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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231489/moving-and-positioning-the-endolysosomal-system
#1
REVIEW
Juan S Bonifacino, Jacques Neefjes
The endolysosomal system is extremely dynamic, yet highly organized. The spatio-temporal distribution of endolysosomal organelles depends on transport driven by microtubule motors such as kinesins and dynein, and by actin-based myosin motors. It has recently become appreciated that interactions with motors are controlled by contacts with other organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER also controls the concentration of endolysosomal organelles in the perinuclear area, as well as their fission and fusion, through a complex system of tethering proteins...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231240/galectin-3-histone-deacetylases-and-hedgehog-signaling-possible-convergent-targets-in-schistosomiasis-induced-liver-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Felipe Leite de Oliveira, Katia Carneiro, José Marques Brito, Mariana Cabanel, Jonathas Xavier Pereira, Ligia de Almeida Paiva, Wingkin Syn, Neil C Henderson, Marcia Cury El-Cheikh
Schistosomiasis affects approximately 240 million people in the world. Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the liver induce periportal fibrosis and hepatic failure driven by monocyte recruitment and macrophage activation, resulting in robust Th2 response. Here, we suggested a possible involvement of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), histone deacetylases (HDACs), and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling with macrophage activation during Th1/Th2 immune responses, fibrogranuloma reaction, and tissue repair during schistosomiasis. Gal-3 is highly expressed by liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) around Schistosoma eggs...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214480/nonlinear-actin-deformations-lead-to-network-stiffening-yielding-and-nonuniform-stress-propagation
#3
Bekele Gurmessa, Shea Ricketts, Rae M Robertson-Anderson
We use optical tweezers microrheology and fluorescence microscopy to apply nonlinear microscale strains to entangled and cross-linked actin networks, and measure the resulting stress and actin filament deformations. We couple nonlinear stress response and relaxation to the velocities and displacements of individual fluorescent-labeled actin segments, at varying times throughout the strain and varying distances from the strain path, to determine the underlying molecular dynamics that give rise to the debated nonlinear response and stress propagation of cross-linked and entangled actin networks at the microscale...
February 15, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186140/activated-niacin-receptor-hca2-inhibits-chemoattractant-mediated-macrophage-migration-via-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-pkc-erk1-2-pathway-and-heterologous-receptor-desensitization
#4
Ying Shi, Xiangru Lai, Lingyan Ye, Keqiang Chen, Zheng Cao, Wanghua Gong, Lili Jin, Chunyan Wang, Mingyong Liu, Yuan Liao, Ji Ming Wang, Naiming Zhou
The niacin receptor HCA2 is implicated in controlling inflammatory host responses with yet poorly understood mechanistic basis. We previously reported that HCA2 in A431 epithelial cells transduced Gβγ-protein kinase C- and Gβγ-metalloproteinase/EGFR-dependent MAPK/ERK signaling cascades. Here, we investigated the role of HCA2 in macrophage-mediated inflammation and the underlying mechanisms. We found that proinflammatory stimulants LPS, IL-6 and IL-1β up-regulated the expression of HCA2 on macrophages...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179572/spectrin-%C3%AE-v-adaptive-mutations-and-changes-in-subcellular-location-correlate-with-emergence-of-hair-cell-electromotility-in-mammalians
#5
Matteo Cortese, Samantha Papal, Francisco Pisciottano, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Jean-Pierre Hardelin, Christine Petit, Lucia Florencia Franchini, Aziz El-Amraoui
The remarkable hearing capacities of mammals arise from various evolutionary innovations. These include the cochlear outer hair cells and their singular feature, somatic electromotility, i.e., the ability of their cylindrical cell body to shorten and elongate upon cell depolarization and hyperpolarization, respectively. To shed light on the processes underlying the emergence of electromotility, we focused on the βV giant spectrin, a major component of the outer hair cells' cortical cytoskeleton. We identified strong signatures of adaptive evolution at multiple sites along the spectrin-βV amino acid sequence in the lineage leading to mammals, together with substantial differences in the subcellular location of this protein between the frog and the mouse inner ear hair cells...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177340/intracellular-nanoparticle-dynamics-affected-by-cytoskeletal-integrity
#6
Martha E Grady, Emmabeth Parrish, Matthew A Caporizzo, Sarah C Seeger, Russell J Composto, David M Eckmann
The cell interior is a crowded chemical space, which limits the diffusion of molecules and organelles within the cytoplasm, affecting the rates of chemical reactions. We provide insight into the relationship between non-specific intracellular diffusion and cytoskeletal integrity. Quantum dots entered the cell through microinjection and their spatial coordinates were captured by tracking their fluorescence signature as they diffused within the cell cytoplasm. Particle tracking revealed significant enhancement in the mobility of biocompatible quantum dots within fibrosarcoma cells versus their healthy counterparts, fibroblasts, as well as in actin destabilized fibroblasts versus untreated fibroblasts...
