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Actin distribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632030/ultraviolet-b-radiation-stimulates-the-interaction-between-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-5-nfat5-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-lens-epithelial-cells
#1
Inyoung Chung, Young-Sool Hah, SunMi Ju, Ji-Hye Kim, Woong-Sun Yoo, Hee-Young Cho, Ji-Myong Yoo, Seong-Wook Seo, Wan-Sung Choi, Seong-Jae Kim
PURPOSE: Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cataracts. The authors investigated the relationship between nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) and NF-κB in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human lens epithelial (HLE) cells. METHODS: Human lens epithelial B-3 (HLE-B3) cells were exposed to UVB light at a dose of 10 mJ/cm(2) and then incubated for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
February 26, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630145/activity-dependent-trafficking-of-lysosomes-in-dendrites-and-dendritic-spines
#2
Marisa S Goo, Laura Sancho, Natalia Slepak, Daniela Boassa, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Brenda L Bloodgood, Gentry N Patrick
In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628214/unconventional-role-of-voltage-gated-proton-channels-vsop-hv1-in-regulation-of-microglial-ros-production
#3
Takafumi Kawai, Yoshifumi Okochi, Tomohiko Ozaki, Yoshio Imura, Schuichi Koizumi, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Toshihide Yamashita, Yasushi Okamura
It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. 2010) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. 2010). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. 2012). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627346/-study-on-rac1-mapk-erk-pathway-mediated-mechanism-and-role-in-rats-with-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#4
Guanghua Tao, Linghui Pan, Ren Jing, Fei Lin, Huijun Dai, Wanyun Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Rac1/MAPK/ERK) signal pathway in rats with ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) and its mechanism. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into spontaneous respiration group, normal tidal volume (VT) group and high VT group with 10 rats in each group. The rats in spontaneous respiration group were kept their spontaneous breathing...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626024/intersectin-2-controls-actin-cap-formation-and-meiotic-division-in-mouse-oocytes-through-the-cdc42-pathway
#5
Jiaqi Zhang, Rujun Ma, Ling Li, Lina Wang, Xiaojing Hou, Longsen Han, Juan Ge, Mo Li, Qiang Wang
Intersectins (ITSNs), an evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein family, have been implicated in multiple biologic processes; however, their functions in mammalian oocytes have not been addressed. Here, we report delayed meiotic resumption and defective cytokinesis upon specific depletion of ITSN2 in mouse oocytes. In particular, abnormal spindle, misaligned chromosomes, and loss of cortical actin cap are readily observed in ITSN2-depleted oocytes. Similarly, a small molecule that targets the Cdc42-ITSN interaction also disrupts oocyte maturation and actin polymerization...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#6
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621701/epigenetics-insights-into-chronic-pain-dna-hypomethylation-in-fibromyalgia-a-controlled-pilot-study
#7
Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Mariana Maschietto, Ricardo Galhardoni, Gisele Gouveia, Thais Chile, Ana C Victorino Krepischi, Camila S Dale, André R Brunoni, Daniella C Parravano, Ana S Cueva Moscoso, Irina Raicher, Helena H S Kaziyama, Manoel J Teixeira, Helena P Brentani
To evaluate changes in DNA methylation profiles in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared to matched healthy controls (HCs). All individuals underwent full clinical and neurophysiological assessment by cortical excitability (CE) parameters measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation. DNA from the peripheral blood of patients with FM (n = 24) and HC (n = 24) were assessed using the Illumina-HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We identified 1610 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in patients with FM displaying a nonrandom distribution in regions of the genome...
