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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166604/capture-of-dense-core-vesicles-at-synapses-by-jnk-dependent-phosphorylation-of-synaptotagmin-4
#1
Vinita Bharat, Michael Siebrecht, Katja Burk, Saheeb Ahmed, Carsten Reissner, Mahdokht Kohansal-Nodehi, Vicky Steubler, Markus Zweckstetter, Jonathan T Ting, Camin Dean
Delivery of neurotrophins and neuropeptides via long-range trafficking of dense core vesicles (DCVs) from the cell soma to nerve terminals is essential for synapse modulation and circuit function. But the mechanism by which transiting DCVs are captured at specific sites is unknown. Here, we discovered that Synaptotagmin-4 (Syt4) regulates the capture and spatial distribution of DCVs in hippocampal neurons. We found that DCVs are highly mobile and undergo long-range translocation but switch directions only at the distal ends of axons, revealing a circular trafficking pattern...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149721/biological-safety-and-tissue-distribution-of-16-mercaptohexadecyl-trimethylammonium-bromide-modified-cationic-gold-nanorods
#2
Monika Zarska, Michal Sramek, Filip Novotny, Filip Havel, Andrea Babelova, Blanka Mrazkova, Oldrich Benada, Milan Reinis, Ivan Stepanek, Kamil Musilek, Jiri Bartek, Monika Ursinyova, Ondrej Novak, Rastislav Dzijak, Kamil Kuca, Jan Proska, Zdenek Hodny
The exceptionally high cellular uptake of gold nanorods (GNRs) bearing cationic surfactants makes them a promising tool for biomedical applications. Given the known specific toxic and stress effects of some preparations of cationic nanoparticles, the purpose of this study was to evaluate, in an in vitro and in vivo in mouse, the potential harmful effects of GNRs coated with (16-mercaptohexadecyl)trimethylammonium bromide ((MTAB)GNRs). Interestingly, even after cellular accumulation of high amounts of (MTAB)GNRs sufficient for induction of photothermal effect, no genotoxicity (even after longer-term accumulation), induction of autophagy, destabilization of lysosomes (dominant organelles of their cellular destination), alterations of actin cytoskeleton, or in cell migration could be detected in vitro...
November 1, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143117/the-expression-of-ve-cadherin-in-breast-cancer-cells-modulates-cell-dynamics-as-a-function-of-tumor-differentiation-and-promotes-tumor-endothelial-cell-interactions
#3
Maryam Rezaei, Jiahui Cao, Katrin Friedrich, Björn Kemper, Oliver Brendel, Marianne Grosser, Manuela Adrian, Gustavo Baretton, Georg Breier, Hans-Joachim Schnittler
The cadherin switch has profound consequences on cancer invasion and metastasis. The endothelial-specific vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) has been demonstrated in diverse cancer types including breast cancer and is supposed to modulate tumor progression and metastasis, but underlying mechanisms need to be better understood. First, we evaluated VE-cadherin expression by tissue microarray in 392 cases of breast cancer tumors and found a diverse expression and distribution of VE-cadherin. Experimental expression of fluorescence-tagged VE-cadherin (VE-EGFP) in undifferentiated, fibroblastoid and E-cadherin-negative MDA-231 (MDA-VE-EGFP) as well as in differentiated E-cadherin-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-VE-EGFP), respectively, displayed differentiation-dependent functional differences...
November 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136959/alterations-of-biomechanics-in-cancer-and-normal-cells-induced-by-doxorubicin
#4
Kaja Fraczkowska, Marcin Bacia, Magda Przybyło, Dominik Drabik, Aleksandra Kaczorowska, Justyna Rybka, Ewa Stefanko, Slawomir Drobczynski, Jan Masajada, Halina Podbielska, Tomasz Wrobel, Marta Kopaczynska
Mechanical properties of biological structures play an important role in regulating cellular activities and are critical for understanding metabolic processes in cancerous cells and the effects of drugs. For some cancers, such as acute myeloid leukaemia, chemotherapy is one of preferential methods. However, due to the lack of selectivity to cancer cells, cytostatic agents cause toxicity to normal tissues. Here, we study the effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the mechanical properties of DNA molecules, leukemic blast cells and erythrocytes, using optical tweezers...
