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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912101/the-cytoskeleton-architecture-of-algivorous-protoplast-feeders-viridiraptoridae-rhizaria-indicates-actin-guided-perforation-of-prey-cell-walls
#1
Anna Busch, Sebastian Hess
Several distantly related, phagotrophic microeukaryotes share the remarkable ability to perforate foreign cell walls in a well-defined pattern to acquire protoplast material as food. The underlying cellular processes, especially the local application of cell wall degrading agents, are still unexplored. We examined the distribution of F-actin and alpha-tubulin in the algivorous, viridiraptorid amoeboflagellates Orciraptor agilis and Viridiraptor invadens over their life histories using phalloidin conjugates and immunolocalization...
October 31, 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904268/clinicopathological-features-and-immunohistochemical-alterations-of-keratinocyte-proliferation-melanocyte-density-smooth-muscle-hyperplasia-and-nerve-fiber-distribution-in-becker-s-nevus
#2
Ping Sheng, Yun-Long Cheng, Chuan-Chuan Cai, Wei-Jin Guo, Ying Zhou, Ge Shi, Yi-Ming Fan
BACKGROUND: Although Becker's nevus (BN) is a relatively common disease, the systematic studies of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical results are poorly reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical alterations of keratinocyte proliferation, melanocyte density, smooth muscle hyperplasia and nerve fiber distribution in BN. METHODS: Clinical and pathological data were collected in 60 newly-diagnosed BN cases...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900558/the-role-of-viral-protein-ac34-in-nuclear-relocation-of-subunits-of-the-actin-related-protein-2-3-complex
#3
Jingfang Mu, Yongli Zhang, Yangyang Hu, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Xinwen Chen, Yun Wang
The actin nucleator actin-related protein complex (Arp2/3) is composed of seven subunits: Arp2, Arp3, p40/ARPC1 (P40), p34/ARPC2 (P34), p21/ARPC3 (P21), p20/ARPC4 (P20), and p16/ARPC5 (P16). Arp2/3 plays crucial roles in a variety of cellular activities through regulation of actin polymerization. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), one of the best-studied alphabaculoviruses, induces Arp2/3 nuclear relocation and mediates nuclear actin polymerization to assist in virus replication...
December 5, 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899160/physiopathology-of-vesico-ureteral-reflux
#4
REVIEW
Salvatore Arena, Roberta Iacona, Pietro Impellizzeri, Tiziana Russo, Lucia Marseglia, Eloisa Gitto, Carmelo Romeo
Vescico-Ureteral Reflux (VUR) is a common condition in childhood, caused by a congenital anomaly at the Vescico-Ureteral Junction (VUJ) level. It seems that the main cause could be an abnormal embryological development occurred during the early stage of fetal life.Refluxing ureteral endings show structural and functional anomalies: previous studies have shown a significant decrease in alfa actin, miosin and desmin contents as well as an high rate of atrophy and muscular degeneration with disorganized muscular fibres...
November 29, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892530/fine-tuning-of-rac1-and-rhoa-alters-cuspal-shapes-by-remolding-the-cellular-geometry
#5
Liwen Li, Qinghuang Tang, Takashi Nakamura, Jun-Gyo Suh, Hayato Ohshima, Han-Sung Jung
The anatomic and functional combinations of cusps and lophs (ridges) define the tooth shape of rodent molars, which distinguishes species. The species-specific cusp patterns result from the spatiotemporal induction of enamel knots (EKs), which require precisely controlled cellular behavior to control the epithelial invagination. Despite the well-defined roles of EK in cusp patterning, the determinants of the ultimate cuspal shapes and involvement of epithelial cellular geometry are unknown. Using two typical tooth patterns, the lophodont in gerbils and the bunodont in mice, we showed that the cuspal shape is determined by the dental epithelium at the cap stage, whereas the cellular geometry in the inner dental epithelium (IDE) is correlated with the cuspal shape...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888725/functional-response-of-osteoblasts-in-functionally-gradient-titanium-alloy-mesh-arrays-processed-by-3d-additive-manufacturing
#6
K C Nune, A Kumar, R D K Misra, S J Li, Y L Hao, R Yang
We elucidate here the osteoblasts functions and cellular activity in 3D printed interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient Ti-6Al-4V alloy mesh structures in terms of cell proliferation and growth, distribution of cell nuclei, synthesis of proteins (actin, vinculin, and fibronectin), and calcium deposition. Cell culture studies with pre-osteoblasts indicated that the interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient mesh arrays was conducive to osteoblast functions. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cellular response depending on the pore size in the functionally gradient structure...