June 15, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618637/actin-growth-profile-in-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#8
D J Tweten, P V Bayly, A E Carlsson
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in yeast is driven by a protein patch containing close to 100 different types of proteins. Among the proteins are 5000-10000 copies of polymerized actin, and successful endocytosis requires growth of the actin network. Since it is not known exactly how actin network growth drives endocytosis, we calculate the spatial distribution of actin growth required to generate the force that drives the process. First, we establish the force distribution that must be supplied by actin growth, by combining membrane-bending profiles obtained via electron microscopy with established theories of membrane mechanics...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615717/image-based-machine-learning-for-identification-of-macrophage-subsets
#9
Hassan M Rostam, Paul M Reynolds, Morgan R Alexander, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Amir M Ghaemmaghami
Macrophages play a crucial rule in orchestrating immune responses against pathogens and foreign materials. Macrophages have remarkable plasticity in response to environmental cues and are able to acquire a spectrum of activation status, best exemplified by pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes at the two ends of the spectrum. Characterisation of M1 and M2 subsets is usually carried out by quantification of multiple cell surface markers, transcription factors and cytokine profiles. These approaches are time-consuming, require large numbers of cells and are resource intensive...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615348/jak2-inhibitor-cep-33779-prevents-mouse-oocyte-maturation-in-vitro
#10
Changli Wu, Rong Li, Haibing Luo, Mingfeng Xu, Xiujuan Zhang
The inhibitor CEP-33779 is a specific selective inhibitor of JAK2. In most somatic cells, JAK2 plays essential roles in cellular signal transduction and in the regulation of cell cycle. Little is known regarding the effects of JAK2 on mammalian oocyte maturation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CEP-33779 on mouse oocytes meiosis and possible mechanisms of JAK2 during mouse oocyte maturation. We detected the distribution of JAK2 during mouse oocyte maturation. The results show that JAK2 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm during maturation...
June 14, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615318/miro1-mediated-mitochondrial-positioning-shapes-intracellular-energy-gradients-required-for-cell-migration
#11
Max-Hinderk Schuler, Agnieszka Lewandowska, Giuseppe Di Caprio, Wesley Skillern, Srigokul Upadhyayula, Tom Kirchhausen, Janet M Shaw, Brian Cunniff
It has long been postulated, though never directly demonstrated that mitochondria are strategically positioned in the cytoplasm to meet local requirements for energy production. Here we show that positioning of mitochondria in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) determines the shape of intracellular energy gradients in living cells. Specifically, the ratio of ATP to ADP was highest at perinuclear areas of dense mitochondria and gradually declined approaching more peripheral sites. Furthermore, the majority of mitochondria were positioned at the ventral surface of the cell, correlating with high ATP:ADP ratios close to the ventral membrane that rapidly decreased towards the dorsal surface...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615189/bar-coding-neurodegeneration-identifying-sub-cellular-effects-of-human-neurodegenerative-disease-proteins-using-drosophila-leg-neurons
#12
Josefin Fernius, Annika Starkenberg, Stefan Thor
Genetic, biochemical and histological studies have identified a number of different proteins as key drivers of human neurodegenerative diseases. Whereas different proteins are typically involved in different disease, there is also considerable overlap. Addressing disease protein dysfunction in an in vivo neuronal context is often time-consuming and requires labor-intensive analysis of transgenic models. To facilitate the rapid, cellular analysis of disease protein dysfunction, we have developed a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) adult leg neuron assay...
June 14, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611663/epigenetic-modifications-to-h3k9-in-renal-tubulointerstitial-cells-after-unilateral-ureteric-obstruction-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-stimulation
#13
Timothy D Hewitson, Stephen G Holt, Sven-Jean Tan, Belinda Wigg, Chrishan S Samuel, Edward R Smith
Introduction: Epigenetic regulation of fibrogenesis through post-translational histone modifications (marks) may be a key determinant of progression in renal disease. In this study, we examined the distribution and acquisition of histone 3 Lysine 9 (H3K9) marks after injury and stimulation with the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β1. Our focus was on their presence in activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and epithelial cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transition). Methods and Results: Immunofluorescent microscopy was used to examine global H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) and tri-methylation (H3K9Me3) after unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607071/ca-2-induced-movement-of-tropomyosin-on-native-cardiac-thin-filaments-revealed-by-cryoelectron-microscopy
#14
Cristina Risi, Jamie Eisner, Betty Belknap, David H Heeley, Howard D White, Gunnar F Schröder, Vitold E Galkin
