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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730511/intermediate-molecular-mass-hyaluronan-and-cd44-receptor-interactions-enhance-neutrophil-phagocytosis-and-il-8-production-via-p38-and-erk1-2-mapk-signalling-pathways
#1
Cheng-Hsun Lu, Chia-Huei Lin, Ko-Jen Li, Chieh-Yu Shen, Cheng-Han Wu, Yu-Min Kuo, Ting-Syuan Lin, Chia-Li Yu, Song-Chou Hsieh
CD44 is a common leukocyte adhesion molecule expressed on the surface of various cells. Hyaluronan (HA), the natural ligand of CD44, is a simple repeated disaccharide with variable molecular mass that is widely distributed on cell surfaces and the connective tissue matrix. The binding of small molecular mass HA (SMM-HA, MW < 80 kDa) to CD44 on immune-related cells elicits cell proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production. However, the effects and molecular basis of intermediate molecular mass HA (IMM-HA, MW ≈ 500 kDa)-CD44 interactions on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions have not been elucidated...
July 20, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729925/patterns-of-production-of-collagen-rich-deposits-in-peripheral-nerves-in-response-to-injury-a-pilot-study-in-a-rabbit-model
#2
Michael Rivlin, Andrew Miller, Jacob Tulipan, Pedro K Beredjiklian, Mark L Wang, Jolanta Fertala, Andrzej Steplewski, James Kostas, Andrzej Fertala
INTRODUCTION: Although collagen-rich deposits are the main component of neural scars, the patterns of their formation are ill defined. Essential to the biosynthesis of collagen fibrils are enzymes catalyzing posttranslational modifications and chaperones that control the formation of the collagen triple helix. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) and heat shock protein-47 (HSP47) play a key role, and their production is upregulated during scar formation in human tissues. Alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) is also produced during fibrotic processes in myofibroblasts that participate in fibrotic response...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719947/efficient-liquid-media-for-encystation-of-pathogenic-free-living-amoebae
#3
Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Suk-Yul Jung, Ho-Joon Shin
Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, are distributed worldwide. They are causative agents of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis or acanthamoebic keratitis in humans, respectively. Trophozoites encyst in unfavorable environments, such as exhausted food supply and desiccation. Until recently, the method of N. fowleri encystation used solid non-nutrient agar medium supplemented with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli; however, for the amoebic encystment of Acanthamoeba spp...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715582/iris-freckles-a-potential-biomarker-for-chronic-sun-damage
#4
Christoph Schwab, Christoph Mayer, Iris Zalaudek, Regina Riedl, Markus Richtig, Werner Wackernagel, Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof, Georg Richtig, Gerald Langmann, Lisa Tarmann, Andreas Wedrich, Erika Richtig
Purpose: To investigate the role of sunlight exposure in iris freckles formation. Methods: We prospectively examined volunteers attending a skin cancer screening program conducted by ophthalmologists and dermatologists. Frequency and topographical variability of iris freckles were noted and associated with behavioral and dermatologic characteristics indicating high sun exposure. Results: Six hundred thirty-two participants (n = 360; 57% female) were examined...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714360/knockdown-of-calponin-2-suppressed-cell-growth-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#5
Jianwei Hu, Wenjuan Xie, Lingyue Shang, Xi Yang, Quanlin Li, Meidong Xu, Jianming Dou, Yiren Zhou, Weixin Niu, Yanhua Wu
Calponin family members are actin filament-associated regulatory proteins with distinct expression patterns. Previous studies on CNN2 (calponin 2) have demonstrated that CNN2 is expressed in a broad range of tissues and cell types, exhibiting potential regulatory roles in a number of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, cell migration, and platelet adhesion. In this work, we found that both messenger RNA and protein expression levels of CNN2 were remarkably upregulated in 60%-70% of gastric cancer tissues by comparison with those of neighboring non-tumorous mucosa...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711870/symmetrical-retrograde-actin-flow-in-the-actin-fusion-structure-is-involved-in-osteoclast-fusion
#6
Jiro Takito, Hirotada Otsuka, Satoshi Inoue, Tsubasa Kawashima, Masanori Nakamura
The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the zipper-like structure (ZLS), a podosome-related structure that transiently appears at the cell contact zone, in osteoclast fusion. Live-cell imaging of osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7 cells transfected with EGFP-actin revealed consistent symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the ZLS, but not in the podosome cluster, the podosome ring or the podosome belt. Confocal imaging showed that the distributions of F-actin, vinculin, paxillin and zyxin in the ZLS were different from those in the podosome belt...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711162/actin-cytoskeleton-stiffness-grades-metastatic-potential-of-ovarian-carcinoma-hey-a8-cells-via-nanoindentation-mapping
#7
Z L Zhou, X X Sun, J Ma, M H Tong, S K Y To, A S T Wong, A H W Ngan
Recent studies have indicated that the nanoindentation measured stiffness of carcinoma adherent cells is in general lower than normal cells, thus suggesting that cell stiffness may serve as a bio-marker for carcinoma. However, the proper establishment of such a conclusion would require biophysical understanding of the underlying mechanism of the cell stiffness. In this work, we compared the elastic moduli of the actin cytoskeletons of Hey A8 ovarian carcinoma cells with and without metastasis (HM and NM), as measured by 2D atomic force microscopy (AFM) with low-depth nanoindentation via a rate-jump method...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708512/insulin-during-in%C3%A2-vitro-oocyte-maturation-has-an-impact-on-development-mitochondria-and-cytoskeleton-in-bovine-day-8-blastocysts
#8
Denise Laskowski, Renée Båge, Patrice Humblot, Göran Andersson, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson
Insulin is a key metabolic hormone that controls energy homeostasis in the body, including playing a specific role in regulating reproductive functions. Conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia can lower developmental rates in bovine in vitro embryo production and are linked to decreased fertility in humans, as in cases of obesity or type 2 diabetes. Embryo quality is important for fertility outcome and it can be assessed by choosing scoring standards for various characteristics, such as developmental stage, quality grade, cell number, mitochondrial pattern or actin cytoskeleton structure...
