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Actin distribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#1
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771636/subcellular-topography-modulates-actin-dynamics-and-signaling-in-b-cells
#2
Christina M Ketchum, Xiaoyu Sun, Alexandra Suberi, John T Fourkas, Wenxia Song, Arpita Upadhyaya
B cell signaling activation is most effectively triggered by the binding of B cell receptors (BCRs) to membrane-bound antigens.  In vivo, B cells encounter antigen on antigen presenting cells (APC), which possess complex surfaces with convoluted topographies, a fluid membrane and deformable cell bodies. However, whether and how the physical properties of antigen presentation affect B cell activation is not well understood. Here, we use nanotopographic surfaces that allow systematic variation of geometric parameters to show that surface features on a subcellular scale influence B cell signaling and actin dynamics...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771630/septins-regulate-junctional-integrity-of-endothelial-monolayers
#3
Joanna Kim, John A Cooper
Junctional integrity of endothelial monolayers is crucial to control movement of molecules and cells across the endothelium. Examining the structure and dynamics of cell junctions in endothelial monolayers, we discovered a role for septins. Contacts between adjacent endothelial cells were dynamic, with protrusions extending above or below neighboring cells. VE-cadherin was present at cell junctions, with a membrane-associated layer of F-actin. Septins localized at cell-junction membranes, in patterns distinct from VE-cadherin and F-actin...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764155/fluctuation-dissipation-relation-and-stationary-distribution-of-an-exactly-solvable-many-particle-model-for-active-biomatter-far-from-equilibrium
#4
Roland R Netz
An exactly solvable, Hamiltonian-based model of many massive particles that are coupled by harmonic potentials and driven by stochastic non-equilibrium forces is introduced. The stationary distribution and the fluctuation-dissipation relation are derived in closed form for the general non-equilibrium case. Deviations from equilibrium are on one hand characterized by the difference of the obtained stationary distribution from the Boltzmann distribution; this is possible because the model derives from a particle Hamiltonian...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763784/alterations-in-the-distribution-of-actin-and-its-binding-proteins-in-the-porcine-endometrium-during-early-pregnancy-possible-role-in-epithelial-remodeling-and-embryo-adhesion
#5
Beenu Moza Jalali, Pawel Likszo, Aneta Andronowska, Dariusz J Skarzynski
During early pregnancy, uterine epithelial cells undergo major transformations in their cytoskeleton that make the endometrium receptive for conceptus attachment. Actin binding proteins (ABPs) such as cofilin, gelsolin, and vinculin are involved in regulating actin polymerization, severing or crosslinking actin to integrins. However, whether ABPs are involved in epithelial remodeling or embryo adhesion in pigs is unknown. Therefore, the expression and distribution of these proteins were investigated in porcine endometrium on Days 10 and 13 (pre-implantation period), and 16 (attachment phase) of the estrous cycle or pregnancy...
May 8, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761935/the-application-of-transcriptional-benchmark-dose-modeling-for-deriving-thresholds-of-effects-associated-with-solar-simulated-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure
#6
Sami S Qutob, Vinita Chauhan, Byron Kuo, Andrew Williams, Carole L Yauk, James P McNamee, B Gollapudi
Considerable data has been generated to elucidate the transcriptional response of cells to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure providing a mechanistic understanding of UVR-induced cellular responses. However, using these data to support standards development has been challenging. In this study, we apply benchmark dose (BMD) modeling of transcriptional data to derive thresholds of gene responsiveness following exposure to solar-simulated UVR. Human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed to three doses (10, 20, 150 kJ/m2 ) of solar simulated UVR and assessed for gene expression changes 6 and 24 hr postexposure...
May 15, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760276/early-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-ischemic-stroke-initiates-multifocally-around-capillaries-venules
#7
Angelika Hoffmann, Tassilo Dege, Reiner Kunze, Anne-Sophie Ernst, Holger Lorenz, Laura-Inés Böhler, Thomas Korff, Hugo H Marti, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Xavier Helluy, Mirko Pham
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Detection and localization of the early phase of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) in vivo during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury remain a major challenge but may be a relevant outcome parameter in stroke. METHODS: We studied early BBBD in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion by multimodal, high-field (9.4T) in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, including the contrast agent gadofluorineM as an albumin-binding tracer...