November 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123421/lncrna-expression-in-the-spinal-cord-modulated-by-minocycline-in-a-mouse-model-of-spared-nerve-injury
#5
Zihao Liu, Ying Liang, Honghua Wang, Zhenhe Lu, Jinsheng Chen, Qiaodong Huang, Lei Sheng, Yinghong Ma, Huiying Du, Qingjuan Gong
Neuropathic pain is a common and refractory chronic pain that affects millions of people worldwide. Its underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but they may involve long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which play crucial roles in a variety of biological functions, including nociception. We used microarrays to investigate the possible interactions between lncRNAs and neuropathic pain and identified 22,213 lncRNAs and 19,528 mRNAs in the spinal cord in a mouse model of spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced neuropathic pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120676/glutamine-protection-in-an-experimental-model-of-acetaminophen-nephrotoxicity
#6
Marco Brovedan, Sara María Molinas, Gerardo Pisani, Liliana Alicia Monasterolo, Laura Trumper
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely prescribed analgesic - antipyretic drug. In the present work we studied the effects of glutamine (Gln) in an "in vivo" model of APAP-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Renal function, histological characteristics and Na+, K+ ATPase cortical abundance and distribution were analyzed. The appearance of HSP70 and actin in urine were also evaluated. Mieloperoxidase activity in cortical tissue was measured as an index of the inflammatory response. Gln administration 30 min before APAP protected from the renal functional and histological damage promoted by APAP...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118357/pumilio-dependent-localization-of-mrnas-at-the-cell-front-coordinates-multiple-pathways-required-for-chemotaxis
#7
Manuel Hotz, W James Nelson
Chemotaxis is a specialized form of directed cell migration important for normal development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, four signaling pathways act synergistically to maintain directional cell migration. However, it is unknown how these pathways are coordinated in space and time to achieve persistent chemotaxis. Here, we show that the mRNAs and proteins of these four chemotaxis pathways and actin are preferentially enriched at the cell front during dynamic cell migration, which requires the Pumilio-related RNA-binding protein Puf118...
November 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112712/the-protective-role-of-melatonin-in-porcine-oocyte-meiotic-failure-caused-by-the-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene
#8
Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Qingyun Bai, Zhaokang Cui, Xiayan ShiYang, Yajuan Lu, Mianqun Zhang, Xiaoxin Dai, Bo Xiong
STUDY QUESTION: Does melatonin restore the benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced meiotic failure in porcine oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Melatonin effectively inhibits the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and apoptotic rate in BaP-exposed porcine oocytes to recover the meiotic failure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: BaP, a widespread environmental carcinogen found in particulate matter, 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5), has been shown to have toxicity at the level of the reproductive systems...
November 3, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109171/postovulatory-aging-causes-the-deterioration-of-porcine-oocytes-via-induction-of-oxidative-stress
#9
Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Mianqun Zhang, Xiayan ShiYang, Yajuan Lu, Bo Xiong
Negative effects of postovulatory aging on fertilization ability and subsequent embryo development have been reported in rodents; however, the molecular and cellular changes during this process have not been fully defined. Here, we used porcine oocytes, a model that is physiologically and developmentally similar to humans, to explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie how postovulatory aging affects oocyte quality and fertilization capacity. We found that postovulatory aging caused the morphologic change of porcine oocytes by exhibiting the incompact expansion of cumulus cells and an increased occurrence of fragmentation...
