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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666429/common-adult-psychiatric-disorders-in-swedish-primary-care-where-most-mental-health-patients-are-treated
#1
Jan Sundquist, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: The overall aim of this study is to present descriptive data regarding the treated prevalence of nine common psychiatric and substance use disorders in the first Primary Care Registry (PCR) in Sweden: Major Depression (MD), Anxiety Disorders (AD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Adjustment Disorder (AdjD), Eating Disorders (ED), Personality Disorder (PD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and Drug Abuse (DA). METHOD: We selected 5,397,675 individuals aged ≥18...
June 30, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647007/childhood-psychiatric-disorders-as-risk-factor-for-subsequent-substance-abuse-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Annabeth P Groenman, Tieme W P Janssen, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis. METHOD: PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for relevant longitudinal studies that described childhood (<18 years old) ADHD, ODD or CD, anxiety, or depression in relation to later alcohol-, nicotine-, or drug-related disorders or substance use disorders (SUDs) published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language from 1986 to May 2016...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572731/understanding-the-associations-between-psychosocial-factors-and-severity-of-crime-in-juvenile-delinquency-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Sarper Taşkıran, Tuba Mutluer, Ali Evren Tufan, Bengi Semerci
PURPOSE: Juvenile delinquency is a serious and common problem. To date, several studies have focused on possible psychosocial risk factors for delinquency among youths and on the implications of childhood mental illness on child criminality. However, the literature on prevalence of psychopathology and predictors of crime severity among delinquent youths in Turkey is sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show the associations between crime severity and psychosocial factors such as gender, age, criminal history, concomitant attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other comorbid psychiatric conditions, along with behavioral problem domains of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570753/screening-for-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-high-dose-benzodiazepine-dependent-patients
#4
Stefano Tamburin, Angela Federico, Laura Morbioli, Marco Faccini, Rebecca Casari, Lorenzo Zamboni, Giuseppe Briguglio, Fabio Lugoboni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent in patients with substance use disorders (SUD), but information on its prevalence in high-dose benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence is lacking. We estimated the prevalence of adult ADHD in a group of treatment-seeking high-dose BZD dependent patients according to a valid screening tool, and explored the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients that screened positive for ADHD (ADHD+) in comparison to those that screened negative (ADHD-)...
June 1, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557437/differentiating-physicochemical-properties-between-addictive-and-nonaddictive-adhd-drugs-revealed-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation-studies
#5
Panpan Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Tingting Fu, Shuang Li, Bo Li, Weiwei Xue, Xiaojun Yao, Yuzong Chen, Feng Zhu
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children and adolescents. Although psychostimulants are currently the first-line drugs for ADHD, their highly addictive profile raises great abuse concerns. It is known that psychostimulants' addictiveness is largely attributed to their interaction with dopamine transporter (DAT) and their binding modes in DAT can thus facilitate the understanding of the mechanism underlining drugs' addictiveness. However, no DAT residue able to discriminate ADHD drugs' addictiveness is identified, and the way how different drug structures affect their abuse liability is still elusive...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440194/concurrent-use-of-cannabis-and-alcohol-neuropsychiatric-effects-and-consequences
#6
Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Esther Papaseit, Ana Lucia Arellano, Magi Farré
Concurrent use of cannabis and alcohol is frequent. According different studies, the prevalence is among 20-34% depending on different samples studied. In contrast with the wide evidence available about neuropsychiatric effects associated to the use of cannabis or alcohol separately, there are few studies of the neuropsychiatric effects of their combination. Our aim was to review the literature regarding this topic. We performed a search in MEDLINE and from 114 potentially eligible studies, 27 were selected...
April 19, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#7
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#8
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423975/turning-points-in-the-lives-of-youth-of-with-without-adhd-are-they-linked-to-changes-in-substance-use
#9
Peter S Jensen, Kumi Yuki, Desiree Murray, John T Mitchell, Thomas Weisner, Steven Hinshaw, Brooke Molina, James Swanson, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Karen Wells
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the behavior beliefs, social supports, and turning points in individuals with/without ADHD related to their substance use/abuse (SU/A) decisions. METHOD: The coded interviews from 60 participants with/without ADHD were compared for their SU/A decisions and precipitants with these decisions among abstainers, persisters, and desisters. RESULTS: ADHD participants reported fewer social advantages to avoid SU/A than non-ADHD participants...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411408/psychopathology-and-traffic-violations-in-subjects-who-have-lost-their-driving-license
#10
S Valero, R Bosch, M Corominas, A Giannoni, V Barrau, J A Ramos-Quiroga, M Casas
BACKGROUND: The persistence of risky behaviors while driving and traffic accidents despite campaigns to increase awareness suggest that there may be underlying causes that maintain proneness to traffic violations. The aim of the current study was to assess: a) the prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of people who have lost their driving license due to former traffic violations and b) the discriminatory capacity of each psychopathological disorder to differentiate among people with high and low proneness to perform risky behaviors while driving...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406351/substance-use-in-undergraduate-students-with-histories-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-role-of-impulsivity
#11
Theresa E Egan, Anne E Dawson, Brian T Wymbs
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood (18-25 years old) is regarded as a time of identity exploration that includes a peak in risky behaviors, such as substance use and misuse. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also associated with greater levels of risky behaviors, including substance use and misuse; however, there is a lack of research on substance use by emerging adults with ADHD, in particular the potential mechanisms that may facilitate this risk. OBJECTIVES: The present study builds on the existing research regarding the association between ADHD and substance use by examining roles of multiple facets of impulsivity in facilitating this association during emerging adulthood...
