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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471546/longitudinal-analyses-of-blood-transcriptome-during-conversion-to-psychosis
#1
Boris Chaumette, Oussama Kebir, Juliette Pouch, Bertrand Ducos, Fekrije Selimi, Raphael Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs
The biological processes associated with the onset of schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Current hypotheses favor gene × environment interactions as supported by our recent report about DNA methylation changes during the onset of psychosis. Here, we conducted the first longitudinal transcriptomic analysis of blood samples from 31 at-risk individuals who later converted to psychosis and 63 at-risk individuals who did not. Individuals were followed for a maximum of 1 year. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of follow-up and individuals served as their own controls...
February 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471488/morphological-responses-of-plant-roots-to-mechanical-stress
#2
Izabela Potocka, Joanna Szymanowska-Pulka
Background: Roots are continuously exposed to mechanical pressure and this often results in their morphological modification. Most obvious are changes in the overall form of the root system as well as in the shapes of particular roots. These changes are often accompanied by modifications of the cell pattern and cell morphology. Scope: This review focuses on the morphological responses of roots to mechanical stress. Results of early and recent experiments in which roots have been exposed to mechanical pressure are assembled, analysed and discussed...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471451/genomic-evidence-of-widespread-admixture-from-polar-bears-into-brown-bears-during-the-last-ice-age
#3
James A Cahill, Peter D Heintzman, Kelley Harris, Matthew D Teasdale, Joshua Kapp, André E Rodrigues Soares, Ian Stirling, Daniel Bradley, Ceiridwen J Edwards, Kiley Graim, Aliaksandr A Kisleika, Alexander V Malev, Nigel Monaghan, Richard E Green, Beth Shapiro
Recent genomic analyses have provided substantial evidence for past periods of gene flow from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) into Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos), with some analyses suggesting a link between climate change and genomic introgression. However, because it has mainly been possible to sample bears from the present day, the timing, frequency, and evolutionary significance of this admixture remains unknown. Here, we analyze genomic DNA from three additional and geographically distinct brown bear populations, including two that lived temporally close to the peak of the last ice age...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471370/competitive-ability-of-capsella-species-with-different-mating-systems-and-ploidy-levels
#4
Sandra Petrone Mendoza, Martin Lascoux, Sylvain Glémin
Background and Aims: Capsella is a model genus for studying the transition from outcrossing to selfing, with or without change in ploidy levels. The genomic consequences and changes in reproductive traits (selfing syndrome) associated with these shifts have been studied in depth. However, potential ecological divergence among species of the genus has not been determined. Among ecological traits, competitive ability could be relevant for selfing evolution, as selfing has been shown to be statistically associated with reduced competitiveness in a recent meta-analysis...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471362/changes-in-hospital-bond-ratings-after-the-transition-to-a-new-electronic-health-record
#5
Dustin McEvoy, Michael L Barnett, Dean F Sittig, Skye Aaron, Ateev Mehrotra, Adam Wright
Objective: To assess the impact of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on hospital finances. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the impact of EHR implementation on bond ratings and net income from service to patients (NISP) at 32 hospitals that recently implemented a new EHR and a set of controls. Results: After implementing an EHR, 7 hospitals had a bond downgrade, 7 had a bond upgrade, and 18 had no changes. There was no difference in the likelihood of bond rating changes or in changes to NISP following EHR go-live when compared to control hospitals...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471344/cross-border-issues-an-important-component-of-onchocerciasis-elimination-programmes
#6
Simon Bush, Yao Sodahlon, Philip Downs, Charles D Mackenzie
Endemic areas that involve national or local borders present an important challenge to the success of elimination of onchocerciasis; such cross-border endemic foci require special attention to ensure that programme activities are unified. It is vital that national programmes and the committees responsible for the oversight of progress towards elimination are aware and address such issues in their current planning and programmatic activities. Although international borders that intersect endemic zones present the biggest challenge, intracountry borders (such as between administrative districts or loiasis endemic and non-loiasis areas) can also pose problems...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471335/after-70-years-of-fighting-an-age-old-scourge-onchocerciasis-in-uganda-the-end-is-in-sight
#7
