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Actin distribution

Chiara Tersigni, Fiorella Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe Maulucci, Alessandro Rolfo, Domenica Giuffrida, Manuela Veglia, Marco De Spirito, Giovanni Scambia, Tullia Todros, Nicoletta Di Simone
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is defined by new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation and characterized by systemic exaggerated inflammatory response. D6 is a chemokines scavenger receptor that binds with high affinity CC chemokines, internalizes and targets the ligands for degradation. It is expressed in trophoblast-derived tissues and prevents excessive placenta leukocyte infiltration...
2016: PloS One
Ying Jin, Huijin Chen, Xiaojian Xu, Yuntao Hu, Changguan Wang, Zhizhong Ma
PURPOSE: To determine the phases of traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy after open globe injury by assessing cellular components, extracellular matrix constituents of proliferative vitreoretinopathy membranes, and intraretinal changes over time. METHODS: Twenty-one epiretinal and/or subretinal membrane specimens were obtained from 21 patients with open globe injuries. The patients were divided into Groups A (≤28 days), B (29-120 days), and C (>120 days) according to the interval between injury and vitrectomy...
October 21, 2016: Retina
Isolde G Rojas, Maria L Spencer, Paulina A Zapata, Alejandra Martínez, Rosario Alarcón, Francisco J Marchesani, Mine Tezal
BACKGROUND: Differences in immune profile between actinic cheilitis (AC), a precursor of lip squamous cell carcinoma, and normal lip vermillion (NL) have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To compare density, distribution, and ratios of CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells between AC and NL and assess their associations with clinicopathologic variables. METHODS: Samples of AC and NL obtained between 2001 and 2013 at the College of Dentistry of the University of Concepcion, Chile, were retrospectively analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of CD8+ and FoxP3+ cells...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Inge A E W van Loosdregt, Sylvia Dekker, Patrick W Alford, Cees W J Oomens, Sandra Loerakker, Carlijn V C Bouten
Understanding cell contractility is of fundamental importance for cardiovascular tissue engineering, due to its major impact on the tissue's mechanical properties as well as the development of permanent dimensional changes, e.g., by contraction or dilatation of the tissue. Previous attempts to quantify contractile cellular stresses mostly used strongly aligned monolayers of cells, which might not represent the actual organization in engineered cardiovascular tissues such as heart valves. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether differences in organization affect the magnitude of intrinsic stress generated by individual myofibroblasts, a frequently used cell source for in vitro engineered heart valves...
October 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
P O'Mahoney, M Khazova, M Higlett, T Lister, S Ibbotson, E Eadie
BACKGROUND: Daylight PDT (dPDT) is an effective and nearly painless treatment for field-change actinic keratosis. Measuring the protoprophyrin-IX (PpIX)-weighted exposure dose can give an indication of when conditions are most viable for effective dPDT. It would be advantageous for practitioners if more detailed information of exposure dose and appropriate treatment conditions were available. Where sophisticated measurement equipment is unavailable, simpler and more cost-effective methods of dose measurement are desirable...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Leonid A Serebryannyy, Michaela Yuen, Megan Parilla, Sandra T Cooper, Primal de Lanerolle
Actin plays a crucial role in regulating multiple processes within the nucleus, including transcription and chromatin organization. However, the polymerization state of nuclear actin remains controversial, and there is no evidence for persistent actin filaments in a normal interphase nucleus. Further, several disease pathologies are characterized by polymerization of nuclear actin into stable filaments or rods. These include filaments that stain with phalloidin, resulting from point mutations in skeletal α-actin, detected in the human skeletal disease intranuclear rod myopathy, and cofilin/actin rods that form in response to cellular stressors like heatshock...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Ru-Xia Jia, Xing Duan, Si-Jing Song, Shao-Chen Sun
LIMKi 3 is a specific selective LIMK inhibitor against LIMK1 and LIMK2, while LIMK1 and LIMK2 are the main regulators of actin cytoskeleton to participate in many cell activities. However, the effect of LIMKi 3 in porcine oocyte meiosis is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of LIMKi 3 and potential regulatory role of LIMK1/2 on porcine oocyte meiotic maturation. Immunofluorescent staining of p-LIMK1/2 antibody showed that LIMK1/2 was localized mainly to the cortex of porcine oocyte, which co-localized with actin...