Muscle contraction relies on the interaction of myosin motors with F-actin, which is regulated through a translocation of tropomyosin by the troponin complex in response to Ca(2+) The current model of muscle regulation holds that at relaxing (low-Ca(2+)) conditions tropomyosin blocks myosin binding sites on F-actin, whereas at activating (high-Ca(2+)) conditions tropomyosin translocation only partially exposes myosin binding sites on F-actin so that binding of rigor myosin is required to fully activate the thin filament (TF)...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598422/constriction-of-the-mitochondrial-inner-compartment-is-a-priming-event-for-mitochondrial-division
#15
Bongki Cho, Hyo Min Cho, Youhwa Jo, Hee Dae Kim, Myungjae Song, Cheil Moon, Hyongbum Kim, Kyungjin Kim, Hiromi Sesaki, Im Joo Rhyu, Hyun Kim, Woong Sun
Mitochondrial division is critical for the maintenance and regulation of mitochondrial function, quality and distribution. This process is controlled by cytosolic actin-based constriction machinery and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) on mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). Although mitochondrial physiology, including oxidative phosphorylation, is also important for efficient mitochondrial division, morphological alterations of the mitochondrial inner-membrane (IMM) have not been clearly elucidated. Here we report spontaneous and repetitive constriction of mitochondrial inner compartment (CoMIC) associated with subsequent division in neurons...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596275/skeletal-muscle-morphology-protein-synthesis-and-gene-expression-in-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#16
Rie H Nygaard, Jacob K Jensen, Nicol C Voermans, Katja Maria Heinemeier, Peter Schjerling, Lars Holm, Jakob Agergaard, Abigail Louise Mackey, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Lars Remvig, Michael Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome are known to have genetically impaired connective tissue and skeletal muscle symptoms in form of pain, fatigue and cramps, however earlier studies have not been able to link these symptoms to morphological muscle changes. METHODS: We obtained skeletal muscle biopsies in patients with classic EDS (cEDS, n=5 (Denmark)+ 8 (The Netherlands)) and vascular EDS (vEDS, n=3) and analyzed muscle fiber morphology and content (Western blotting and muscle fiber type/area distributions) and muscle mRNA expression and protein synthesis rate (RT-PCR and stable isotope technique)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591610/a-dynamic-biochemomechanical-model-of-geometry-confined-cell-spreading
#17
Zi-Long Zhao, Zong-Yuan Liu, Jing Du, Guang-Kui Xu, Xi-Qiao Feng
Cell spreading is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The spreading behavior of a cell significantly depends on its microenvironment, but the biochemomechanical mechanisms of geometry-confined cell spreading remain unclear. A dynamic model is here established to investigate the spreading of cells confined in a finite region with different geometries, e.g., rectangle, ellipse, triangle, and L-shape. This model incorporates both biophysical and biochemical mechanisms, including actin polymerization, integrin-mediated binding, plasma viscoelasticity, and the elasticity of membranes and microtubules...
June 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585695/the-rhogap-myo9b-promotes-bone-growth-by-mediating-osteoblastic-responsiveness-to-igf-1
#18
Brooke K McMichael, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Justin A Auerbach, Cheol-Min Han, Ryan Sedlar, Vikram Shettigar, Martin Bähler, Sudha Agarwal, Do-Gyoon Kim, Beth S Lee
The RhoA subfamily of Rho GTPases regulates actin-based cellular functions in bone such as differentiation, migration, and mechanotransduction. Polymorphisms or genetic ablation of RHOA and some of its regulatory guanine exchange factors (GEFs) have been linked to poor bone health in humans and mice, but the effects of RhoA-specific GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) on bone quality have not yet been identified. Therefore, we examined the consequences of RhoGAP Myo9b gene knockout on bone growth, phenotype and cellular activity...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578669/vegf-isoforms-have-differential-effects-on-permeability-of-human-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#19
Khadija Ourradi, Thomas Blythe, Caroline Jarrett, Shaney L Barratt, Gavin I Welsh, Ann B Millar
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of Vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA transcripts (commonly referred as VEGF) leads to the generation of functionally differing isoforms, the relative amounts of which have potentially significant physiological outcomes in conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The effect of such isoforms on pulmonary vascular permeability is unknown. We hypothesised that VEGF165a and VEGF165b isoforms would have differing effects on pulmonary vascular permeability caused by differential activation of intercellular signal transduction pathways...
June 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572532/myosin-va-plays-essential-roles-in-maintaining-normal-mitosis-enhancing-tumor-cell-motility-and-viability
#20
Yan-Ruide Li, Ai Zhong, Han Dong, Lu-Han Ni, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
Myosin Va, a member of Class V myosin, functions in organelle motility, spindle formation, nuclear morphogenesis and cell motility. The purpose of this study is to explore the expression and localization of myosin Va in testicular cancer and prostate cancer, and its specific roles in tumor progression including cell division, migration and proliferation. We detected myosin Va in testicular and prostate tumor tissues using sqRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence. Tumor samples showed an increased expression of myosin Va, abnormal actin and myosin Va distribution...
May 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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