Moses N Katabarwa, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Thomas R Unnasch, Rolf Garms, Lauri Hudson-Davis, Edson Byamukama, Annet Khainza, Johnson Ngorok, Edridah Tukahebwa, Frank O Richards
Onchocerciasis causes severe itching, serious skin disease and ocular damage leading to visual impairment or permanent blindness. It is associated with hanging groin, epilepsy, Nakalanga dwarfism and, most recently, nodding disease. This disease affected communities in 17 transmission foci in 37 districts of Uganda, where about 6.7 million people are once at risk. The efforts against onchocerciasis in Uganda commenced in the late 1940s, when vector control was launched using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; by 1973, Simulium damnosum had been eliminated in the Victoria focus...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471293/neonatal-stress-has-a-long-lasting-sex-dependent-effect-on-anxiety-like-behavior-and-neuronal-morphology-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#8
Silvana Regina de Melo, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, Shakhawat Hossain, Bryan Kolb
The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471141/the-morphological-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-epithelial-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-its-involvement-in-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
M Wesseling, T R Sakkers, S C A de Jager, G Pasterkamp, M J Goumans
Cell transdifferentiation occurs during cardiovascular development or remodeling either as a pathologic feature in the progression of disease or as a response to injury. Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EndMT) is a process that is classified as a specialized form of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), in which epithelial cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain a mesenchymal phenotype. During transdifferentiation, cells lose both cell-cell contacts and their attachment to the basement membrane...
February 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471055/brain-insulin-signalling-glucose-metabolism-and-females-reproductive-aging-a-dangerous-triad-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
A I Duarte, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes a major socioeconomic challenge due to its disabling features and the rise in prevalence (especially among (peri)menopausal women and type 2 diabetes patients). The precise etiopathogenesis of AD remains poorly understood. Importantly, its neurodegenerative perspective has been challenged towards a more "systemic" view. Amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau protein (P-Tau) (the main AD neuropathological features) affect and are affected by peripheral and brain insulin signalling dysfunction, leading to glucose dysmetabolism, synaptic loss and AD-related cognitive deficits...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470459/prevalence-of-self-reported-hypertension-and-antihypertensive-medication-use-among-adults-aged-%C3%A2-18-years-united-states-2011-2015
#11
Jing Fang, Cathleen Gillespie, Carma Ayala, Fleetwood Loustalot
Hypertension, which affects nearly one third of adults in the United States, is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke (1), and only approximately half of those with hypertension have their hypertension under control (2). The prevalence of hypertension is highest among non-Hispanic blacks, whereas the prevalence of antihypertensive medication use is lowest among Hispanics (1). Geographic variations have also been identified: a recent report indicated that the Southern region of the United States had the highest prevalence of hypertension as well as the highest prevalence of medication use (3)...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470457/hiv-diagnoses-among-persons-aged-13-29-years-united-states-2010-2014
#12
M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Richard Dunville, Tianchi Zhang, Lisa C Barrios, Alexandra M Oster
In 2014, persons aged 13-29 years represented 23% of the U.S. population, yet accounted for 40% of diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during the same year (1). During 2010-2014, the rates of diagnosis of HIV infection decreased among persons aged 15-19 years, were stable among persons aged 20-24 years, and increased among persons aged 25-29 years (1). However, these 5-year age groups encompass multiple developmental stages and potentially mask trends associated with the rapid psychosocial changes during adolescence through young adulthood...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470314/genetic-variation-in-p2rx7-and-pain-tolerance
#13
O Kambur, M A Kaunisto, B S Winsvold, T Wilsgaard, A Stubhaug, J A Zwart, E Kalso, C S Nielsen
P2X7 is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular ATP. P2X7 activation contributes to the pro-inflammatory response to injury or bacterial invasion and mediates apoptosis. Recently, P2X7 function has been linked to chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. P2X7 may contribute to pain modulation both by effects on peripheral tissue injury underlying clinical pain states, and through alterations in central nervous system processing, as suggested by animal models. To further test its role in pain sensitivity, we examined whether variation within the P2RX7 gene, which encodes the P2X7 receptor, was associated with experimentally induced pain in human patients...
