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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775671/variable-ventilation-decreases-airway-responsiveness-and-improves-ventilation-efficiency-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#1
Fatemeh Ilka, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
The optimal ventilation strategy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for severe asthma remains unclear. The effect of conventional ventilation (with constant tidal volume and respiratory rate) and variable ventilation (with the same average but variable tidal volume and respiratory rate) on peak airway pressure and airway exacerbation induced by increasing doses of methacholine was compared in a rat model of asthma. The respiratory rate and tidal volume data were obtained from a spontaneously breathing intact rat during immobility using a whole-body plethysmograph...
May 15, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773688/understanding-patients-perceptions-of-asthma-control-a-qualitative-study
#2
Natalie Bidad, Neil Barnes, Chris Griffiths, Rob Horne
Asthma control is suboptimal for many sufferers despite the existence of effective treatments. Patients' self-management is influenced by their perceptions of asthma and its treatment. This study explored sufferers' perceptions of asthma control and their influence on self-management behaviours.Participants (n=42) recruited from primary and secondary care asthma clinics in London each underwent a qualitative interview exploring perceptions and experiences of asthma control. Purposive sampling ensured variation in disease severity, degree of asthma control, age and socioeconomic status...
May 17, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772098/insights-in-particulate-matter-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-focus-on-the-epithelium
#3
Katrien C De Grove, Sharen Provoost, Guy G Brusselle, Guy F Joos, Tania Maes
Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem throughout the world. In particular, exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the development and exacerbation of several respiratory diseases, including asthma. Although the adverse health effects of PM have been demonstrated for many years, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully identified. In this review, we focus on the role of the lung epithelium and specifically highlight multiple cytokines in PM-induced respiratory responses...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769485/changes-of-peak-expiratory-flow-rate-in-adult-asthmatic-patient
#4
S Nasreen, A Nessa, F Islam, A Khanam, R Sultana, R Rahman, M Hossain
Asthma is a common pulmonary disorder characterizerized by airway inflammation, airway- hyper reactivity, and reversible airflow obstruction. The classic triad of symptoms is wheezing, chronic episodic dyspnea and chronic cough. The prevalence of asthma increased steadily over the latter part of the last century, first in the developed and then in the developing world. The number of people with asthma in the world may be as high as 334 million. Asthma in Bangladesh appears to be a substantial public health problem: an estimated 11...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769273/genome-wide-posttranscriptional-dysregulation-by-micrornas-in-human-asthma-as-revealed-by-frac-seq
#5
Rocio T Martinez-Nunez, Hitasha Rupani, Manuela Platé, Mahesan Niranjan, Rachel C Chambers, Peter H Howarth, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that inhibit gene expression posttranscriptionally, implicated in virtually all biological processes. Although the effect of individual microRNAs is generally studied, the genome-wide role of multiple microRNAs is less investigated. We assessed paired genome-wide expression of microRNAs with total (cytoplasmic) and translational (polyribosome-bound) mRNA levels employing subcellular fractionation and RNA sequencing (Frac-seq) in human primary bronchoepithelium from healthy controls and severe asthmatics...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768149/inhaled-combined-budesonide-formoterol-as-needed-in-mild-asthma
#6
Paul M O'Byrne, J Mark FitzGerald, Eric D Bateman, Peter J Barnes, Nanshan Zhong, Christina Keen, Carin Jorup, Rosa Lamarca, Stefan Ivanov, Helen K Reddel
BACKGROUND: In patients with mild asthma, as-needed use of an inhaled glucocorticoid plus a fast-acting β2 -agonist may be an alternative to conventional treatment strategies. METHODS: We conducted a 52-week, double-blind trial involving patients 12 years of age or older with mild asthma. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: twice-daily placebo plus terbutaline (0.5 mg) used as needed (terbutaline group), twice-daily placebo plus budesonide-formoterol (200 μg of budesonide and 6 μg of formoterol) used as needed (budesonide-formoterol group), or twice-daily budesonide (200 μg) plus terbutaline used as needed (budesonide maintenance group)...
