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Actin distribution

Andrew Adamatzky
We evaluate information processing capacity of a single actin molecule by calculating distributions of logical gates implemented by the molecule via propagating patterns of excitation. We represent a filamentous actin molecule as an excitable automaton network (F-actin automaton). where every atom updates its state depending on states of atoms its connected to with chemical bonds (hard neighbours) and atoms being in physical proximity to the atom (soft neighbours). A resting atom excites if a sum of its excited hard neighbours and a weighted sum of its soft neighbours belong to some specified interval...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ming-Lung Cheng, Shuen-Fang Lo, An-Shan Hsiao, Ya-Fang Hong, Su-May Yu, Tuan-Hua David Ho
Ectopic expression of the rice WINDING 1 (WIN1) gene leads to a spiral phenotype only in shoots but not in roots. Rice WIN1 belongs to a specific class of proteins in cereal plants containing a Bric-a-Brac/Tramtrack/Broad (BTB) complex, a non-phototropic hypocotyl 3 (NPH3) domain and a coiled-coil motif. The WIN1 protein is predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but is also co-localized to plasmodesmata, where it exhibits a punctate pattern. It is observed that WIN1 is normally expressed in roots and the shoot-root junction, but not in the rest of shoots...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kaiping Wang, Fang Cheng, Xianglin Pan, Tao Zhou, Xiqiu Liu, Ziming Zheng, Li Luo, Yu Zhang
To investigate the absorption and delivery of ASP in gastrointestinal (GI) tract, cASP was successfully synthesized by chemically modifying with succinic anhydride and then conjugating with a near infrared fluorescent dye Cy5.5. Then, the capacity of oral absorption of cASP was evaluated. The results demonstrated that cASP had low toxicity and no disruption on the integrity of cell membrane. The endocytosis of cASP into the epithelial cells was time- and energy-dependent, which was mediated by macropinocytosis pathway and clathrin- and caveolae (or lipid raft)-related routes...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
Elías Trujillo-Esquivel, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Diana M Clavijo-Giraldo, Nahúm V Hernández, Alberto Flores-Martínez, Patricia Ponce-Noyola, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed mycosis that affects humans and other mammals. The interest in basic and clinical features of this organism has significantly increased in the last years, yet little progress in molecular aspects has been reported. Gene expression analysis is a set of powerful tools that helps to assess the cell response to changes in the extracellular environment, the genetic networks controlling metabolic pathways, and the adaptation to different growth conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathan A McDonald, Abigail L Lind, Sarah E Smith, Rong Li, Kathleen Gould
The contractile ring is a complex molecular apparatus important for dividing many eukaryotic cells. Despite knowledge of its composition, the molecular architecture of the ring is not known. Here we applied super-resolution microscopy and FRET to determine the nanoscale spatial organization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contractile ring components relative to the plasma membrane. As in other membrane-tethered actin structures, contractile ring proteins are stratified relative to the membrane. The lowest layer (0-80 nm) contains membrane-binding scaffolds, formin, and the myosin-II tail...
September 15, 2017: ELife
Sukanya Gayan, Abhishek Teli, Tuli Dey
Cellular migration, a process relevant to metastasis, is mostly studied in the conventional 2D condition. However, cells cultured in the 3D condition assumed to mimic the in vivo conditions better. The current study is designed to compare an invasive and non-invasive adenocarcinoma cell with an invasive fibrosarcoma cell to understand the migration pattern of the multicellular spheroid. It is observed that conventional haplotaxis, chemotactic and pseudo-3D migration assay cannot distinguish between the invasive and non-invasive cells conclusively under 2D condition...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Boris I Shneyer, Marko Ušaj, Naama Wiesel-Motiuk, Ronit Regev, Arnon Henn
The role of the actin cytoskeleton in relation to mitochondria function and dynamics is only recently beginning to be recognized. Myo19 is an actin-based motor that is bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane and promotes the localization of mitochondria to filopodia in response to glucose starvation. However, how glucose starvation induces mitochondria localization to filopodia, what are the dynamics of this process and which enzymatic adaptation allows the translocation of mitochondria to filopodia are not known...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kaori Kiso, Hajime Yoshifuji, Takuma Oku, Masaki Hikida, Koji Kitagori, Yoshitaka Hirayama, Toshiki Nakajima, Hironori Haga, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Aya Miyagawa-Hayashino
Transgelin-2 (TAGLN2) is an actin-binding protein that controls actin stability and promotes T cell activation. TAGLN2 is also expressed on B-cells but its function in B-cells is unknown. We found that TAGLN2-expressing B-cells were localized in the germinal center (GC) of secondary lymphoid tissues and TAGLN2 mRNA was significantly upregulated after IgM+IgG stimulation in primary human B-cells, suggesting that TAGLN2 was upregulated upon B-cell activation. In support of this, lymph nodes (LNs) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which the intense GC activity have been recognized, showed increased TAGLN2 expression in B-cells compared to control LNs...
