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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236378/urinary-bisphenol-a-and-obesity-in-adults-results-from-the-canadian-health-measures-survey
#1
Minh T Do, Vicky C Chang, Michelle A Mendez, Margaret de Groh
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults...
December 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236162/bisphosphonates-prevent-age-related-weight-loss-in-japanese-postmenopausal-women
#2
Tomohiko Urano, Masataka Shiraki, Tatsuhiko Kuroda, Shiro Tanaka, Fumihiko Urano, Kazuhiro Uenishi, Satoshi Inoue
Decline of body weight with aging is a major risk factor for frailty, osteoporosis and fracture, suggesting that treatment for osteoporosis may affect body composition. Recently, we have shown that 5-year treatment with raloxifene prevented age-related weight loss, suggesting some other drugs for osteoporosis may also prevent a decrease in body weight with aging. The present study aimed to identify the relationship between bisphosphonate treatment and body composition markers. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and bone remodeling markers in 551 Japanese postmenopausal women with bisphosphonate treatment, which included risedronate or alendronate treatment (BP-treatment group; N = 193) and without treatment by any osteoporosis drug (no-treatment group; N = 358) for 4-7 years (mean observation periods; 5...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236148/dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-for-stable-cad-or-acs-redefining-the-optimal-duration-of%C3%A2-treatment
#3
B E Stähli, U Landmesser
The duration and combination of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stent implantation, consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor, is among the most intensely investigated therapeutic strategies in cardiovascular medicine. While initial studies have mainly focused on the efficacy and safety of individual antithrombotic agents, the increased need for a personalized, risk-based approach to define the optimal duration of antithrombotic treatment according to the estimated ischemic and bleeding risk was then recognized...
December 13, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236050/molecular-markers-for-interspecies-transmission-of-avian-influenza-viruses-in-mammalian-hosts
#4
REVIEW
Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Taehyung Lee, Jin Jung Kwon, Min-Suk Song
In the last decade, a wide range of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have infected various mammalian hosts and continuously threaten both human and animal health. It is a result of overcoming the inter-species barrier which is mostly associated with gene reassortment and accumulation of mutations in their gene segments. Several recent studies have shed insights into the phenotypic and genetic changes that are involved in the interspecies transmission of AIVs. These studies have a major focus on transmission from avian to mammalian species due to the high zoonotic potential of the viruses...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235785/the-evolution-of-private-plans-in-medicare
#5
Yash M Patel, Stuart Guterman
Issue: Since the 1980s, private plans have played an increasingly important role in the Medicare program. While initially created with the goals of reducing costs, improving choice, and enhancing quality, risk-based plans--now known as Medicare Advantage plans--have undergone significant policy changes since their inception; these changes have not always aligned with the original policy objectives. Goal: To examine major policy changes to Medicare risk plans and the effects of these policies on plan participation, enrollment, average premiums and cost-sharing, total costs to Medicare, and quality of care...
December 1, 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235489/the-zn12o12-cluster-assembled-nanowires-as-a-highly-sensitive-and-selective-gas-sensor-for-no-and-no2
#6
Yongliang Yong, Xiangying Su, Qingxiao Zhou, Yanmin Kuang, Xiaohong Li
Motivated by the recent realization of cluster-assembled nanomaterials as gas sensors, first-principles calculations are carried out to explore the stability and electronic properties of Zn12O12 cluster-assembled nanowires and the adsorption behaviors of environmental gases on the Zn12O12-based nanowires, including CO, NO, NO2, SO2, NH3, CH4, CO2, O2 and H2. Our results indicate that the ultrathin Zn12O12 cluster-assembled nanowires are particularly thermodynamic stable at room temperature. The CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and NH3 molecules are all chemisorbed on the Zn12O12-based nanowires with reasonable adsorption energies, but CH4, CO2, O2 and H2 molecules are only physically adsorbed on the nanowire...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235389/extracellular-genomic-biomarkers-of-osteoarthritis
#7
Emma Budd, Giovanna Nalesso, Ali Mobasheri
Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic, debilitating and degenerative disease of the joints, is the most common form of arthritis. The seriousness of this prevalent and chronic disease is often overlooked. Disease modifying OA drug development is hindered by the lack of soluble biomarkers to detect OA early. The objective of OA biomarker research is to identify early OA prior to the appearance of radiographic signs and the development of pain. Areas covered This review has focused on extracellular genomic material that could serve as biomarkers of OA...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235385/selling-in-a-dying-business-an-analysis-of-trends-during-a-period-of-major-market-transition-in-the-funeral-industry
#8
Virginia R Beard, William C Burger
As a result of recent economic changes in the United States and cultural changes among the population, the funeral industry has experienced a "legitimation crisis." The objective of this research is to examine new advertising and marketing strategies engaged in by professionals in the funeral industry to respond to market and cultural changes that have affected both the funeral industry at large and the role of the funeral director as a participant in this industry. A meta-analysis of articles from issues of the industry trade journal American Funeral Director for the years 2008 through 2015 was conducted...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235363/phenotypic-screening-approaches-for-chagas-disease-drug-discovery
#9
Eric Chatelain, Jean-Robert Ioset
Introduction- Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a global public health issue. Current treatments targeting the parasite are limited to two old nitroheterocyclic drugs with serious side effects. The need for new and safer drugs has prompted numerous drug discovery efforts to identify compounds suitable for parasitological cure in the last decade. Areas covered- Target-based drug discovery has been limited by the small number of well validated targets - the latest example being the failure of azoles, T...