June 13, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708292/fhod1-regulates-cytoplasmic-actin-based-spindle-migration-for-mouse-oocyte-asymmetric-cell-division
#9
Meng-Hao Pan, Fei Wang, Yujie Lu, Feng Tang, Xing Duan, Yu Zhang, Bo Xiong, Shao-Chen Sun
FHOD1 is a member of Diaphanous related formins (DRFs) which belongs to the Formin family. Previous studies have shown that the DFRs might affect several cellular functions such as morphogenesis, cytokinesis, cell polarity and embryonic differentiation. However, there is no evidence showing the functions of FHOD1 during oocyte meiosis. This study is aimed at exploring the roles of FHOD1 during the mammalian oocyte maturation. Immunofluorescent staining showed that FHOD1 was restricted to the nucleus in germinal vesicle (GV) stage of the oocytes, after the GV breakdown FHOD1 was primarily located at two poles of the spindle at both metaphase I and metaphase II stages...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707711/rosettes-in-actinic-keratosis-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma-distribution-association-to-other-dermoscopic-signs-and-description-of-the-rosette-pattern
#10
B Lozano-Masdemont, I Polimón-Olabarrieta, S Marinero-Escobedo, A Gutierrez-Pecharromán, E Rodríguez-Lomba
BACKGROUND: Rosettes, a dermoscopic structure characterized by four white points arranged as a 4-leaf clover, supports the dermoscopic diagnosis of actinic keratosis (AK) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). OBJECTIVE: The association of rosettes with other dermoscopic structures in AK or SCC and their distribution has not been analysed yet. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of patients with histologically proven AK or SCC who presented dermoscopic rosettes at initial evaluation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702782/immunohistochemical-localization-of-histidine-rich-glycoprotein-in-human-skeletal-muscle-preferential-distribution-of-the-protein-at-the-sarcomeric-i-band
#11
L Mattii, L Rossi, C Ippolito, G Alì, D Martini, A Raggi, Antonietta R M Sabbatini
Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is a relatively abundant plasma protein that is synthesized by parenchymal liver cells. Using Western blot analysis and immunoperoxidase techniques, we have previously shown the presence of HRG in human skeletal muscle. This paper reports the results of immunofluorescence experiments carried out on sections of human normal skeletal muscle biopsies to investigate the subcellular localization of HRG. The HRG localization was also compared with that of skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD1), since we have previously described an association of the enzyme with the protein...
July 12, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692740/switching-of-%C3%AE-catenin-from-epithelial-to-neuronal-type-during-lens-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#12
Rupalatha Maddala, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao
Purpose: Ocular lens fiber cell elongation, differentiation, and compaction are associated with extensive reorganization of cell adhesive interactions and cytoskeleton; however, our knowledge of proteins critical to these events is still evolving. This study characterizes the distribution pattern of neuronal-specific α-catenin (αN-catenin) and its interaction with the N-cadherin-associated adherens junctions (AJs) and their stability in the mouse lens fibers. Methods: Expression and distribution of αN-catenin in developing mouse and adult human lenses was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688427/adsorption-of-finite-semiflexible-polymers-and-their-loop-and-tail-distributions
#13
Tobias A Kampmann, Jan Kierfeld
We discuss the adsorption of semiflexible polymers to a planar attractive wall and focus on the questions of the adsorption threshold for polymers of finite length and their loop and tail distributions using both Monte Carlo simulations and analytical arguments. For the adsorption threshold, we find three regimes: (i) a flexible or Gaussian regime if the persistence length is smaller than the adsorption potential range, (ii) a semiflexible regime if the persistence length is larger than the potential range, and (iii) for finite polymers, a novel crossover to a rigid rod regime if the deflection length exceeds the contour length...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684722/overview-of-single-molecule-speckle-sims-microscopy-and-its-electroporation-based-version-with-efficient-labeling-and-improved-spatiotemporal-resolution
#14
REVIEW
Sawako Yamashiro, Naoki Watanabe
Live-cell single-molecule imaging was introduced more than a decade ago, and has provided critical information on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, the motion of plasma membrane proteins, and dynamics of molecular motor proteins. Actin remodeling has been the best target for this approach because actin and its associated proteins stop diffusing when assembled, allowing visualization of single-molecules of fluorescently-labeled proteins in a state specific manner. The approach based on this simple principle is called Single-Molecule Speckle (SiMS) microscopy...
