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Adhd and substance abuse

Ola Ståhlberg, Sofia Boman, Christina Robertsson, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Julia Huemer, Anita Riegler, Sabine Völkl-Kernstock, Alexander Wascher, Otto M Lesch, Henriette Walter, Katrin Skala
This study intended to determine whether former and current ADHD symptomatology is associated with suicidal ideation in a non-clinical sample of 18 year old males. We performed a cross sectional descriptive study of 3280 men during the examination for military service. The investigation included a screening for substance abuse, past (WURS) and current (ADHD symptom checklist) ADHD symptomatology and an interview about suicidal ideations. We found a correlation of suicidal ideations with a history of ADHD symptomatology...
September 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Eva Tedgård, Maria Råstam
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether women raised in a family with substance abuse constitute a particularly vulnerable group of patients in an infant psychiatry setting and to identify the risk factors of suspected parental malfunctioning in women referred to treatment in an infant and toddler intervention program. BACKGROUND: A history of family substance abuse can severely disrupt the caretaking abilities of parents in ways that can have far-reaching consequences, and children growing up with insufficient parental care may incorporate this deficiency into their own parental behavior...
2016: SpringerPlus
D Galland, I Tisserant, L Notardonato
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. METHODS: A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Tia Sternat, Martin A Katzman
Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one's characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
T S Jaisoorya, K V Beena, M Beena, K Ellangovan, Sanju George, K Thennarasu, Shoba Srinath
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. METHOD: Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. RESULTS: Three hundred five (4...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Angelo Fallu, Farida Dabouz, Melissa Furtado, Leena Anand, Martin A Katzman
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child's development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA(®) to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C(®)...
August 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Stella Jacobson, Pernilla Östlund, Lena Wallgren, Marie Österberg, Sofia Tranæus
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this project was to identify the ten most important research questions for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment as identified by people with ADHD together with personnel involved in the treatment of ADHD in school, health, and correction services. METHODS: A working group consisting of consumers and personnel was established. The method for prioritization was primarily based on James Lind Alliance's guidebook, consisting of an interim priority setting exercise and a workshop...
January 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Leslie Briars, Timothy Todd
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological diagnosis in children. This disorder impacts children and adolescents in all areas of life, including academic performance, extracurricular activities, and social interactions. ADHD can continue into adulthood where unemployment and substance abuse has been described. Although behavioral therapy is recommended for all patients with ADHD, medication management typically is initiated soon after diagnosis. Psychostimulants remain the primary medication of choice...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
E Fuller-Thomson, D A Lewis, S K Agbeyaka
BACKGROUND: To develop a sociodemographic and health profile of women with self-reported attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison to women without. METHODS: Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (2012) comparing 107 women aged 20 to 39 years (inclusive) with ADHD to 3801 without ADHD. Depression, generalized anxiety disorder and substance abuse were measured using the WHO-CIDI...
July 20, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Nastaran Ahmadi, Maryam Salmanian, Fatemeh Asadian-Koohestani, Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Ali Alavi, Ayyoub Malek, Saeed Dastgiri, Fatemeh Moharreri, Paria Hebrani, Soroor Arman, Javad Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Ali Motavallian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. METHOD: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, andthose who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Kristina A Neely, Amanda P Chennavasin, Arie Yoder, Genevieve K R Williams, Eric Loken, Cynthia L Huang-Pollock
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorder in childhood and persists into adulthood in up to 65 % of cases. ADHD is associated with adverse outcomes such as the ability to gain and maintain employment and is associated with an increased risk for substance abuse obesity workplace injuries and traffic accidents A majority of diagnosed children have motor deficits; however, few studies have examined motor deficits in young adults. This study provides a novel examination of visuomotor control of grip force in young adults with and without ADHD...
July 9, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Bradley D Holbrook
Maternal smoking during pregnancy continues to represent a major public health concern. Nicotine is extremely harmful to the developing fetus through many different mechanisms, and the harms increase with later gestational age at exposure. Pregnancies complicated by maternal nicotine use are more likely to have significant adverse outcomes. Nicotine-exposed children tend to have several health problems throughout their lives, including impaired function of the endocrine, reproductive, respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurologic systems...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Nooshin Parvaresh, Shahrzad Mazhari, Neda Mohamadi, Najmeh Mohamadi
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. METHODS: In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 year-old children who referred to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics...
2016: Addiction & Health
M C Schippers, D Schetters, T J De Vries, T Pattij
RATIONALE: High levels of impulsivity have been associated with psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse. In addition, acute stress is known to exacerbate many psychiatric symptoms in impulse control disorders. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effects of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine on response inhibition and impulsive choice. METHODS: A group of male rats (n = 12) was trained in the delayed reward task (DRT) to assess impulsive choice...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jeffrey A Mattes
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in prison populations, but optimal treatment recommendations in prison are uncertain. Stimulants are problematic because of the potential for abuse. This article is a review of medication options for ADHD, focusing on the α2 agonists clonidine and guanfacine, which, in their extended-release (ER) forms, are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of ADHD, although they are probably less efficacious, overall, than stimulants...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Nasreen Roberts, Linda Booij, Nicholas Axas, Leanne Repetti
OBJECTIVE: (a) To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, and (b) compare suicidal with non-suicidal referrals. METHODS: This was a 2-year prospective study. Data was gathered on demographic, historical and clinical variables. Comparison of suicidal and non-suicidal patients was conducted using χ2. A hospital database was used for referral and wait times. RESULTS: Of 805 assessments, 55% were referred by emergency physicians and 28% by primary care physicians...
May 13, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Kristina Karlsdotter, Chris Bushe, L Hakkaart, Esther Sobanski, C C Kan, Jeremie Lebrec, Susanne Kraemer, Nicole A H M Dieteren, Walter Deberdt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden of illness and health care resource utilization of adult nonpsychotic psychiatric outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. METHODS: This was a multicountry, cross-sectional, observational study where unselected routine patients from clinical psychiatric outpatient settings were screened and assessed for ADHD. Patients were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S) scale, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions questionnaire...
September 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Fariba Arabghol, Firooze Derakhshanpour, Rozita Davari Ashtiyani, Narges Chimeh, Layli Panaghi
BACKGROUND: Child abuse is a phenomenon that confronts the child, family, and society with irretrievable physical and mental injuries, and its negative effects continue until adulthood. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to identify and evaluate cases of abused children at a medical center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive-analytic study. The subjects were all children and adolescents who were referred to Imam Hussein hospital within 6 months due to physical or psychiatric reasons and were diagnosed with child abuse and neglect by a child and adolescent psychiatrist...
March 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Hans Ole Korsgaard, Svenn Torgersen, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Randi Ulberg
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) constitute a major health problem and are associated with an extensive psychiatric comorbidity. Personality disorders (PDs) and SUDs commonly co-occur. Comorbid PD is characterized by more severe addiction problems and by an unfavorable clinical outcome. The present study investigated the prevalence of SUDs, PDs and common Axis I disorders in a sample of adolescent outpatients. We also investigated the association between PDs and SUDs, and how this association was influenced by adjustment for other Axis I disorders, age and gender...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
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