December 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235199/adaptation-of-the-bone-marrow-stroma-in-hematopoietic-malignancies-current-concepts-and-models
#10
REVIEW
Ben Doron, Mithila Handu, Peter Kurre
The bone marrow stroma maintains hematopoiesis and coordinately regulates regenerative responses through dynamic interactions with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Recent studies indicate that stromal components in the bone marrow of leukemia patients undergo a process of successive adaptation that in turn exerts dramatic effects on the hematopoietic stem cell compartment and promotes leukemic drug resistance. Functional changes in discrete marrow stromal populations can therefore be considered an aspect of leukemia biogenesis in that they create an aberrant, self-reinforcing microenvironment...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235128/-love-builds-brains-representations-of-attachment-and-children-s-brain-development-in-parenting-education-material
#11
Glenda Wall
A focus on early brain development has come to dominate expert child rearing advice over the past two decades. Recent scholars have noted a reinvigoration of the concept of attachment in this advice and changes in the ways that attachment is framed and understood. The extent to which the concept of attachment is drawn on, the way it is framed, and the consequences for mothers, families and parent-child relationships is examined through a discursive analysis of a current Canadian parental education campaign...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235104/chaos-and-the-un-predictability-of-evolution-in-a-changing-environment
#12
Artur Rego-Costa, Florence Débarre, Luis-Miguel Chevin
Among the factors that may reduce the predictability of evolution, chaos, characterized by a strong dependence on initial conditions, has received much less attention than randomness due to genetic drift or environmental stochasticity. It was recently shown that chaos in phenotypic evolution arises commonly under frequency-dependent selection caused by competitive interactions mediated by many traits. This result has been used to argue that chaos should often make evolutionary dynamics unpredictable. However, populations also evolve largely in response to external changing environments, and such environmental forcing is likely to influence the outcome of evolution in systems prone to chaos...
December 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235097/activation-of-astrocytic-par1-receptors-in-the-rat-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-regulates-breathing-through-modulation-of-presynaptic-trpv1
#13
Rafiq Huda, Zheng Chang, Jeehaeh Do, Donald R McCrimmon, Marco Martina
Many of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying astrocytic modulation of synaptic function remain poorly understood. Recent studies show that G-protein coupled receptor-mediated astrocyte activation modulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a brainstem nucleus that regulates crucial physiological processes including cardiorespiratory activity. By using calcium imaging and patch clamp recordings in acute brain slices of wild-type and TRPV1-/- rats, we show that activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in NTS astrocytes potentiates presynaptic glutamate release on NTS neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235089/early-life-adversity-induced-third-ventricular-enlargement-in-young-adult-male-patients-suffered-from-major-depressive-disorder-a-study-of-brain-morphology
#14
Hongyi Zhao, Tingying Wei, Xiuzhen Li, Ter Ba
BACKGROUND: Early life adversity (ELA) is not uncommon in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients. Childhood trauma has been reported more frequently in adult MDD patients relative to healthy control. Recent researches have demonstrated that ELA could result in changes in brain morphology which might be an etiological factor of MDD development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 40 young adult patients suffered from MDD and made CT scan. Subjects were divided in two groups: MDD patients with ELA experience (E+D) vs MDD patients without ELA experience (E-D) according to Chinese version-Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)...