February 8, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164388/exclusion-of-assembled-mreb-by-anionic-phospholipids-at-cell-poles-confers-cell-polarity-for-bidirectional-growth
#7
Takuma Kawazura, Kanon Matsumoto, Koki Kojima, Fumiya Kato, Tomomi Kanai, Hironori Niki, Daisuke Shiomi
Cell polarity determines the direction of cell growth in bacteria. MreB actin spatially regulates peptidoglycan synthesis to enable cells to elongate bidirectionally. MreB densely localizes in the cylindrical part of the rod cell and not in polar regions in Escherichia coli. When treated with A22, which inhibits MreB polymerization, rod-shaped cells became round and MreB was diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasmic membrane. A22 removal resulted in restoration of the rod shape. Initially, diffuse MreB started to re-assemble, and MreB-free zones were subsequently observed in the cytoplasmic membrane...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158906/reduced-primary-cilia-length-and-altered-arl13b-expression-are-associated-with-deregulated-chondrocyte-hedgehog-signalling-in-alkaptonuria
#8
Stephen D Thorpe, Silvia Gambassi, Clare L Thompson, Charmilie Chandrakumar, Annalisa Santucci, Martin M Knight
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inherited disease resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). AKU is characterised by severe cartilage degeneration, similar to that observed in osteoarthritis. Previous studies suggest that AKU is associated with alterations in cytoskeletal organisation which could modulate primary cilia structure/function. This study investigated whether AKU is associated with changes in chondrocyte primary cilia and associated Hedgehog signalling which mediates cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147278/the-nuclear-receptor-lxr-limits-bacterial-infection-of-host-macrophages-through-a-mechanism-that-impacts-cellular-nad-metabolism
#9
Jonathan Matalonga, Estibaliz Glaria, Mariana Bresque, Carlos Escande, José María Carbó, Kerstin Kiefer, Ruben Vicente, Theresa E León, Susana Beceiro, Mónica Pascual-García, Joan Serret, Lucía Sanjurjo, Samantha Morón-Ros, Antoni Riera, Sonia Paytubi, Antonio Juarez, Fernando Sotillo, Lennart Lindbom, Carme Caelles, Maria-Rosa Sarrias, Jaime Sancho, Antonio Castrillo, Eduardo N Chini, Annabel F Valledor
Macrophages exert potent effector functions against invading microorganisms but constitute, paradoxically, a preferential niche for many bacterial strains to replicate. Using a model of infection by Salmonella Typhimurium, we have identified a molecular mechanism regulated by the nuclear receptor LXR that limits infection of host macrophages through transcriptional activation of the multifunctional enzyme CD38. LXR agonists reduced the intracellular levels of NAD(+) in a CD38-dependent manner, counteracting pathogen-induced changes in macrophage morphology and the distribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton and reducing the capability of non-opsonized Salmonella to infect macrophages...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137755/melatonin-improves-the-fertilization-ability-of-post-ovulatory-aged-mouse-oocytes-by-stabilizing-ovastacin-and-juno-to-promote-sperm-binding-and-fusion
#10
Xiaoxin Dai, Yajuan Lu, Mianqun Zhang, Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Bo Xiong
STUDY QUESTION: What are the underlying mechanisms of the decline in the fertilization ability of post-ovulatory aged oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Melatonin improves the fertilization ability of post-ovulatory aged oocytes by reducing aging-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inhibiting apoptosis and by maintaining the levels and localization of the fertilization proteins, ovastacin and Juno. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Following ovulation, the quality of mammalian metaphase II oocytes irreversibly deteriorates over time with a concomitant loss of fertilization ability...
