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Sangita Vyas, Phyrum Kov, Susanna Smets, Dean Spears
Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years...
October 15, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
Shaw D Bamber, Stig Westerlund
Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Hoon-Seong Choi, Dae-Hyun Roh, Seo-Yeon Yoon, Soon-Gu Kwon, Sheu-Ran Choi, Suk-Yun Kang, Ji-Young Moon, Ho-Jae Han, Hyun-Woo Kim, Alvin J Beitz, Jang-Hern Lee
Although we have recently demonstrated that carrageenan-induced inflammation upregulates the expression of spinal interleukin (IL)-1β, which inhibits spinal astrocyte activation and results in the delayed development of Mirror-Image Pain (MIP), little is known regarding the mechanisms that underlie how spinal IL-1β inhibits the astrocyte activation. In this study, we examined the effect of spinal IL-1β on astrocyte gap junctions (GJ) and the development of MIP. Following unilateral carrageenan (CA) injection, mechanical allodynia (MA) was evaluated at various time points...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Neurology
B C C Khoo, J K Brown, R L Prince
OBJECTIVES: In recent years quantitative computed tomography (QCT) has allowed precise non-invasive, three dimensional, in vivo measurement of hip structure in large numbers of individuals. The effects of ageing on proximal femur structure are reported and implications for the prevention of hip prosthesis loosening and hip fracture considered. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: An observational cross-sectional study of proximal femur QCT in 719 unselected female European descent aged 20 to 89 years recruited from US and Australian populations...
2016: PloS One
Roman Dvorkin, Noam E Ziv
The idea that synaptic properties are defined by specific pre- and postsynaptic activity histories is one of the oldest and most influential tenets of contemporary neuroscience. Recent studies also indicate, however, that synaptic properties often change spontaneously, even in the absence of specific activity patterns or any activity whatsoever. What, then, are the relative contributions of activity history-dependent and activity history-independent processes to changes synapses undergo? To compare the relative contributions of these processes, we imaged, in spontaneously active networks of cortical neurons, glutamatergic synapses formed between the same axons and neurons or dendrites under the assumption that their similar activity histories should result in similar size changes over timescales of days...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Zhilei Zhao, Seiichiro Jinde, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Kiyoto Kasai
Several recent gene expression studies on schizophrenia, including one using monozygotic twins discordant for the disease, have reported the upregulation of adrenomedullin (ADM), which was initially identified as a vasodilator hormone. It has been hypothesized that upregulation of ADM may be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia, although the exact role of ADM in the central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, we used a microarray analysis to investigate the changes in global gene expression induced by the administration of exogenous ADM in SK-N-SH cells, which allowed us to evaluate the effects of elevated ADM on the central nervous system...
October 21, 2016: Neuroreport
Bella H V Nguyen, James Kuo, Anadian Budiman, Hayden Christie, Sayed Ali
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the landscape of the treatment of multiple solid malignancies, and have been used increasingly in the recent years. Although usually well tolerated, given the relative inexperience of using immune checkpoint inhibitors, we are still learning of new side effects from the treatment. We report on two cases of ocular myasthenia gravis that occurred after treatment with pembrolizumab, an antiprogrammed-death (anti-PD1) monoclonal antibody for advanced melanoma in responding patients...
October 21, 2016: Melanoma Research
Paula D Strassle, Felicia N Williams, Sonia Napravnik, David van Duin, David J Weber, Anthony Charles, Bruce A Cairns, Samuel W Jones
Classic determinants of burn mortality are age, burn size, and the presence of inhalation injury. Our objective was to describe temporal trends in patient and burn characteristics, inpatient mortality, and the relationship between these characteristics and inpatient mortality over time. All patients aged 18 years or older and admitted with burn injury, including inhalation injury only, between 2004 and 2013 were included. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relationship between admit year and inpatient mortality...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Kerry L Gagnon, Anne P DePrince
OBJECTIVE: While the importance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has gained public attention in recent years, relatively little attention has been paid to head injuries among women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study screened for lifetime exposure to mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) among a sample of women who experienced recent IPV (median days since target incident = 26). METHOD: Participants included ethnically diverse women whose IPV experiences were reported to law enforcement...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
K Nicole Jones, Melanie E Brewster
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism)...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Gregory P Beehler, Kaitlin R Lilienthal
The Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model of integrated primary care is challenging to implement with high fidelity. The Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) was designed to assess provider adherence to essential model components and has recently been adapted into a quality improvement toolkit. The aim of this pilot project was to gather preliminary feedback on providers' perceptions of the acceptability and utility of the PPAQ toolkit for making beneficial practice changes...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Services
Atanu Das, Dmitrii E Makarov