April 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391109/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-abuse-an-investigation-in-young-austrian-males
#12
Anita Riegler, Sabine Völkl-Kernstock, Otto Lesch, Henriette Walter, Katrin Skala
BACKGROUND: Many studies have found an association between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. We intended to determine whether substance abuse and SUDs are associated with former and current ADHD symptomatology in a non-clinical sample of 17 and 18 year old males. METHOD: A representative sample of 3280 young men (6.8% of all males born in Austria in the respective year) was investigated during the examination for military service...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262134/interventions-in-adhd-a-comparative-review-of-stimulant-medications-and-behavioral-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Adnan Rajeh, Shabbir Amanullah, K Shivakumar, Julie Cole
ADHD has a prevalence of approximately 10% in children with evidence supporting it's continuance into adulthood. This has a significant impact on how we address treatment at substance abuse facilities and also has implications for personal and occupational functioning. A lack of evidence to support the superiority of any one intervention over the other has created difficulties for both clinicians and parents. A recent review highlights long-term and short-term outcomes (Craig et al., 2015). This article reviews the benefits and pitfalls of both pharmacological interventions and behavioral therapies in the treatment of ADHD...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251590/towards-precision-addiction-treatment-new-findings-in-co-morbid-substance-use-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Sean X Luo, Frances R Levin
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) may have common etiologies. ADHD is more prevalent in patients with substance use disorders, and this pattern is consistent across different substances of abuse. Individuals with SUDs and ADHD exhibit significant variations in their clinical presentations. The developmental trajectory of ADHD to SUDs is complex: ADHD symptoms appear first in some patients but not in others. Many patients present with a heterogeneous collection of psychiatric and substance use co-morbidities, and these symptoms change over time...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186314/psychopathological-profile-and-prevalence-of-dual-pathology-on-patients-with-alcoholic-dependence-undergoing-outpatient-treatment
#15
Miguel A García-Carretero, José P Novalbos-Ruiz, María Robles-Martínez, María A Jordán-Quintero, Cristina O'Ferrall-González
AIMS: Assess the prevalence of dual pathology in patients with alcohol dependence and describe the psychopathological profile of mental disorders, impulsiveness, ADHD presence and craving. METHOD: It is a cross-sectional study about dual pathology, carried out on 102 patients undergoing outpatient treatment. The presence of dual pathology is established by means of the MINI-5 interview and the MCMI-III test; DSM-IV being used as the alcohol abuse criteria. Impulsiveness, ADHD presence, craving and quality of life were measured through SIS, ASRSv1, MACS and SF-36...
January 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162086/adult-adhd-is-associated-with-gambling-severity-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-treatment-seeking-problem-gamblers
#16
Laura Brandt, Gabriele Fischer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is as follows: (a) exploring retrospective childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology in treatment-seeking gamblers, (b) providing detailed characteristics of the association between pathological gambling (PG) and ADHD, and (c) identifying risk factors for a history of ADHD. METHOD: Eighty problem gamblers (20% female) were examined using a standardized interview (PG: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; DSM-IV] criteria, Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey; ADHD: Wender Utah Rating Scale- deutsche Kurzform, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; comorbidities: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132697/physician-practices-to-prevent-adhd-stimulant-diversion-and-misuse
#17
Natalie Colaneri, Sarah Keim, Andrew Adesman
BACKGROUND: Recent studies report that a significant number of adolescents misuse and divert prescription stimulants. As prescribers of these medications, physicians have a unique opportunity to help prevent the improper use and unlawful distribution of these medications. This study evaluates the extent to which physicians employ prevention practices with their adolescent patients with ADHD and their perceptions of the effectiveness of these practices. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and mailed to child and adolescent psychiatrists, child neurologists, and developmental-behavioral pediatricians in the US...
March 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106934/neuroimaging-the-neural-correlates-of-increased-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Vitria Adisetiyo, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are nearly three times more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUD) than their typically developing peers. Our objective was to review the existing neuroimaging research on high-risk ADHD (ie, ADHD with disruptive behavior disorders, familial SUD and/or early substance use), focusing on impulsivity as one possible mechanism underlying SUD risk. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using combinations of the keywords "ADHD," "substance use," "substance use disorder," "SUD," "addiction," "dependence," "abuse," "risk," "brain" "MRI," "imaging" and "neuroimaging...
March 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#19
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995073/distinct-effects-of-childhood-adhd-and-cannabis-use-on-brain-functional-architecture-in-young-adults
#20
Clare Kelly, F Xavier Castellanos, Olivia Tomaselli, Krista Lisdahl, Leanne Tamm, Terry Jernigan, Erik Newman, Jeffery N Epstein, Brooke S G Molina, Laurence L Greenhill, Steven G Potkin, Stephen Hinshaw, James M Swanson
One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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