Read by QxMD icon Read

Actin distribution

Ryusuke Koshida, Saki Tome, Yosuke Takei
Dendritic spines, the postsynaptic compartments at excitatory synapses, are capable of changing their shape and size to modulate synaptic transmission. The actin cytoskeleton and a variety of actin-binding proteins play a critical role in the dynamics of dendritic spines. Class I myosins are monomeric motor proteins that move along actin filaments using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Of these class I myosins, myosin Id, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila Myo31DF, has been reported to be expressed in neurons, whereas its subcellular localization in neurons remained unknown...
March 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Mei-Yi Lu, Syuan-Shao Lu, Shiann-Luen Chang, Fang Liao
CCR6 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that recognizes a single chemokine ligand, CCL20 and is primarily expressed by leukocytes. Upon ligand binding, CCR6 activates Gαi heterotrimeric G proteins to induce various potential cellular outcomes through context-specific cell signaling. It is well known that differential phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues in the C-terminal domains or intracellular loops of GPCRs can generate barcodes that regulate GPCR function by regulating the recruitment of β-arrestins...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ningcheng Jiang, Minghai You, Yuhua Wang, Yide Huang, Shusen Xie, Yao Lin, Hongqin Yang
Mitosis is an important physiological event accompanying with dramatic changes of cellar biophysical properties. Failure of mitosis results in cell death or chromosome aneuploidy. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy to probe and compare the biophysical properties of tumor cells at different stages during mitosis. The rounding forces of MCF-7 cells oscillated during mitosis. At anaphase, the average elasticity of cells was higher than that at other phases. Cholesterol depletion with M[Formula: see text]CD led to an increase in the average elasticity, whereas the average roughness of membrane surface decreased at the absence of cholesterol...
March 17, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Magdalena Izdebska, Marta Hałas-Wiśniewska, Iwona Adamczyk, Ismena Lewandowska, Iga Kwiatkowska, Maciej Gagat, Alina Grzanka
BACKGROUND: Niacinamide is a stable and water-soluble form of vitamin B3, a valuable and versatile cosmetic ingredient, which is well absorbed and tolerated by the skin. A large body of literature has reported on the antioxidant and cell repair properties of niacinamide. Therefore, it has been shown to be useful in the protection of the skin against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation and free radicals. Despite numerous hypotheses on the mechanism of vitamin B3, its protective effects have not yet been fully elucidated...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Gali Epstein Shochet, Lutz Wollin, David Shitrit
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. Activated fibroblasts are the key effector cells in fibrosis, producing excessive amounts of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Whether the ECM conditioned by IPF fibroblasts determines the phenotype of naïve fibroblasts is difficult to explore. METHODS: IPF-derived primary fibroblasts were cultured on Matrigel and then cleared using ammonium hydroxide, creating an IPF-conditioned matrix (CM)...
March 12, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Anika Steffen, Frieda Kage, Klemens Rottner
Animal cell migration constitutes a complex process involving a multitude of forces generated and maintained by the actin cytoskeleton. Dynamic changes of the cell surface, for instance to effect cell edge protrusion, are at the core of initiating migratory processes, both in tissue culture models and whole animals. Here we sketch different aspects of imaging representative molecular constituents in such actin-driven processes, which power and regulate the polymerisation of actin filaments into bundles and networks, constituting the building blocks of such protrusions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Silvia D Visonà, Onno J de Boer, Claire Mackaaij, Hans H de Boer, Kartika R Pertiwi, Ruben W de Winter, Antonio Osculati, Allard C van der Wal
Acute medial dissection of aorta can occur in the context of a sudden and unexpected death. For medico-legal reasons it is important to estimate as accurately the histological age of dissections. We evaluated the additional value of a systematic application of immunohistochemistry, compared with conventional histology only, in determining chronological steps of injury and repair. Thirty two paraffin embedded specimens of aortic dissection were retrospectively allocated to one of four defined stages: acute (I), subacute (II), early organizing (III) and scarring (IV) using Hematoxylin and Eosin and Elastica van Gieson stained sections...