July 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679208/spatially-selective-dissection-of-signal-transduction-in-neurons-grown-on-netrin-1-printed-nanoarrays-via-segmented-fluorescence-fluctuation-analysis
#15
Angelica A Gopal, Sebastien G Ricoult, Stephanie N Harris, David Juncker, Timothy E Kennedy, Paul W Wiseman
Axonal growth cones extend during neural development in response to precise distributions of extracellular cues. Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), a receptor for the chemotropic guidance cue netrin-1, directs F-actin reorganization and is essential for mammalian neural development. To elucidate how the extracellular distribution of netrin-1 influences the distribution of DCC and F-actin within axonal growth cones, we patterned nanoarrays of substrate bound netrin-1 using lift off nanocontact printing. The distribution of DCC and F-actin in embryonic rat cortical neuron growth cones was then imaged using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
July 5, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678859/myosin-1-inhibition-by-pclp-affects-membrane-shape-cortical-actin-distribution-and-lipid-droplet-dynamics-in-early-zebrafish-embryos
#16
Prabuddha Gupta, René Martin, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Deepak Nihalani, Deepak Kumar Sinha
Myosin-1 (Myo1) represents a mechanical link between the membrane and actin-cytoskeleton in animal cells. We have studied the effect of Myo1 inhibitor PClP in 1-8 cell Zebrafish embryos. Our results indicate a unique involvement of Myo1 in early development of Zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Myo1 (by PClP) and Myo2 (by Blebbistatin) lead to arrest in cell division. While Myo1 isoforms appears to be important for both the formation and the maintenance of cleavage furrows, Myo2 is required only for the formation of furrows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674019/changes-in-e-cadherin-rigidity-sensing-regulate-cell-adhesion
#17
Caitlin Collins, Aleksandra K Denisin, Beth L Pruitt, W James Nelson
Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin-dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670627/lr8-expression-in-fibroblasts-of-healthy-and-fibrotic-human-tissues
#18
Anusha Etikala, Greg Bruce, Kelly Hudkins, A S Narayanan
LR8 gene was first reported in a subpopulation of cultured human lung fibroblasts expressing the receptor for C1q-globular domain, and it was not detectable in cultured endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. LR8 mRNA levels were higher in fibrotic lungs. In this study we assessed LR8 production in human tissues and determined if the distribution of fibroblasts producing LR8 is affected in fibrosis. Normal and fibrotic tissue sections from human liver, lung and kidneys were immunostained with antibodies to LR8 and examined for the presence of fibroblasts staining positively and negatively...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668420/quantitative-in-vivo-imaging-of-tissue-factor-expression-in-glioma-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-derived-parameters
#19
Xiao Chen, Tian Xie, Jingqin Fang, Wei Xue, Haipeng Tong, Houyi Kang, Sumei Wang, Yizeng Yang, Minhui Xu, Weiguo Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Tissue Factor (TF) has been well established in angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis in glioma. A noninvasive assessment of TF expression status in glioma is therefore of obvious clinical relevance. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI parameters have been used to evaluate microvascular characteristics and predict molecular expression status in tumors. Our aim is to investigate whether quantitative DCE-MRI parameters could assess TF expression in glioma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients with histopathologically diagnosed supratentorial glioma who underwent DCE-MRI were retrospectively recruited...
August 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663347/adenomatous-polyposis-coli-nucleates-actin-assembly-to-drive-cell-migration-and-microtubule-induced-focal-adhesion-turnover
#20
M Angeles Juanes, Habib Bouguenina, Julian A Eskin, Richa Jaiswal, Ali Badache, Bruce L Goode
Cell motility depends on tight coordination between the microtubule (MT) and actin cytoskeletons, but the mechanisms underlying this MT-actin cross talk have remained poorly understood. Here, we show that the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), which is a known MT-associated protein, directly nucleates actin assembly to promote directed cell migration. By changing only two residues in APC, we generated a separation-of-function mutant, APC (m4), that abolishes actin nucleation activity without affecting MT interactions...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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