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768147/as-needed-budesonide-formoterol-versus-maintenance-budesonide-in-mild-asthma
#7
Eric D Bateman, Helen K Reddel, Paul M O'Byrne, Peter J Barnes, Nanshan Zhong, Christina Keen, Carin Jorup, Rosa Lamarca, Agnieszka Siwek-Posluszna, J Mark FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Patients with mild asthma often rely on inhaled short-acting β2 -agonists for symptom relief and have poor adherence to maintenance therapy. Another approach might be for patients to receive a fast-acting reliever plus an inhaled glucocorticoid component on an as-needed basis to address symptoms and exacerbation risk. METHODS: We conducted a 52-week, double-blind, multicenter trial involving patients 12 years of age or older who had mild asthma and were eligible for treatment with regular inhaled glucocorticoids...
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766674/assessment-of-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-children-with-severe-asthma-the-next-challenge
#8
EDITORIAL
Guillaume Lezmi, Jacques de Blic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766394/treatment-of-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-review
#9
Loïc Raffray, Loïc Guillevin
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a rare type of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis. Nevertheless, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis stands apart because it has features of vasculitis and eosinophilic disorders that require targeted therapies somewhat different from those used for other anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitides. Considerable advances have been made in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis that have highlighted the key role of eosinophils and opened new therapeutic opportunities...
May 15, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766006/interaction-between-air-pollutants-and-pollen-grains-the-role-on-the-rising-trend-in-allergy
#10
Farnaz Sedghy, Abdol-Reza Varasteh, Mojtaba Sankian, Malihe Moghadam
Asthma and allergic diseases cases have risen in recent decades. Plant pollen is considered as the main aeroallergen causing allergic reactions. According to available data, urban residents experience more respiratory allergies than rural residents mainly due to the interaction between chemical air pollutants and pollen grains. This interaction can occur through several mechanisms; chemical pollutants might facilitate pollen allergen release, act as adjuvants to stimulate IgE-mediated responses, modify allergenic potential, and enhance the expression of some allergens in pollen grains...
April 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764909/ohio-pediatric-asthma-repository-opportunities-to-revise-care-practices-to-decrease-time-to-physiologic-readiness-for-discharge
#11
Jeffrey M Simmons, Jocelyn M Biagini Myers, Lisa J Martin, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Christine L Schuler, Valentina V Pilipenko, John W Kroner, Hua He, Stephen R Austin, Huyen-Tran Nguyen, Kristie R Ross, Karen S McCoy, Sherman J Alter, Samantha M Gunkelman, Pierre A Vauthy, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey
BACKGROUND: Large-scale, multisite studies in which researchers evaluate patient- and systems-level factors associated with pediatric asthma exacerbation outcomes are lacking. We sought to investigate patient-level risks and system-level practices related to physiologic readiness for discharge (PRD) in the prospective Ohio Pediatric Asthma Repository. METHODS: Participants were children ages 2 to 17 years admitted to an Ohio Pediatric Asthma Repository hospital for asthma exacerbation...
May 15, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764626/25-hydroxvitamin-d-concentrations-are-not-lower-in-children-with-bronchial-asthma-atopic-dermatitis-obesity-or-attention-deficient-hyperactivity-disorder-than-in-healthy-children
#12
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Langrock, Eckard Hamelmann, Thomas Lücke, Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Martin Holtmann, Tanja Legenbauer, Stephanie Gest, Mirjam Frank, Börge Schmidt, Katharina Radkowski, Karl-Heinz Jöckel
Vitamin D (vitD) is involved in immune regulation, and its receptor has been identified in several tissues including lung, adipose tissue, brain, and skin. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that vitD has an essential role not only in bone metabolism but also in other diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), bronchial asthma (BA), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obesity because the affected tissues express vitD receptors. Furthermore, obesity, AD, and BA are regarded as inflammatory diseases...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764261/ragweed-sublingual-tablet-immunotherapy-part-ii-practical-considerations-and-pertinent-issues
#13
Oliver Pfaar, Peter Socrates Creticos
Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) has been demonstrated to be both efficacious and safe for the treatment of respiratory allergies such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or allergic asthma. Based on the clinical documentation of SLIT ragweed tablets, they have gained marketing authorization in the USA by the US FDA in 2014 for adult patients. Following clinical data from (pivotal) multicenter Phase II and III trials as performed in the USA and Canada and real life experience after registration in 2014, SLIT ragweed tablets can be recommended as efficacious and safe treatment option with disease modifying potential when adequately indicated and performed...
