a polysaccharide-to-peptide ratio of 88...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Fatiha Tetili, Farida Bendali, Josette Perrier, Djamila Sadoun
Staphylococcus aureus is a potential pathogen contaminating raw milk and dairy products, where it is able to produce thermostable enterotoxins that can cause staphylococcal food poisoning. This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory activity of a Lactococcus lactis strain (isolated from milk) on S. aureus growth and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) production. In the presence of L. lactis , the number of the pathogen decreased significantly (p<0.05) after 6 h of incubation in a laboratory medium and milk (3 log CFU/mL reduction compared to pure cultures)...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Josiemer Mattei
The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recommended to the general population by many scientific organizations as a healthy dietary pattern, based on strong evidence of association with improved cardiometabolic health, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, most studies have been conducted in Mediterranean or European countries or among white populations in the United States (US), while few exist for non-Mediterranean countries or racial/ethnic minority populations in the US...
March 14, 2018: Nutrients
Guo Yan-Li, Zou Yong-Gen, Xie Yi-Qing, Chen Hong, He Ming-Zhen, Lü Lai-Fu, Huang Li-Zhong, Jin Xiao-Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge, attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate preventive strategies and measures. METHODS: Three villages were selected from three towns as survey sites, and the residents who were above three years old and had been in the village for over six months were investigated. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to detect intestinal parasite eggs in residents' feces, and the cellophane anal swab was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among children aged 3-6 years...
September 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Krishna Kant, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Vivek Priy Dave, Tien Anh Ngo, Vinayaka Aaydha Chidambara, Quyen Than Linh, Dang Duong Bang, Anders Wolff
Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is imperative for preventing the outbreak of foodborne diseases, known as serious threats to human health. Conventional bacterial culturing methods for foodborne pathogen detection are time consuming, laborious, and with poor pathogen diagnosis competences. This has prompted researchers to call the current status of detection approaches into question and leverage new technologies for superior pathogen sensing outcomes. Novel strategies mainly rely on incorporating all the steps from sample preparation to detection in miniaturized devices for online monitoring of pathogens with high accuracy and sensitivity in a time-saving and cost effective manner...
March 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Marco Alexander Fraatz, Michael Goldmann, Torsten Geissler, Egon Gross, Michael Backes, Jens-Michael Hilmer, Jakob Ley, Johanna Rost, Alexander Francke, Holger Zorn
A number of methyl-branched aldehydes impart interesting flavor impressions, and especially 12-methyltridecanal is a highly sought after flavoring compound for savory foods. Its smell is reminiscent of cooked meat and tallow. For the biotechnological production of 12-methyltridecanal, the literature was screened for fungi forming iso-fatty acids. Suitable organisms were identified and successfully grown in submerged cultures. The culture medium was optimized to increase the yields of branched fatty acids. A recombinant carboxylic acid reductase was used to reduce 12-methyltridecanoic acid to 12-methyltridecanal...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Joe D Piper, Salim Mwarumba, Moses Ngari, Benedict Mvera, Susan Morpeth, James A Berkley
For children with acute malnutrition, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lifesaving treatments. In 2012, detailed testing detected Enterobacteriaceae including Cronobacter species at low levels in RUTF from all UNICEF-approved producers. Cronobacter in milk feeds has previously been associated with severe neonatal infections. Thus, given the susceptibility of severely malnourished children to invasive bacterial infections, concerns arose about the potential for Cronobacter infections from RUTF. This led to widespread production and supply problems in emergency feeding programmes...
March 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Cristina Valdiosera, Torsten Günther, Juan Carlos Vera-Rodríguez, Irene Ureña, Eneko Iriarte, Ricardo Rodríguez-Varela, Luciana G Simões, Rafael M Martínez-Sánchez, Emma M Svensson, Helena Malmström, Laura Rodríguez, José-María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell, Alfonso Alday, José Antonio Hernández Vera, Anders Götherström, José-Miguel Carretero, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Colin I Smith, Mattias Jakobsson
Population genomic studies of ancient human remains have shown how modern-day European population structure has been shaped by a number of prehistoric migrations. The Neolithization of Europe has been associated with large-scale migrations from Anatolia, which was followed by migrations of herders from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Southwestern Europe was one of the last parts of the continent reached by these migrations, and modern-day populations from this region show intriguing similarities to the initial Neolithic migrants...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sharma Bhavya, Pei San Lew, Tooru M Mizuno
Xenin is a gastrointestinal hormone that belongs to the neurotensin family. Central administration of xenin to obese mice reduces food intake and body weight gain and causes alterations in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it has not been tested whether or not xenin directly acts on adipose tissue and alters lipid metabolism. The present study was performed to address this possibility by examining the effect of xenin treatment on the levels of glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA) and expression levels of lipolysis marker proteins ex vivo in cultured mouse WAT...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nathalie Coquillé, Dominique Ménard, Julien Rouxel, Valentin Dupraz, Mélissa Éon, Patrick Pardon, Hélène Budzinski, Soizic Morin, Édith Parlanti, Sabine Stachowski-Haberkorn
Microalgae, which are the foundation of aquatic food webs, may be the indirect target of herbicides used for agricultural and urban applications. Microalgae also interact with other compounds from their environment, such as natural dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can itself interact with herbicides. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of natural DOM on the toxicity of three herbicides (diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor), singly and in ternary mixtures, to two marine microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Tetraselmis suecica, in monospecific, non-axenic cultures...
February 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
A F Andeta, D Vandeweyer, F Woldesenbet, F Eshetu, A Hailemicael, F Woldeyes, S Crauwels, B Lievens, J Ceusters, K Vancampenhout, L Van Campenhout
Enset (Ensete ventricosum) provides staple food for 15 million people in Ethiopia after fermentation into kocho. The fermentation process has hardly been investigated and is prone to optimization. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial dynamics of fermentation practices in the Gamo highlands. These practices show local variation, but two steps were omnipresent: scraping of the pseudostem and fermenting it in a pit or a bamboo basket. Enset plants were fragmented and fermented for two months in order to investigate the physicochemical (temperature, moisture content, pH and titratable acidity) and microbial dynamics (total viable aerobic counts, counts of Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds and Clostridium spores counts, and Illumina Miseq sequencing)...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Oscar van Mastrigt, Tjakko Abee, Søren K Lillevang, Eddy J Smid
During food fermentation processes like cheese ripening, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) encounter long periods of nutrient limitation leading to slow growth. Particular LAB survive these periods while still contributing to flavour formation in the fermented product. In this study the dairy Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetylactis FM03-V1 is grown in retentostat cultures to study its physiology and aroma formation capacity at near-zero growth rates. During the cultivations, the growth rate decreased from 0.025 h-1 to less than 0...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
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