February 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Yu Bin Lee, Eun Mi Kim, Hayeon Byun, Hyung-Kwan Chang, Kwanghee Jeong, Zachary M Aman, Yu Suk Choi, Jungyul Park, Heungsoo Shin
Numerous methods have been reported for the fabrication of 3D multi-cellular spheroids and their use in stem cell culture. Current methods typically relying on the self-assembly of trypsinized, suspended stem cells, however, show limitations with respect to cell viability, throughput, and accurate recapitulation of the natural microenvironment. In this study, we developed a new system for engineering cell spheroids by self-assembly of micro-scale monolayer of stem cells. We prepared synthetic hydrogels with the surface of chemically formed micropatterns (squares/circles with width/diameter of 200 μm) on which mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human nasal turbinate tissue (hTMSCs) were selectively attached and formed a monolayer...
March 1, 2018: Biomaterials
Wei Xiong, Yuhui Chen, Xi Kang, Zhiying Chen, Peilin Zheng, Yi-Hsin Hsu, Joon Hee Jang, Lidong Qin, Hao Liu, Gianpietro Dotti, Dongfang Liu
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cell therapy has the potential to improve the overall survival of patients with malignancies by enhancing the effectiveness of CAR T cells. Precisely predicting the effectiveness of various CAR T cells represents one of today's key unsolved problems in immunotherapy. Here, we predict the effectiveness of CAR-modified cells by evaluating the quality of the CAR-mediated immunological synapse (IS) by quantitation of F-actin, clustering of tumor antigen, polarization of lytic granules (LGs), and distribution of key signaling molecules within the IS...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Haitao Sun, Guanxin Chen, Bin Wen, Jialing Sun, Haiyan An, Jie Pang, Wei Xu, Xuemei Yang, Songqi He
Oligo-peptide I-C-F-6 is a Carapax trionycis extract component that has an effect on hepatic fibrosis, however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. This study investigated whether oligo-peptide I-C-F-6 could inhibit liver fibrosis by suppressing NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which are important in liver fibrosis. HSC-T6 cells were treated with oligo-peptide I-C-F-6, and rats were divided randomly into five groups: control (saline), CCl4 , CCl4 plus oligo-peptide I-C-F-6 (0.12 and 0.24 mg/kg), and CCl4 plus colchicine (0...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Margaret A Titus
SummaryThe delivery of intracellular material within cells is crucial for maintaining normal function. Myosins transport a wide variety of cargo, ranging from vesicles to ribonuclear protein particles (RNPs), in plants, fungi, and metazoa. The properties of a given myosin transporter are adapted to move on different actin filament tracks, either on the disordered actin networks at the cell cortex or along highly organized actin bundles to distribute their cargo in a localized manner or move it across long distances in the cell...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Shuzhen Chen, Suyun Chen, Yun Zeng, Lin Lin, Chuang Wu, Yanyan Ke, Gang Liu
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been widely investigated for their biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting therapy, cell labeling, etc. It has been well documented that macrophages produce interleukin (IL)-1β via several signaling pathways, such as inflammasome activation in response to particles including silica, asbestos and urea crystals with lipopolysaccharide priming. However, the size and dose effects of SPIONs on macrophages and the mechanisms remain unclear...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Astrid Truschnegg, Stephan Acham, Lumnije Kqiku, Norbert Jakse, Alfred Beham
Prompted by a unique case of an ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECT) of the palate in a 54-year-old female, we reviewed the English and German literature on this entity until the end of 2016 using PubMed. The search produced 74 lingual cases with a nearly equal sex distribution and a mean age of 39.3 years, and two extra-lingual cases sharing histological and immunohistological features including nodular growth, round, fusiform or spindle-shaped cellular architecture, and chondromyxoid stroma. Immunophenotyping showed the majority of cases to be positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100 protein, glycoprotein CD57, pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), and smooth muscle actin (SMA); in isolated cases there was molecular-genetic rearrangement or gain of Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) but no rearrangement of pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1)...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
H Q Gan, Q Wang, H Zhang, X Liu, H M Deng, H P Song, Z Q Wang, Q J Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the Arg-Gly-Asp polypeptedes (RGD) peptides-modified porous tantalum surface on osteoblasts morphology and expressions of osteogenesis factors, and to evaluate RGD peptides promotes junctura ossium of tantalum-bone interface in vivo. METHODS: RGD peptides of different concentrations (1 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L) were loaded to porous tantalum slices with a diameter of 10 mm and a thickness of 3 mm by physical absorption. The 3rd generation of MG63 cells were co-cultured with tantalum and divided into 4 groups: Ta-cells (control) group, 1 g/L cells/Ta/RGD group, 5 g/L cells/Ta/RGD group, and 10 g/L cells/Ta/RGD group...