2016: PeerJ
Eugen Widmeier, Weizhen Tan, Merlin Airik, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
INTRODUCTION: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) inevitably progresses to end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis or transplantation for survival. However, treatment modalities and drug discovery remain limited. Mutations in over 30 genes have been discovered as monogenic causes of SRNS. Most of these genes are predominantly expressed in the glomerular epithelial cell, the podocyte, placing it at the center of the pathogenesis of SRNS. Podocyte migration rate (PMR) represents a relevant intermediate phenotype of disease in monogenic causes of SRNS...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Weiwei Luo, Zi Zhao Lieu, Ed Manser, Alexander D Bershadsky, Michael P Sheetz
A nodal cytoplasmic actin network underlies actin cytoplasm cohesion in the absence of stress fibers. We previously described such a network that forms upon Latrunculin A (LatA) treatment, in which formin DAAM1 was localized at these nodes. Knock down of DAAM1 reduced the mobility of actin nodes but the nodes remained. Here we have investigated DAAM1 containing nodes after LatA washout. DAAM1 was found to be distributed between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. The membrane binding likely occurs through an interaction with lipid rafts, but is not required for F-actin assembly...
2016: PloS One
Juan Felipe Osorio-Méndez, Andrea Vizcaíno-Castillo, Rebeca Manning-Cela, Roberto Hernandez, Ana María Cevallos
The role and regulation of actin in Trypanosoma cruzi and other related parasites is largely unknown. Based on early genome analysis, it was proposed that there was a reduced dependency on the acto-myosin system in the trypanosomatid parasites. However, more recent studies have extended the set of potential actin regulatory proteins, particularly for T. cruzi. One of the identified actin-binding proteins in trypanosomatids is profilin. In other systems, it is capable of simultaneously binding both monomeric actin and several actin-regulatory factors...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Katerina Economou, Elena Kotsiliti, Anastassios C Mintzas
The cell-specific expression and intracellular distribution of the small heat protein Hsp27 was investigated in the ovaries and testes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), under both normal and heat shock conditions. For this study, a gfp-hsp27 strain was used to detect the chimeric protein by confocal microscopy. In unstressed ovaries, the protein was expressed throughout egg development in a stage and cell-specific pattern. In germarium, the protein was detected in the cytoplasm of the somatic cells in both unstressed and heat-shocked ovaries...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mayu Horie, Tomoya Kotani
Many translationally repressed mRNAs are deposited in the oocyte cytoplasm for progression of the meiotic cell cycle and early development. mos and cyclin B1 mRNAs encode proteins promoting oocyte meiosis, and translational control of these mRNAs is important for normal progression of meiotic cell division. We previously demonstrated that cyclin B1 mRNA forms RNA granules in the zebrafish and mouse oocyte cytoplasm and that the formation of RNA granules is crucial for regulating the timing of translational activation of the mRNA...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kaya Miyazaki, Kazuhisa Hashiba, Kiyoshi Okuda, Toshihiko Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms regulating the function and regression of the corpus luteum (CL) have not yet been elucidated in detail. The regressed CL of cows was previously reported to be filled with unusual vessels like arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA); however how these vessels are being established during luteolysis remains unknown. METHODS: The bovine CL at different luteal stages and regressing bovine CL induced by prostaglandin F2α (PGF) were histologically analyzed using light and electron microscopic levels...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Fa-Min Zeng, Yang-Min Xie, Lian-Di Liao, Li-Yan Li, Bo Chen, Jian-Jun Xie, Li-Yan Xu, En-Min Li