May 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755290/retromer-dysfunction-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#8
REVIEW
Christiane Reitz
In recent years, genomic, animal and cell biology studies have implicated deficiencies in retromer-mediated trafficking of proteins in an increasing number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degener-ation (FTLD). The retromer complex, which is highly conserved across all eukaryotes, regulates the sorting of transmembrane proteins out of endo-somes to the cell surface or to the trans-Golgi network. Within retromer, cargo selection and binding are performed by a trimer of the Vps26, Vps29 and Vps35 proteins, named the "Cargo-Selective Complex (CSC)"...
May 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754414/functional-diversification-of-the-kinesin-14-family-in-land-plants
#9
REVIEW
Allison M Gicking, Kyle W Swentowsky, R Kelly Dawe, Weihong Qiu
In most eukaryotes, cytoplasmic dynein serves as the primary cytoskeletal motor for minus-end-directed processes along microtubules. However, land plants lack dynein, having instead a large number of kinesin-14s, which suggests that kinesin-14s may have evolved to fill the cellular niche left by dynein. In addition, land plants do not have centrosomes, but contain specialized microtubule-based structures called phragmoplasts that facilitate the formation of new cell walls following cell division. This Review aims to compile the evidence for functional diversification of kinesin-14s in land plants...
May 12, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753305/a-prospective-randomised-within-subject-study-of-ala-pdt-for-actinic-keratoses-using-different-irradiation-regimes
#10
O Zaar, A Sjöholm Hylén, M Gillstedt, J Paoli
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be used to treat large fields of actinic keratoses (AKs) with high clearance rates. A notable downside is the amount of pain that accompany the treatment. This study aimed to optimise the illumination protocol during conventional PDT in order to reduce pain without compromising treatment effectiveness. METHODS: In this prospective, randomised study with a split-face design, patients with, symmetrically distributed AKs were included...
May 12, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749544/repair-of-urethral-defects-by-an-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cell%C3%A2-porous-silk-fibroin-material
#11
Binqiang Tian, Lujie Song, Tao Liang, Zuowei Li, Xuxiao Ye, Qiang Fu, Yonghui Li
The aim of the present study was to determine whether it was possible to repair urethral defects with a material of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs)‑porous silk fibroin (SF). A total of 39 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, an SF group and a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)‑labeled ADMSCs‑SF group (SSF group; n=13/group). Defects were made by resecting the posterior urethral wall. The defects in the SF and SSF groups were repaired using SF and BrdU‑labeled ADMSCs‑SF materials respectively...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748547/region-of-interest-analysis-using-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-mitochondrial-and-sarcomeric-proteins-in-acute-cardiac-infarction-tissue
#12
Yuka Yajima, Takuya Hiratsuka, Yu Kakimoto, Shuichiro Ogawa, Keisuke Shima, Yuzo Yamazaki, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Keiji Tamaki, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization image mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has been developed for the identification of peptides in various tissues. The MALDI-IMS signal distribution patterns and quantification of the signal intensities of the regions of interest (ROI) with healthy regions were compared for identification of the disease specific biomarkers. We performed a new ROI analysis using the conventional t-test and data number independent Cohen's d-value analysis. Using these techniques, we analysed heart tissues after acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742489/renal-denervation-effects-on-myocardial-fibrosis-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-rats-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#13
Bin Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Chu Chen, Wanying Jiang, Dasheng Lu, Qian Liu, Kai Wang, Yuhao Yan, Zhixin Jiang, Jie Geng, Hai Xu, Qijun Shan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the impact of renal denervation (RDN) on myocardial fibrosis and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: An ischemic cardiomyopathy model was reproduced with myocardial infarction (MI) in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. The RDN/Sham-RDN procedure was performed at 2 weeks after MI. Sham-MI and sham-RDN rats served as the control group. At 4 weeks after RDN, programmed electrical stimulation (PES) was used to induce VAs, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, in all 3 groups (MI+RDN, MI, and control groups)...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739876/the-actin-cytoskeleton-of-the-mouse-sperm-flagellum-is-organized-in-a-helical-structure
#14
María Gracia Gervasi, Xinran Xu, Blanca Carbajal-Gonzalez, Mariano G Buffone, Pablo E Visconti, Diego Krapf
Conception of a new mammalian organism is determined by the fusion of a sperm cell with an oocyte during fertilization. Motility is one of the features of sperm that allows them to succeed in fertilization, and their flagellum is essential for this function. Longitudinally, the flagellum divides into the midpiece, the principal piece, and the end piece. A precise cytoskeletal architecture of the sperm tail is key for the acquisition of fertilization competence. It has been proposed that the actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in the regulation of sperm motility, however, actin organization in sperm remains elusive...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738261/the-significance-of-the-stromal-response-in-breast-cancer-an-immunohistochemical-study-of-myofibroblasts-in-primary-and-metastatic-breast-cancer
#15
Alale Roozdar, Malcolm M Hayes, Bahram Pourseyedei, Hamid Zeinalinejad, Manzumeh Shamsi Meymandi, Bahram Dabiri, Shahriar Dabiri
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling of breast cancer has demonstrated the importance of stromal response in determining the prognosis of invasive breast cancer. The host response to breast cancer is of increasing interest to pathologists and may be a future focus for novel pharmacological treatments. METHODS: This study describes the pattern of distribution of stromal myofibroblasts using immunostains for CD10 and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in 50 primary breast cancers and their matched nodal metastases (68...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736927/simulation-of-actin-distribution-of-osteoblasts-on-titanium-pillar-arrays-using-a-bio-chemo-mechanical-model
#16
D Truong, C R Bahls, B Nebe, U van Rienen
A numerical model for the adhesion of osteoblasts on titanium micro-pillar structures is suggested and a function representing the concentration level of the adhesion on the pillars is constructed based on experimental observation. With the introduction of this function, the bio-chemo-mechanical model by Deshpande et al. can predict the formation of actin in osteoblasts when they are laid on arrays of titanium micro-pillars of various size attached to silicon substrate. A parameter study suggests that each pillar is associated with a different pattern of adhesion...