February 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Hao Wu, Marco Avila Ponce de León, Hans G Othmer
Recent research has shown that motile cells can adapt their mode of propulsion to the mechanical properties of the environment in which they find themselves-crawling in some environments while swimming in others. The latter can involve movement by blebbing or other cyclic shape changes, and both highly-simplified and more realistic models of these modes have been studied previously. Herein we study swimming that is driven by membrane tension gradients that arise from flows in the actin cortex underlying the membrane, and does not involve imposed cyclic shape changes...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Kyohei Yasuno, Kumi Honda, Shinobu Hakamata, Kiyonori Kai, Kazuhiko Mori
Minimal change disease (MCD) can be experimentally induced in rats, but spontaneous cases have not been reported. Herein, we present a case of MCD in rats that resembled the phenotypes of human MCD. A 9-week-old male Sprague Dawley rat developed continuous albuminuria for 2 weeks and was sacrificed at 11 weeks of age. Histological testing revealed no glomerular or renal tubular abnormalities on light microscopy. Immunofluorescence revealed absence of immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M deposition in the glomerulus...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Myungjoo Shin, Jolanda van Leeuwen, Charles Boone, Anthony Bretscher
How cells balance the incorporation of actin into diverse structures is poorly understood. In budding yeast, a single actin monomer pool is used to build both actin cables involved in polarized growth and actin cortical patches involved in endocytosis. Here we report how Aim21/Tda2 is recruited to the cortical region of actin patches, where it negatively regulates actin assembly to elevate the available actin monomer pool. Aim21 has four polyproline regions and is recruited by two SH3-containing patch proteins Bbc1 and Abp1...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Thanh Thi Kim Vuong-Brender, Arthur Boutillon, David Rodriguez, Vincent Lavilley, Michel Labouesse
Adherens junctions (AJs) are key structures regulating tissue integrity and maintaining adhesion between cells. During morphogenesis, junctional proteins cooperate closely with the actomyosin network to drive cell movement and shape changes. How the junctions integrate the mechanical forces in space and in time during an in vivo morphogenetic event is still largely unknown, due to a lack of quantitative data. To address this issue, we inserted a functional Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based force biosensor within HMP-1/α-catenin of Caenorhabditis elegans...
2018: PloS One
Clara Steiner, Thomas Gevaert, Roman Ganzer, Dirk De Ridder, Jochen Neuhaus
Interstitial cells (ICs) are thought to play a functional role in urinary bladder. Animal models are commonly used to elucidate bladder physiology and pathophysiology. However, inter-species comparative studies on ICs are rare. We therefore analyzed ICs and their distribution in the upper lamina propria (ULP), the deeper lamina propria (DLP) and the detrusor muscular layer (DET) of human, guinea pig (GP) and pig. Paraffin slices were examined by immunohistochemistry and 3D confocal immunofluorescence of the mesenchymal intermediate filament vimentin (VIM), alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) and transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1)...
February 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Wei Liu, Hubert Löwenheim, Peter A Santi, Rudolf Glueckert, Annelies Schrott-Fischer, Helge Rask-Andersen
TMPRSS3 (Trans-membrane Serine Protease 3) is a type II trans-membrane serine protease that has proteolytic activity essential for hearing. Mutations in the gene cause non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness (DFNB8/10) in humans. Knowledge about its cellular distribution in the human inner ear may increase our understanding of its physiological role and involvement in deafness, ultimately leading to therapeutic interventions. In this study, we used super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for the first time together with transmission electron microscopy to localize the TMPRSS3 protein in the human organ of Corti...
February 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"