January 30, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137618/astrocyte-neuron-interaction-in-diphenyl-ditelluride-toxicity-directed-to-the-cytoskeleton
#11
Luana Heimfarth, Fernanda da Silva Ferreira, Paula Pierozan, Moara Rodrigues Mingori, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
Diphenylditelluride (PhTe)2 is a neurotoxin that disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis. We are showing that different concentrations of (PhTe)2 caused hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament subunits (NFL, NFM and NFH) and altered actin organization in co-cultured astrocytes and neurons from cerebral cortex of rats. These mechanisms were mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors without participation of either L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC) or metabotropic glutamate receptors...
January 27, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135035/fibrinolysis-inhibitors-in-plaque-stability-a-morphological-association-pai-1-and-tafi-in-advanced-carotid-plaque
#12
A-C Jönsson Rylander, A Lindgren, J Deinum, G M L Bergström, G Böttcher, I Kalies, K Wåhlander
BACKGROUND: Fibrinolysis plays an important role in destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques and is tightly regulated by specific inhibitors. OBJECTIVE: The fibrinolysis inhibitors PAI-1 and TAFI were quantified and described in the morphological context of advanced carotid plaques (AHA VI-VIII) to elucidate their role in plaque stability. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry in serial sections along the longitudinal axis of endarterectomies from patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (n=19) were studied using an antibody specific for free PAI-1 (I205), an antibody with high affinity for TAFI/TAFIa (CP17) and established antibodies for SMC (α-actin), endothelial cells (Von Willebrandt Factor, VWF), macrophages (CD68) and platelets (CD42)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123351/involvement-of-rictor-mtorc2-in-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#13
Bei Zheng, Jiadan Wang, Leilei Tang, Chao Tan, Zhe Zhao, Yi Xiao, Renshan Ge, Danyan Zhu
Rictor is a key regulatory/structural subunit of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and is required for phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473. It plays an important role in cell survival, actin cytoskeleton organization and other processes in embryogenesis. However, the role of Rictor/mTORC2 in the embryonic cardiac differentiation has been uncovered. In the present study, we examined a possible link between Rictor expression and cardiomyocyte differentiation of the mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122504/resolved-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-root-pathogen-armillaria-and-its-gasteroid-relative-guyanagaster
#14
Rachel A Koch, Andrew W Wilson, Olivier Séné, Terry W Henkel, M Catherine Aime
BACKGROUND: Armillaria is a globally distributed mushroom-forming genus composed primarily of plant pathogens. Species in this genus are prolific producers of rhizomorphs, or vegetative structures, which, when found, are often associated with infection. Because of their importance as plant pathogens, understanding the evolutionary origins of this genus and how it gained a worldwide distribution is of interest. The first gasteroid fungus with close affinities to Armillaria-Guyanagaster necrorhizus-was described from the Neotropical rainforests of Guyana...
January 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107310/the-renin-inhibitor-aliskiren-protects-rat-lungs-from-the-histopathologic-effects-of-fat-embolism
#15
Amanda N Fletcher, Agostino Molteni, Rakesh Ponnapureddy, Chirag Patel, Mark Pluym, Alan M Poisner
BACKGROUND: Fat embolism (FE) and the consequent FE syndrome occurring after trauma or surgery can lead to serious pulmonary injury, including ARDS and death. Current treatment of FE syndrome is limited to supportive therapy. We have shown in a rat model that the renin angiotensin system plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of FE because drugs interfering with the renin angiotensin system, captopril and losartan reduce the histopathologic pulmonary damage. The purpose of the current study was to determine if inhibition of renin by aliskiren, an FDA-approved drug for treating hypertension, would produce effective protection in the same model...