November 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099870/intravital-longitudinal-wide-area-imaging-of-dynamic-bone-marrow-engraftment-and-multilineage-differentiation-through-nuclear-cytoplasmic-labeling
#10
Soyeon Ahn, Kibaek Choe, Seunghun Lee, Kangsan Kim, Eunjoo Song, Howon Seo, Injune Kim, Pilhan Kim
Bone marrow is a vital tissue that produces the majority of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and immune cells. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been widely performed in patients with blood disorders and cancers. However, the cellular-level behaviors of the transplanted bone marrow cells over wide-areas of the host bone marrow after the BMT are not fully understood yet. In this work, we performed a longitudinal wide-area cellular-level observation of the calvarial bone marrow after the BMT in vivo. Using a H2B-GFP/β-actin-DsRed double-transgenic mouse model as a donor, a subcellular-level nuclear-cytoplasmic visualization of the transplanted bone marrow cells was achieved, which enabled a direct in vivo dynamic monitoring of the distribution and proliferation of the transplanted bone marrow cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091957/hepatitis-e-virus-hev-egress-role-of-bst2-tetherin-and-interferon-induced-long-non-coding-rna-lncrna-bispr
#11
Daizy Paliwal, Prashant Joshi, Subrat Kumar Panda
BACKGROUND: The biology of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), a common cause of epidemic and sporadic hepatitis, is still being explored. HEV exits liver through bile, a process which is essential for its natural transmission by feco-oral route. Though the process of this polarised HEV egress is not known in detail, HEV pORF3 and hepatocyte actin cytoskeleton have been shown to play a role. METHODS: Our transcriptome analysis in Hepatitis E virus (HEV) replicon transfected Huh7 cells at 24 and 72 hrs indicated that at 24hrs, both LncBISPR and BST2, expressed by a bidirectional promoter were highly upregulated whereas at 72 hrs, BST2 expression was comparatively reduced accompanied by normal levels of BISPR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090427/on-the-origin-of-the-slow-m-t-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-decline-in-cyanobacteria-interplay-of-short-term-light-responses
#12
Gábor Bernát, Gábor Steinbach, Radek Kaňa, Govindjee, Amarendra N Misra, Ondřej Prašil
The slow kinetic phases of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (induction) are valuable tools in studying dynamic regulation of light harvesting, light energy distribution between photosystems, and heat dissipation in photosynthetic organisms. However, the origin of these phases are not yet fully understood. This is especially true in the case of prokaryotic oxygenic photoautotrophs, the cyanobacteria. To understand the origin of the slowest (tens of minutes) kinetic phase, the M-T fluorescence decline, in the context of light acclimation of these globally important microorganisms, we have compared spectrally resolved fluorescence induction data from the wild type Synechocystis sp...
October 31, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090272/a-new-panel-of-epitope-mapped-monoclonal-antibodies-recognising-the-prototypical-tetraspanin-cd81
#13
Joe Grove, Ke Hu, Michelle J Farquhar, Margaret Goodall, Lucas Walker, Mohammed Jamshad, Heidi E Drummer, Roslyn M Bill, Peter Balfe, Jane A McKeating
Background: Tetraspanins are small transmembrane proteins, found in all higher eukaryotes, that compartmentalize cellular membranes through interactions with partner proteins. CD81 is a prototypical tetraspanin and contributes to numerous physiological and pathological processes, including acting as a critical entry receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Antibody engagement of tetraspanins can induce a variety of effects, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of MAPK-ERK signaling and cell migration...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075202/mitochondrial-atp-depletion-disrupts-caco-2-monolayer-integrity-and-internalizes-claudin-7
#14
Lonneke M JanssenDuijghuijsen, Sander Grefte, Vincent C J de Boer, Lara Zeper, Dorien A M van Dartel, Inge van der Stelt, Melissa Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Klaske van Norren, Harry J Wichers, Jaap Keijer
Objective:In vivo studies suggest that intestinal barrier integrity is dependent on mitochondrial ATP production. Here, we aim to provide mechanistic support, using an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative in vivo situation. Methods: Human Caco-2 cells were cultured for 10 days in culture flasks or for 14 days on transwell inserts in either glucose-containing or galactose-containing medium. Mitochondria were visualized and cellular respiration and levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins were determined...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074776/n-%C3%AE%C2%B5-fatty-acylation-of-rho-gtpases-by-a-martx-toxin-effector
#15
Yan Zhou, Chunfeng Huang, Li Yin, Muyang Wan, Xiaofei Wang, Lin Li, Yanhua Liu, Zhao Wang, Panhan Fu, Ni Zhang, She Chen, Xiaoyun Liu, Feng Shao, Yongqun Zhu
The multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are a family of large toxins that are extensively distributed in bacterial pathogens. MARTX toxins are autocatalytically cleaved to multiple effector domains, which are released into host cells to modulate the host signaling pathways. The Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) inactivation domain (RID), a conserved effector domain of MARTX toxins, is implicated in cell rounding by disrupting the host actin cytoskeleton. We found that the RID is an N(ε)-fatty acyltransferase that covalently modifies the lysine residues in the C-terminal polybasic region of Rho GTPases...