Protein aggregation and amyloid formation are implicated in many diseases as well as in other biological phenomena. Recent studies have suggested that amyloid formation of tumor suppressor p53 can lead to loss of its physiological function, resulting in accelerated cancer progression. Design of cancer therapeutics, therefore, requires understanding of the mechanism of p53 aggregation. Here, we have employed atomistic simulations to characterize the aggregation process of the aggregation-prone (as suggested by experimental studies) p53 fragment (LTIITLE, 252-258) and to assess the efficiency of its I254R mutant as an aggregation suppressor...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Niloofar Eslahi, Marjan Abdorahim, Abdolreza Arash Simchi
Stimuli responsive hydrogels (SRHs) are attractive bio-scaffolds for tissue engineering. The structural similarity of SRHs to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of many tissues offers great advantages for a minimally invasive tissue repair. Among various potential applications of SRHs, cartilage regeneration has attracted significant attention. The repair of cartilage damage is challenging in orthopedics owing to its low repair capacity. Recent advances include development of injectable hydrogels to minimize invasive surgery with nanostructured features and rapid stimuli-responsive characteristics...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Owen Duncan, Josua Trösch, Ricarda Fenske, Nicolas L Taylor, A Harvey Millar
Yield and quality improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a focus in efforts to meet new demands from population growth and changing human diets. As the complexity of the wheat genome is unravelled, determining how it is used to build the protein machinery of wheat plants is a key next step in explaining detailed aspects of wheat growth and development. The specific functions of wheat organs during vegetative development and the role of metabolism, protein degradation and remobilisation in driving grain production are the foundations of crop performance and have recently become accessible through studies of the wheat proteome...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio, Wai-Ling Chang, Diana Gutiérrez, Rob Lavigne, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Sander K Govers, Abram Aertsen, Christine Hirl, Manfred Biebl, Yves Briers, Pilar García
Endolysins constitute a promising class of antibacterials against Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, endolysins have been engineered with selected peptides to obtain a new generation of lytic proteins, Artilysins, with specific activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that artilysation can also be used to enhance the antibacterial activity of endolysins against Gram-positive bacteria and to reduce the dependence on external conditions. Art-240, a chimeric protein of the anti-streptococcal endolysin λSa2lys and the polycationic peptide PCNP, shows a similar species specificity as the parental endolysin, but the bactericidal activity against streptococci increases and is less affected by elevated NaCl concentrations and pH variations...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shaohong Cheng, Patrick Aghajanian, Sheila Pourteymoor, Catrina Alarcon, Subburaman Mohan
Endochondral ossification plays an important role in the formation of the primary ossification centers (POCs) and secondary ossification centers (SOCs) of mammalian long bones. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate POC and SOC formation are different. We recently demonstrated that Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain-containing Protein 2 (Phd2) is a key mediator of vitamin C effects on bone. We investigated the role of Phd2 on endochondral ossification of the epiphyses by conditionally deleting the Phd2 gene in osteoblasts and chondrocytes...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kirsten Vallmuur, Rob Eley, Angela Watson
OBJECTIVE: To examine national ladder-related fall injury patterns and trends, and compare the changes over time in occupational and non-occupational falls across age groups. METHODS: Analysis of national hospital morbidity data to examine trends over time and differences between groups. RESULTS: There were 41,092 hospitalised falls from ladders in Australia over the ten year period from July 2002 to June 2012, rising from 3,374 hospitalisations in 2002/03 to 4,945 hospitalisations in 2011/12...
October 24, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Maureen Ritchey, Andrew M McCullough, Charan Ranganath, Andrew P Yonelinas
Acute stress has been shown to modulate memory for recently learned information, an effect attributed to the influence of stress hormones on medial temporal lobe (MTL) consolidation processes. However, little is known about which memories will be affected when stress follows encoding. One possibility is that stress interacts with encoding processes to selectively protect memories that had elicited responses in the hippocampus and amygdala, two MTL structures important for memory formation. There is limited evidence for interactions between encoding processes and consolidation effects in humans, but recent studies of consolidation in rodents have emphasized the importance of encoding "tags" for determining the impact of consolidation manipulations on memory...
October 24, 2016: Hippocampus
Jaakko Paasonen, Raimo A Salo, Joanna K Huttunen, Olli Gröhn
PURPOSE: Anesthesia is a major confounding factor in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments attributed to its effects on brain function. Recent evidence suggests that parameters obtained with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) are coupled with anesthetic depth. Therefore, we investigated whether parameters obtained with rs-fMRI, such as functional connectivity (FC), are also directly related to blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses. METHODS: A simple rs-fMRI protocol was implemented in a pharmacological fMRI study to evaluate the coupling between hemodynamic responses and FC under five anesthetics (α-chloralose, isoflurane, medetomidine, thiobutabarbital, and urethane)...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Matthew J Burke, Michael J Lamb, Marika Hohol, Christine Lay
BACKGROUND: The etiology of HaNDL is not known. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that there may be altered cerebrovascular blood flow during acute episodes. However, what exactly these vascular changes represent and how they may relate to the overall pathogenesis of HaNDL is uncertain. CASE: A 42-year-old, right-handed male, presented with acute aphasia and right arm weakness. Urgent CT/CT-angiogram were normal except for an incidental hypoplastic right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) A1 segment...
October 24, 2016: Headache
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