November 18, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882462/proliferative-potential-of-cardiomyocytes-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-correlation-with-myocardial-remodeling
#7
T V Sukhacheva, Yu A Chudinovskikh, M V Eremeeva, R A Serov, L A Bockeria
Proliferating Ki-67(+) cardiomyocytes were detected in the interventricular septum myocardium of adult patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In the same patients, the severity of hypertrophy and the degree of cardiomyocyte differentiation were assessed by the content of myofibrils, ultrastructural morphology, and the pattern of connexin 43-containing gap junction distribution. Adult Ki-67(+) cardiomyocytes containing sarcomeric α-actin (sarc α-act(+)) in the sarcoplasm (diameter 23.9±6.9 μ) were detected in the myocardium of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; their relative content varied from 2 to 3084 cells per 1 million cardiomyocytes...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879672/electric-signals-regulate-the-directional-migration-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-opcs-via-%C3%AE-1-integrin
#8
Bangfu Zhu, Matthew Nicholls, Yu Gu, Gaofeng Zhang, Chao Zhao, Robin J M Franklin, Bing Song
The guided migration of neural cells is essential for repair in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) will normally migrate towards an injury site to re-sheath demyelinated axons; however the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are known to influence cell migration in vivo, and have been utilised in this study to direct the migration of OPCs isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. The OPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation, and displayed a marked electrotactic response that was dependent on β1 integrin, one of the key subunits of integrin receptors...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871065/mechanical-remodeling-of-normally-sized-mammalian-cells-under-a-gravity-vector
#9
Chen Zhang, Lüwen Zhou, Fan Zhang, Dongyuan Lü, Ning Li, Lu Zheng, Yanhong Xu, Zhan Li, Shujin Sun, Mian Long
Translocation of the dense nucleus along a gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a cell, but the underlying mechanisms of cytoskeletal network and focal adhesion complex (FAC) reorganization in a mammalian cell remain unclear. We quantified the remodeling of an MC3T3-E1 cell placed in upward-, downward-, or edge-on-orientated substrate. Nucleus longitudinal translocation presents a high value in downward orientation at 24 h or in edge-on orientation at 72 h, which is consistent with orientation-dependent distribution of perinuclear actin stress fibers and vimentin cords...
November 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864330/three-dimensional-stochastic-model-of-actin-myosin-binding-in-the-sarcomere-lattice
#10
Srboljub M Mijailovich, Oliver Kayser-Herold, Boban Stojanovic, Djordje Nedic, Thomas C Irving, Michael A Geeves
The effect of molecule tethering in three-dimensional (3-D) space on bimolecular binding kinetics is rarely addressed and only occasionally incorporated into models of cell motility. The simplest system that can quantitatively determine this effect is the 3-D sarcomere lattice of the striated muscle, where tethered myosin in thick filaments can only bind to a relatively small number of available sites on the actin filament, positioned within a limited range of thermal movement of the myosin head. Here we implement spatially explicit actomyosin interactions into the multiscale Monte Carlo platform MUSICO, specifically defining how geometrical constraints on tethered myosins can modulate state transition rates in the actomyosin cycle...
December 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864182/pleuromediastinal-epithelial-myoepithelial-carcinomas-a-clinicopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-two-cases
#11
Annikka Weissferdt, Neda Kalhor, Cesar A Moran
OBJECTIVES: Two cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma are presented, one arising in the pleura and the other in the anterior mediastinum. The cases represent a unique distribution of these tumors within the thoracic cavity. METHODS: Both patients were men aged 25 and 68 years, respectively, who had chest pain and dyspnea. Imaging revealed an anterior mediastinal mass in one patient and a pleural-based tumor in the other. Neither patient had any history of malignancy, and physical examination did not disclose any tumor elsewhere...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852900/gradients-of-phosphatidylserine-contribute-to-plasma-membrane-charge-localization-and-cell-polarity-in-fission-yeast
#12
Armin Haupt, Nicolas Minc
Surface charges at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane may contribute to regulate the surface recruitment of key signaling factors. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an abundant charged lipid, which may regulate charge distribution in different cell types. In here, we characterize the subcellular distribution and function of PS in the rod-shaped, polarized fission yeast. We find that PS preferably accumulates at cell tips and defines a gradient of negative charges along the cell surface. This polarization depends on actin-mediated endocytosis and contributes to the subcellular partitioning of charged polarity-regulating Rho-GTPases like Rho1 or Cdc42 in a protein charge-dependent manner...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851945/cargo-transport-by-two-coupled-myosin-va-motors-on-actin-filaments-and-bundles
#13