October 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061882/adf10-shapes-the-overall-organization-of-apical-actin-filaments-by-promoting-their-turnover-and-ordering-in-pollen-tubes
#16
Yuxiang Jiang, Juan Wang, Yurong Xie, Naizhi Chen, Shanjin Huang
Here we show that Arabidopsis ADF10 plays an important role in shaping the overall organization of apical actin filaments by promoting their turnover and ordering. ADF10 severs and depolymerizes actin filaments in vitro and is distributed throughout the entire pollen tube. In adf10 mutants, severing and monomer dissociation events of apical actin filaments are reduced, and the apical actin structure extends further toward the tube base than in wild type tubes. In particular, the percentage of apical actin filaments that form large angles with the tube growth axis is much higher in adf10 pollen tubes, and the actin filaments are more randomly distributed, implying that ADF10 promotes their ordering...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049414/wavelet-imaging-on-multiple-scales-wims-reveals-focal-adhesion-distributions-dynamics-and-coupling-between-actomyosin-bundle-stability
#17
Tim Toplak, Benoit Palmieri, Alba Juanes-García, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Martin Grant, Paul W Wiseman
We introduce and use Wavelet Imaging on Multiple Scales (WIMS) as an improvement to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure physical processes and features that occur across multiple length scales. In this study, wavelet transforms of cell images are used to characterize molecular dynamics at the cellular and subcellular levels (i.e. focal adhesions). We show the usefulness of the technique by applying WIMS to an image time series of a migrating osteosarcoma cell expressing fluorescently labelled adhesion proteins, which allows us to characterize different components of the cell ranging from optical resolution scale through to focal adhesion and whole cell size scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043853/microvascular-network-and-its-endothelial-cells-in-the-human-iris
#18
Hongfang Yang, Paula K Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Xinghuai Sun, Dao-Yi Yu
PURPOSE: The iris allows effective delivery of nutrients into the aqueous humor supplying the surrounded avascular tissues. However, possible underlying mechanisms of the iris vasculature have not been well established. This study aims to quantitatively assess the human iris vascular network, endothelial cell morphometries, and characterize endothelial junctions to better understand the properties of the iris vasculature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The irises from human donor eyes were dissected and short fixed before float staining for VE-cadherin and claudin-5, f-actin and nuclei and flat-mounted for confocal imaging...
October 18, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040749/cdc42-regulates-the-cellular-localization-of-cdc42ep1-in-controlling-neural-crest-cell-migration
#19
Cohen Shlomi, Daniel T Kovari, Wenbin Wei, Rebecca Keate, Jennifer E Curtis, Shuyi Nie
The member of Rho family of small GTPases Cdc42 plays important and conserved roles in cell polarity and motility. The Cdc42ep family proteins have been identified to bind to Cdc42, yet how they interact with Cdc42 to regulate cell migration remains to be elucidated. In this study, we focus on Cdc42ep1, which is expressed predominantly in the highly migratory neural crest cells in frog embryos. Through morpholino-mediated knockdown, we show that Cdc42ep1 is required for the migration of cranial neural crest cells...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032114/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-the-proliferation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-cells-via-regulation-of-focal-adhesions
#20
Burcu Erbaykent Tepedelen, Elif Soya, Mehmet Korkmaz
AIMS: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common urological disease that is characterized by the excessive growth of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Pharmacological therapy for BPH has limited use due to the many side effects so there is a need for new agents including natural compounds such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). This study was undertaken to assess the role of EGCG, suppressing the formation of BPH by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, in cytoskeleton organization and ECM interactions via focal adhesions...
October 11, 2017: Life Sciences
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