February 20, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470277/does-duration-of-pain-at-baseline-influence-clinical-outcomes-of-low-back-pain-patients-managed-on-an-evidence-based-pathway
#14
Mary-Anne Jess, Ryan Cormac, Sharon Hamilton, Shaun Wellburn, Greg Atkinson, Charles Greenough, Andrew Coxon, Diarmaid Ferguson, Francis Fatoye, John Dickson, Andrea Jones, Denis Martin
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text STUDY DESIGN.: Longitudinal observational study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the duration of pain at baseline and the clinical outcomes of patients with low back pain (LBP) enrolled on the North East of England Regional Back Pain and Radicular Pain Pathway (NERBPP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The NERBPP is a clinical pathway based upon NICE guidelines (2009) for LBP of <1-year duration...
February 21, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469653/analytical-similarity-assessment-of-rituximab-biosimilar-ct-p10-to-reference-medicinal-product
#15
Kyoung Hoon Lee, Jihun Lee, Jin Soo Bae, Yeon Jung Kim, Hyun Ah Kang, Sung Hwan Kim, So Jung Lee, Ki Jung Lim, Jung Woo Lee, Soon Kwan Jung, Shin Jae Chang
CT-P10 (TruximaTM) was recently approved as the world's first rituximab biosimilar product in the European Union (EU) and South Korea. To demonstrate biosimilarity of CT-P10 with the reference medicinal product (RMP), extensive 3-way similarity assessment has been conducted between CT-P10, EU-Rituximab and US-Rituximab, focusing on the physicochemical and biological quality attributes. A multitude of state-of-the-art analyses revealed that CT-P10 has identical primary and higher order structures compared to the original product...
February 22, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469174/membrane-fluidification-by-ethanol-stress-activates-unfolded-protein-response-in-yeasts
#16
Elisabet Navarro-Tapia, Amparo Querol, Roberto Pérez-Torrado
The toxic effect of ethanol is one of the most important handicaps for many biotechnological applications of yeasts, such as bioethanol production. Elucidation of ethanol stress response will help to improve yeast performance in biotechnological processes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol stress has been recently described as an activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved intracellular signalling pathway that regulates the transcription of ER homoeostasis-related genes. However, the signal and activation mechanism has not yet been unravelled...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468984/vad-an-integrated-framework-for-cognitive-rehabilitation
#17
Dafin F Muresanu, Dana Slavoaca, Antox Alvarez, Volker Homberg, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Alla Guekht, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Livia Popa, Johannes Vester, Ioana Muresanu, Codruta Birle, Maria Balea
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia, with clinical features that depend on neural substrates affected by the vascular lesions. Like most neurological disorders, it involves alterations that range from the molecular level to neuronal networks. Such alterations begin as compensatory mechanisms that reshape every subsystem involved in the brain's homeostasis. Although there have been recent huge advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, a suitable therapeutic approach to vascular dementia remains elusive...
February 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468981/lenvatinib-in-the-therapy-of-aggressive-thyroid-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-new-perspectives-with-patents-recently-applied
#18
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Ilaria Ruffilli, Marco Centanni, Camilla Virili, Gabriele Materazzi, Magdalini Alexopoulou, Mario Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lenvatinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR1-VEGFR3), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1-FGFR4), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α, rearranged during transfection (RET), and v-kit (KIT) signaling networks implicated in tumor angiogenesis. METHOD: Here we review the scientific literature about lenvatinib in the treatment of thyroid cancer...
February 19, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468779/probabilistic-measures-of-climate-change-vulnerability-adaptation-action-benefits-and-related-uncertainty-from-maximum-temperature-metric-selection
#19
J Tyrell DeWeber, Tyler Wagner
Predictions of the projected changes in species distribution models and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty...
February 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468564/early-presymptomatic-changes-in-the-proteome-of-mitochondria-associated-membrane-in-the-app-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Katalin Völgyi, Kata Badics, Fernando J Sialana, Péter Gulyássy, Edina Brigitta Udvari, Viktor Kis, László Drahos, Gert Lubec, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Gábor Juhász
Intracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Recently, it has been uncovered that presenilins (PSs), the key components of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the β-amyloid producing γ-secretase complex, are highly enriched in a special sub-compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functionally connected to mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). A current hypothesis of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases (AD) suggests that MAM is involved in the initial phase of AD...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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