2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107184/tunneling-nanotubes-promote-intercellular-mitochondria-transfer-followed-by-increased-invasiveness-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#16
Jinjin Lu, Xiufen Zheng, Fan Li, Yang Yu, Zhong Chen, Zheng Liu, Zhihua Wang, Hua Xu, Weimin Yang
Intercellular transfer of organelles via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) is a novel means of cell-to-cell communication. Here we demonstrate the existence of TNTs between co-cultured RT4 and T24 bladder cancer cells using light microscopy, fluorescence imaging, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spontaneous unidirectional transfer of mitochondria from T24 to RT4 cells was detected using fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. The distribution of mitochondria migrated from T24 cells was in good agreement with the original mitochondria in RT4 cells, which may imply mitochondrial fusion...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106884/excess-reactive-oxygen-species-production-mediates-monoclonal-antibody-induced-human-embryonic-stem-cell-death-via-oncosis
#17
Ji Yun Zheng, Heng Liang Tan, Paul Thomas Matsudaira, Andre Choo
Antibody-mediated cell killing has significantly facilitated the elimination of undesired cells in therapeutic applications. Besides the well-known Fc-dependent mechanisms, pathways of antibody-induced apoptosis were also extensively studied. However, with fewer studies reporting the ability of antibodies to evoke an alternative form of programmed cell death, oncosis, the molecular mechanism of antibody-mediated oncosis remains underinvestigated. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), TAG-A1 (A1), was generated to selectively kill residual undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) so as to prevent teratoma formation upon transplantation of hESC-derived products...
March 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095557/the-photodynamic-therapy-experience-of-a-high-volume-laser-and-dermatologic-surgery-center
#18
David E Orbuch, Lauren Penn, Bradley S Bloom, Jeremy A Brauer, Daniel B Shin, Joshua Greenbaum, Leonard J Bernstein, Elliot T Weiss, Robert T Anolik, Roy G Geronemus
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an FDA approved treatment for actinic keratoses (AK's) although multiple off-label indi- cations are reported. Despite frequent use for AK's, no clear consensus exists regarding protocols for overall treatment parameters. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 1,491 subjects who underwent PDT between 2007 and 2011 at a high volume laser surgery center. Demographic information, clinical history, treatment data, and subsequent diagnosis of skin cancers were recorded...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077285/a-fluorophore-fusion-construct-of-human-profilin-i-with-non-compromized-poly-l-proline-binding-capacity-suitable-for-imaging
#19
Michaela Nejedla, Zhilun Li, Anna E Masser, Matteo Biancospino, Matthias Spiess, Sebastian D Mackowiak, Marc R Friedländer, Roger Karlsson
Profilin is vital for actin organization in eukaryotic cells. It controls actin filament formation by binding monomeric actin and numerous proteins involved in polarized actin assembly. Important for the latter is the interaction surface formed by the N- and C-terminal helices, which pack close to each other on one side of the molecule at distance from the actin site and mediate binding to poly-proline sequences present in many of the targeted proteins. Via these interactions profilin contributes to the spatiotemporal control of actin filament growth...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055102/galectin-3-inhibition-by-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-reduces-both-pathological-corneal-neovascularization-and-fibrosis
#20
Wei-Sheng Chen, Zhiyi Cao, Hakon Leffler, Ulf J Nilsson, Noorjahan Panjwani
Purpose: Corneal neovascularization and scarring commonly lead to significant vision loss. This study was designed to determine whether a small-molecule inhibitor of galectin-3 can inhibit both corneal angiogenesis and fibrosis in experimental mouse models. Methods: Animal models of silver nitrate cautery and alkaline burn were used to induce mouse corneal angiogenesis and fibrosis, respectively. Corneas were treated with the galectin-3 inhibitor, 33DFTG, or vehicle alone and were processed for whole-mount immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis to quantify the density of blood vessels and markers of fibrosis...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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