May 16, 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762870/t-cells-and-ilc2s-are-major-effector-cells-in-influenza-induced-exacerbation-of-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#14
Bobby W S Li, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Melanie Lukkes, Menno van Nimwegen, Ingrid M Bergen, Alex KleinJan, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Arno Andeweg, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rudi W Hendriks
Influenza virus infection is an important cause of severe asthma exacerbations, but it remains unclear how a Th1-mediated antiviral response triggers a prototypical Th2 disease. We investigated CD4+ T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in influenza virus-infected mice. We found that ILC2s accumulated in the lung rapidly after influenza virus infection, but the induction of IL-5 and IL-13 secretion was delayed and concomitant with T cell activation. In an influenza-induced exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation model we noticed an initial reduction of ILC2 numbers and cytokine production in broncho-alveolar lavage compared to chronic house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation alone...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761483/epithelial-barrier-dysfunctions-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-skin-gut-lung-model-linking-microbiome-alteration-and-immune-dysregulation
#15
REVIEW
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760926/diffuse-endobronchial-metastasis-from-sigmoid-carcinoma-presenting-as-wheezing-and-respiratory-failure
#16
Nattawat Jantarangsi, Poonchavist Chantranuwatana, Naricha Chirakalwasan
A 66-year-old Thai man with underlying asthma, history of traumatic right haemothorax, and sigmoid carcinoma with bladder invasion developed productive cough, whitish sputum, dyspnoea, and wheezing for 2 months. Physical examination showed generalized expiratory wheezing in both lungs. Computed tomography scan of the chest revealed diffuse thickening of bronchial wall, predominantly at lower lobes; several various sizes of pulmonary nodules; diffuse interlobular septal thickening; multiple enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes and hilar lymph nodes; and right pleural effusion...
July 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759032/tim-3-expressing-mast-cells-are-present-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#17
Erica Corredera, Binh L Phong, John A Moore, Lawrence P Kane, Stella E Lee
Objectives To identify whether TIM-3 expression is present in the mast cell population within nasal polyps and to determine its correlation with clinical severity in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Study Design Basic science, translational study. Setting Nasal polyp tissue collected from patients seen at a tertiary care hospital (2015-2016). Subjects and Methods Nasal polyp tissue obtained during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (n = 24) was enzymatically digested into epithelial and stromal fractions...
May 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758476/epistemic-tensions-between-people-living-with-asthma-and-healthcare-professionals-in-clinical-encounters
#18
Jennie Haw, Shannon Cunningham, Kieran C O'Doherty
RATIONALE: Asthma is a common respiratory condition with high prevalence rates globally. While there are effective treatments, asthma remains an important health concern as people continue to die from severe attacks. Improving the experiences of, and health outcomes for, people with asthma depends heavily on their interactions with healthcare professionals. Understanding negative clinical encounters will benefit people with asthma and healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: To examine epistemic tensions in negative clinical encounters from a patient perspective, with an aim to better understand how patients respond to these tensions...
May 1, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758289/exposure-to-a-combination-of-formaldehyde-and-dinp-aggravated-asthma-like-pathology-through-oxidative-stress-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#19
Jun Kang, Jiufei Duan, Jing Song, Chen Luo, Hong Liu, Baizhan Li, Xu Yang, Wei Yu, Mingqing Chen
Several epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a positive association between exposure to formaldehyde or phthalates and allergic asthma. However, nothing is yet known about the effects of exposure to formaldehyde and phthalates together, nor the role of each on allergic asthma. Here, we investigated the effects of a combined exposure to formaldehyde and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) on asthma-like pathology in mice, and determined the underlying mechanisms implicated in NF-κB and ROS. Mice were exposed to formaldehyde and/or DINP and sensitization with OVA...
May 11, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758111/genetic-profiles-of-transcriptomic-clusters-of-childhood-asthma-determine-specific-severe-subtype
#20
Y-L Yeh, M-W Su, B-L Chiang, Y-H Yang, C-H Tsai, Y L Lee
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have defined transcriptomic subtypes of adult asthma using samples of induced sputum and bronchial epithelium; however, those procedures are not readily applicable in the clinic, especially for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: We aim to dissect the transcriptomic clusters of childhood asthma using highly variably expressed genes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) among patients. METHODS: Gene expression of PBMC from 133 asthmatic children and 11 healthy controls was measured with Illumina microarrays...
May 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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