2017: PloS One
Mayank Gupta, Mayur Suryawanshi, Ramani Kumar, Abraham Peedicayil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Angioleiomyoma is a benign perivascular neoplasm commonly involving subcutaneous tissue of extremities, head, and trunk region. They rarely involve the female genital tract. This study analyses clinicopathological features of 6 cases of uterine angioleiomyoma. METHODS: Routine sections of 6 cases were reviewed and immunohistochemical markers namely muscle-specific actin, h-caldesmon, desmin, CD10, WT-1, HMB-45, and melan-A were done. RESULTS: Of the 6 cases, 4 cases had tumor involving the corpus and 2 cases had tumor in the cervix...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Yan-Ruide Li, Ai Zhong, Han Dong, Lu-Han Ni, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
Myosin Va, a member of Class V myosin, functions in organelle motility, spindle formation, nuclear morphogenesis and cell motility. The purpose of this study is to explore the expression and localization of myosin Va in testicular cancer and prostate cancer, and its specific roles in tumor progression including cell division, migration and proliferation. We detected myosin Va in testicular and prostate tumor tissues using sqRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence. Tumor samples showed an increased expression of myosin Va, abnormal actin and myosin Va distribution...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Martin Kollmar, Stefanie Mühlhausen
BACKGROUND: The last eukaryotic common ancestor already had an amazingly complex cell possessing genomic and cellular features such as spliceosomal introns, mitochondria, cilia-dependent motility, and a cytoskeleton together with several intracellular transport systems. In contrast to the microtubule-based dyneins and kinesins, the actin-filament associated myosins are considerably divergent in extant eukaryotes and a unifying picture of their evolution has not yet emerged. RESULTS: Here, we manually assembled and annotated 7852 myosins from 929 eukaryotes providing an unprecedented dense sequence and taxonomic sampling...
September 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Xiaohong Wang, Aida Freire Valls, Géza Schermann, Ying Shen, Ivan M Moya, Laura Castro, Severino Urban, Gergely M Solecki, Frank Winkler, Lars Riedemann, Rakesh K Jain, Massimilano Mazzone, Thomas Schmidt, Tamás Fischer, Georg Halder, Carmen Ruiz de Almodóvar
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
Tobias Klein, Ludovic Autin, Barbora Kozlikova, David S Goodsell, Arthur Olson, M Eduard Groller, Ivan Viola
We present the first approach to integrative structural modeling of the biological mesoscale within an interactive visual environment. These complex models can comprise up to millions of molecules with defined atomic structures, locations, and interactions. Their construction has previously been attempted only within a non-visual and non-interactive environment. Our solution unites the modeling and visualization aspect, enabling interactive construction of atomic resolution mesoscale models of large portions of a cell...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Wiebke K Ludwig-Peitsch
The central function of renal glomeruli is plasma ultrafiltration for primary urine production. The glomerular filtration barrier consists of a fenestrated endothelium, the glomerular basement membrane and podocytes, mesenchymal-like cells with actin filament-rich protrusions, the "foot processes." Their architecture and function are maintained and regulated by actin and several actin-binding proteins, mutations of which can be causative of glomerular diseases. Since initial immunostaining experiments had demonstrated intense drebrin reactions in renal glomeruli, the distribution of this protein was studied in detail in the kidneys of diverse mammalian species...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kenji Hanamura
During development, production of neurons from neural stem cells, migration of neurons from their birthplace to their final location, and extension of neurites, axons, and dendrites are important for the formation of functional neuronal circuits. The actin cytoskeleton has major roles in the morphological development of neurons. In this chapter, we focused on the distribution and function of the actin-binding protein, drebrin, to elucidate the importance of drebrin-bound F-actin in neurons during early developmental stages of neurons in embryonic, postnatal, and adult brains...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yuxiang Jiang, Meng Zhang, Shanjin Huang
Underlying rapid and directional pollen tube growth is the active intracellular trafficking system that carries materials necessary for cell wall synthesis and membrane expansion to the expanding point of the pollen tube. The actin cytoskeleton has been shown to control various intracellular trafficking events in the pollen tube, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. To better understand how the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the regulation of intracellular trafficking events, we need to establish assays to visualize and quantify the distribution and dynamics of organelles, vesicles, or secreted proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Min-Wei Ren, Yi Du, Shan Ren, Cheng-Ye Tang, Jian-Feng He
AIM: To investigate the positive rate and types of cells that express Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) and to determine the distribution of EBER-expressing cells in idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP) tissues. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 40 archived paraffin specimens from two teaching hospitals in Southern China between January 2007 and January 2015 that were pathologically determined to exhibit IOIP. Eleven concurrent paraffin specimens of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) composed the control group...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Akira Nagasaki, Saku T Kijima, Tenji Yumoto, Miku Imaizumi, Ayana Yamagishi, Hyonchol Kim, Chikashi Nakamura, Taro Q P Uyeda
Actin, a major component of microfilaments, is involved in various eukaryotic cellular functions. Over the past two decades, actin fused with fluorescent protein has been used as a probe to detect the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in living eukaryotic cells. It is generally assumed that the expression of fusion protein of fluorescent protein does not disturb the distribution of endogenous actin throughout the cell, and that the distribution of the fusion protein reflects that of endogenous actin...
2017: Cell Structure and Function
Ming Chang, Zhankun Li, Shanjin Huang
Dynamic assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in the regulation of pollen germination and subsequent tube growth. It is widely accepted that actin filaments are arrayed into distinct structures within different regions of the pollen tube. Maintenance of the equilibrium between monomeric globular actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin) is crucial for actin assembly and array construction, and the local concentration of G-actin thus directly impacts actin assembly. The localization and dynamics of G-actin in the pollen tube, however, remain to be determined conclusively...
August 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mitsunobu Kamiya, Erika Saba, John A West
In animals and land plants, many asexual species originate through inter- or intraspecific crosses, and such heterozygous asexuals frequently are more abundant than their sexual relatives in marginal habitats. Although asexual species have been reported in various macroalgal taxa, detailed information regarding their distribution, heterozygosity, and origin is limited. Because many asexual tetrasporophyte strains of Caloglossa vieillardii have been isolated from South Australia, far from their core tropical habitats, we re-examined the distribution range of asexual C...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
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