May 7, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733813/differential-regional-and-subcellular-localization-patterns-ofafadin-splice-variants-in-the-mouse-central-nervous-system
#17
Daiki Ohama, Takahiko Matsuda, Izumi Oinuma
AF6/afadin is an F-actin scaffold protein that plays essential roles in the organization of cell-cell junctions of polarized epithelia. Afadin comprises two major isoforms produced by alternative splicing-a longer isoform l-afadin, having the F-actin-binding domain, and a shorter isoform s-afadin, harboring the amino acid sequences unique to the isoform but lacking the F-actin-binding domain. We recently identified functional differences between l- and s-afadin isoforms in the regulation of axon branching in primary cultured cortical neurons; the former potentiates and the latter blocks axon branching...
May 4, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724757/pi-4-5-p-2-forms-dynamic-cortical-structures-and-directs-actin-distribution-as-well-as-polarity-in-c-elegans-embryos
#18
Melina J Scholze, Kévin S Barbieux, Alessandro De Simone, Mathilde Boumasmoud, Camille C N Süess, Ruijia Wang, Pierre Gönczy
Asymmetric division is crucial for embryonic development and stem cell lineages. In the one-cell C. elegans embryo, a contractile cortical actomyosin network contributes to asymmetric division by segregating PAR proteins to discrete cortical domains. Here, we discovered that the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) localizes to polarized dynamic structures in C. elegans zygotes, distributing in a PAR-dependent manner along the anterior-posterior (A-P) embryonic axis. PIP2 cortical structures overlap with F-actin, and coincide with the actin regulators RHO-1, CDC-42 as well as ECT-2...
May 3, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715273/neurofibromatosis-type-2-tumor-suppressor-protein-is-expressed-in-oligodendrocytes-and-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-process-formation
#19
Andrea Toledo, Elena Grieger, Khalad Karram, Helen Morrison, Stephan L Baader
The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor protein Merlin functions as a negative regulator of cell growth and actin dynamics in different cell types amongst which Schwann cells have been extensively studied. In contrast, the presence and the role of Merlin in oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells within the CNS, have not been elucidated. In this work, we demonstrate that Merlin immunoreactivity was broadly distributed in the white matter throughout the central nervous system. Following Merlin expression during development in the cerebellum, Merlin could be detected in the cerebellar white matter tract at early postnatal stages as shown by its co-localization with Olig2-positive cells as well as in adult brain sections where it was aligned with myelin basic protein containing fibers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713082/self-interference-3d-super-resolution-microscopy-for-deep-tissue-investigations
#20
Pierre Bon, Jeanne Linarès-Loyez, Maxime Feyeux, Kevin Alessandri, Brahim Lounis, Pierre Nassoy, Laurent Cognet
Fluorescence localization microscopy has achieved near-molecular resolution capable of revealing ultra-structures, with a broad range of applications, especially in cellular biology. However, it remains challenging to attain such resolution in three dimensions and inside biological tissues beyond the first cell layer. Here we introduce SELFI, a framework for 3D single-molecule localization within multicellular specimens and tissues. The approach relies on self-interference generated within the microscope's point spread function (PSF) to simultaneously encode equiphase and intensity fluorescence signals, which together provide the 3D position of an emitter...
April 30, 2018: Nature Methods
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