M Yusuf Ali, Andrej Vilfan, Kathleen M Trybus, David M Warshaw
Myosin Va (myoVa) is a processive, actin-based molecular motor essential for intracellular cargo transport. When a cargo is transported by an ensemble of myoVa motors, each motor faces significant physical barriers and directional challenges created by the complex actin cytoskeleton, a network of actin filaments and actin bundles. The principles that govern the interaction of multiple motors attached to the same cargo are still poorly understood. To understand the mechanical interactions between multiple motors, we developed a simple in vitro model in which two individual myoVa motors labeled with different-colored Qdots are linked via a third Qdot that acts as a cargo...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824280/the-combined-effect-of-substrate-stiffness-and-surface-topography-on-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Yingnan Wu, Zheng Yang, Jaslyn Bee Khuan Law, Ai Yu He, Azlina A Abbas, Vinitha Denslin, Tunku Kamarul, James H Hui, Eng Hin Lee
Stem cell differentiation is guided by contact with the physical microenvironment, influence by both the topography and mechanical properties of the matrix. In this study, the combined effect of substratum nano-topography and mechanical stiffness in directing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis was investigated. Three polyesters of varying stiffness were thermally imprinted to create nano-grating or pillar patterns of the same dimension. The surface of the nano-patterned substrate was coated with chondroitin sulfate (CS) to provide an even surface chemistry, with cell-adhesive and chondro-inductive properties, across all polymeric substrates...
November 8, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822498/the-x-linked-autism-protein-kiaa2022-kidlia-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-via-n-cadherin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#15
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821209/motility-morphology-and-phylogeny-of-the-plasmodial-worm-ceratomyxa-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-myxosporea
#16
E A Adriano, B Okamura
The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level...
November 8, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818273/extreme-calorie-restriction-in-yeast-retentostats-induces-uniform-non-quiescent-growth-arrest
#17
Markus M M Bisschops, Marijke A H Luttik, Anne Doerr, Peter J T Verheijen, Frank Bruggeman, Jack T Pronk, Pascale Daran-Lapujade
Non-dividing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures are highly relevant for fundamental and applied studies. However, cultivation conditions in which non-dividing cells retain substantial metabolic activity are lacking. Unlike stationary-phase (SP) batch cultures, the current experimental paradigm for non-dividing yeast cultures, cultivation under extreme calorie restriction (ECR) in retentostat enables non-dividing yeast cells to retain substantial metabolic activity and to prevent rapid cellular deterioration...
November 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810885/arf6-controls-endocytosis-and-polarity-during-asexual-development-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#18
Xiaohan Zhu, Tengsheng Zhou, Liqiong Chen, Shiqin Zheng, Shaohua Chen, Dongmei Zhang, Guangpu Li, Zonghua Wang
Asexual development of phytopathogenic fungi such as Magnaporthe oryzae involves morphological changes that require spatiotemporal regulation of polarized growth. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small GTPase known to regulate membrane trafficking and organization of the actin cytoskeleton at the cell surface, and consequently has an impact on cell morphology and polarity. In this study, we have functionally characterized the Arf6 homolog in M. oryzae, showing that △arf6 exhibits hyper-branching at hyphal tips and morphologically abnormal conidia as a result of defective polarized growth...
November 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806916/functional-profiling-of-asymmetrically-organized-human-cct-tric-chaperonin
#19
Kazutaka Araki, Atsushi Suenaga, Hidewo Kusano, Riko Tanaka, Tomohisa Hatta, Tohru Natsume, Kazuhiko Fukui
Molecular organization of the eukaryote chaperonin known as CCT/TRiC complex was recently clarified. Eight distinct subunits are uniquely organized, providing a favorable folding cavity for specific client proteins such as tubulin and actin. Because of its heterogeneous subunit composition, CCT complex has polarized inner faces, which may underlie an essential part of its chaperonin function. In this study, we structurally characterized the closed and open states of CCT complex, using molecular dynamics analyses...
October 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806843/an-isolated-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-of-adrenal-gland
#20
Ghadah Al Sannaa, Jana L Wimmer, Alberto G Ayala, Jae Y Ro
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon lesion that shows a wide range of anatomic distribution. The adrenal gland, however, is a distinctly rare site of occurrence. To date, only a few cases of IMT arising in the adrenal gland have been reported in the English literature. Here, we report another case of isolated adrenal IMT. A 34-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a complaint of a sudden severe right-sided back pain. Subsequent computed tomographic scan imaging studies demonstrated a large right adrenal mass associated with a hematoma...
December 2016: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
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