December 13, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235081/overview-of-the-mechanism-of-cytoskeletal-motors-based-on-structure
#15
REVIEW
Yusuke Kato, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura
In the last two decades, a wealth of structural and functional knowledge has been obtained for the three major cytoskeletal motor proteins, myosin, kinesin and dynein, which we review here. The cytoskeletal motor proteins myosin and kinesin are structurally similar in the core architecture of their motor domains and have similar force-producing mechanisms that are coupled with the chemical cycles of ATP binding, hydrolysis, Pi release and subsequent ADP release. The force is generated through conformational changes in the motor domain during Pi release and ATP binding in myosin and kinesin, respectively, and then converted into the rotation of the lever arm or neck linker (referred to as a power stroke) through the common structural pathways...
December 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235080/light-induced-chromophore-and-protein-responses-and-mechanical-signal-transduction-of-bluf-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Tomotsumi Fujisawa, Shinji Masuda
Photoreceptor proteins have been used to study how protein conformational changes are induced by alterations in their environments and how their signals are transmitted to downstream factors to dictate physiological responses. These proteins are attractive models because their signal transduction aspects and structural changes can be precisely regulated in vivo and in vitro based on light intensity. Among the known photoreceptors, members of the blue light-using flavin (BLUF) protein family have been well characterized with regard to how they control various light-dependent physiological responses in several microorganisms...
December 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235056/separating-arterial-pressure-increases-and-decreases-in-assessing-cardiac-baroreflex-sensitivity-via-sequence-and-bivariate-phase-rectified-signal-averaging-techniques
#17
Beatrice De Maria, Vlasta Bari, Marco Ranucci, Valeria Pistuddi, Giovanni Ranuzzi, Anielle C M Takahashi, Aparecida M Catai, Laura Dalla Vecchia, Sergio Cerutti, Alberto Porta
Cardiac baroreflex (cBR) is activated by both arterial pressure (AP) increases and decreases. Sequence method, a widely utilized tool assessing cBR sensitivity (cBRS) from spontaneous heart period (HP) and systolic AP (SAP) variations, allows the separated computation of cBRS from positive and negative SAP variations. The recently proposed phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) method has the same feature but it has been applied so far solely to positive SAP variations. We adapted the PRSA method to compute cBRS over negative SAP variations and we compared the results with those derived from sequence method over two protocols: (i) graded head-up tilt (HUT) at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75° in 19 healthy subjects and (ii) general anesthesia induction in 118 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery...
December 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234996/retrieval-practice-after-multiple-context-changes-but-not-long-retention-intervals-reduces-the-impact-of-a-final-context-change-on-instrumental-behavior
#18
Sydney Trask, Mark E Bouton
Recent evidence from this laboratory suggests that a context switch after operant learning consistently results in a decrement in responding. One way to reduce this decrement is to train the response in multiple contexts. One interpretation of this result, rooted in stimulus sampling theory, is that conditioning of a greater number of common stimulus elements arising from more contexts causes better generalization to new contexts. An alternative explanation is that each change of context causes more effortful retrieval, and practice involving effortful retrieval results in learning that is better able to transfer to new situations...
December 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234865/electromechanical-heterogeneity-in-the-heart-a%C3%A2-key-to-long-qt-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
F F Dressler, J Brado, K E Odening
In the healthy heart, physiological heterogeneities in structure and in electrical and mechanical activity are crucial for normal, efficient excitation and pumping. Alterations of heterogeneity have been linked to arrhythmogenesis in various cardiac disorders such as long QT syndrome (LQTS). This inherited arrhythmia disorder is caused by mutations in different ion channel genes and is characterized by (heterogeneously) prolonged cardiac repolarization and increased risk for ventricular tachycardia, syncope and sudden cardiac death...
December 12, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234832/how-flood-experience-and-risk-perception-influences-protective-actions-and-behaviours-among-canadian-homeowners
#20
Jason Thistlethwaite, Daniel Henstra, Craig Brown, Daniel Scott
Canada is a country in the midst of a flood management policy transition that is shifting part of the flood damage burden from the state to homeowners. This transition-as well as the large financial losses resulting from flooding-have created a window of opportunity for Canada to implement strategies that increase property owners' capacity to avoid and absorb the financial and physical risks associated with flooding. This work presents foundational research into the extent to which Canadians' flood experience, perceptions of flood risks and socio-demographics shape their intentions and adoption of property level flood protection (PLFP)...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Management
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