The key molecular events that contribute to tumorigenesis are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize and compare the biological phenotypes of three human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and/or human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7‑immortalized esophageal epithelial cell lines, NE2‑hTERT (NE2), NE3‑E6E7‑hTERT (NE3) and NEcA6‑E6E7‑hTERT (NEcA6). The present study used soft‑agar colony formation assays, tumorigenicity assays in nude mice, and cell proliferation, adhesion and migration assays to identify the biological characteristics of NE2, NE3 and NEcA6 cells...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chun-Hong Wu, Qiong Zong, An-Li Du, Wei Zhang, Han-Chao Yao, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Yu-Feng Wang
Dynamitin (Dmn) is a major component of dynactin, a multiprotein complex playing important roles in a variety of intracellular motile events. We previously found that Wolbachia bacterial infection resulted in a reduction of Dmn protein. As Wolbachia may modify sperm in male hosts, we speculate that Dmn may have a function in male fertility. Here we used nosGal4 to drive Dmn knock down in testes of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of Dmn in spermatogenesis. We found that knockdown of Dmn in testes dramatically decreased male fertility, overexpression of Dmn in Wolbachia-infected males significantly rescued male fertility, indicating an important role of Dmn in inducing male fertility defects following Wolbachia infection...
October 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
Daniel A Hernandez, Christina M Bennett, Lyubov Dunina-Barkovskaya, Tatjana Wedig, Yassemi Capetanaki, Harald Herrmann, Gloria M Conover
In the hearts of patients bearing nebulette mutations, a severe general disorganization in cardiomyocytes of the extrasarcomeric desmin intermediate filament system is frequently observed. However, the molecular and functional relationship between the desmin cytoskeleton and nebulette-containing sarcomeres is still unclear. Here we report a high-affinity in vitro interaction between nebulette and desmin filaments. A major interaction site has been mapped to the desmin α-helical rod domain indicating that the filament core is directly involved in the binding of nebulette...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Anna Cecília Dias Maciel Carneiro, Isadora Caixeta da Silveira, Arthur Silva Rezende, Bruna Raphaela Oliveira Silva, Virgínia Oliveira Crema
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is extremely invasive, this behavior is regulated by binding of extracellular molecules to the cell membrane receptors. The TKI-258 inhibits phosphorylation of FGFRs VEGFRs and PDGFRs. Our aim was to analyze the effect of TKI-258 treatment in cell movement by using SCC-4 cell line from human oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: F-actin was stained with rhodamine phalloidin and confocal analysis was performed. The migration and invasion (membrane covered with Matrigel(TM) ) three-dimensional assays were performed, control and cells treated with TKI-258 that migrated through the membrane were counted after 24 h...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Guido Wabnitz, Emre Balta, Yvonne Samstag
T-cells need to be tightly regulated during their activation and effector phase to assure an appropriate defence against cancer or pathogens and - vice versa - to avoid autoimmune reactions. Regulatory signals are provided via the immune synapse between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or target cells. The stability and kinetics of immune synapse formation is critical for proper T-cell functions. It requires dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton necessary for organized spatio-temporal redistribution of receptors and adhesion molecules...
September 27, 2016: Advances in Biological Regulation
R E Genders, S Beck, J N Bouwes Bavinck, H A M van den Munckhof, S T P Kouwenhoven, M N C de Koning, F R de Gruijl, D Jenkins, R Willemze, K D Quint
BACKGROUND: For selecting therapy it is important to distinguish different types of keratinocytic neoplasia. It is sometimes difficult to make histopathologic diagnosis, especially in organ transplant recipients (OTR) who develop numerous lesions. METHODS: To investigate p16 immunostaining in different types of keratinocytic neoplasia in OTR, we studied 59 actinic keratoses(AK), 51 Bowen' s disease(BD), 63 squamous cell carcinomas(SCC) , 16 benign keratotic lesions(BKL) from 31 OTR patients and 25 controls (eczema and psoriasis)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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