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Actin distribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432079/regulation-of-microtubule-associated-motors-drives-intermediate-filament-network-polarization
#1
Cécile Leduc, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are key players in the control of cell morphology and structure as well as in active processes such as cell polarization, migration, and mechanoresponses. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling IF dynamics and organization in motile cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms leading to the polarized rearrangement of the IF network along the polarity axis. Using photobleaching and photoconversion experiments in glial cells expressing vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and nestin, we show that the distribution of cytoplasmic IFs results from a continuous turnover based on the cooperation of an actin-dependent retrograde flow and anterograde and retrograde microtubule-dependent transports...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431142/respiratory-chain-enzyme-deficiency-induces-mitochondrial-location-of-actin-binding-gelsolin-to-modulate-the-oligomerization-of-vdac-complexes-and-cell-survival
#2
Alberto García-Bartolomé, Ana Peñas, Lorena Marín-Buera, Teresa Lobo-Jarne, Rafael Pérez-Pérez, María Morán, Joaquín Arenas, Miguel A Martín, Cristina Ugalde
Despite considerable knowledge on the genetic basis of mitochondrial disorders, their pathophysiological consequences remain poorly understood. We previously used 2D-DIGE analyses to define a protein profile characteristic for respiratory chain complex III-deficiency that included a significant overexpression of cytosolic Gelsolin (GSN), a cytoskeletal protein that regulates the severing and capping of the actin filaments. Biochemical and immunofluorescence assays confirmed a specific increase of GSN levels in the mitochondria from patientś fibroblasts and from transmitochondrial cybrids with complex III assembly defects...
April 18, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424168/mir-9-5p-promotes-msc-migration-by-activating-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#3
Xianyang Li, Lihong He, Qing Yue, Junhou Lu, Naixin Kang, Xiaojing Xu, Huihui Wang, Huanxiang Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in HGF-treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420390/a-novel-viewrna-in-situ-hybridization-method-for-the-detection-of-the-dynamic-distribution-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-rna-in-pk15-cells
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Qianyi Zhang, Lu Xu, Yujie Zhang, Tuanjie Wang, Xingqi Zou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Yan Zhao, Cui Li, Kai Chen, Yongfang Sun, Junxiang Sun, Qizu Zhao, Qin Wang
BACKGROUND: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious fatal infectious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). A better understanding of CSFV replication is important for the study of pathogenic mechanism of CSF. With the development of novel RNA in situ Hybridization method, quantitatively localization and visualization of the virus RNA molecular in cultured cell or tissue section becomes very important tool to address these pivotal pathogenic questions. In this study, we established ViewRNA ISH method to reveal the dynamic distribution of CSFV RNA in PK15 cells...
April 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404941/citrinin-exposure-affects-oocyte-maturation-and-embryo-development-by-inducing-oxidative-stress-mediated-apoptosis
#5
Yu Wu, Na Zhang, Ying-Hua Li, Liang Zhao, Mo Yang, Yimei Jin, Yong-Nan Xu, Hongyan Guo
Citrinin is one of the mycotoxins and has been shown to have various toxic effects in animals and humans. Although previous study showed the toxic effects of citrinin on the female reproductive system, especially on oocyte maturation, however, the causes or mechanism of citrinin on oocyte quality is unclear. In present study we deeply investigated this topic. We found thatcitrinin toxin exposure inhibited mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Further investigation showed that the actin distribution in oocytes and embryos was disrupted, and the reduced expression of actin nucleator ARP2 expression in the oocyte cortex further confirmed this...
February 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401585/a-proposed-scoring-system-for-assessing-the-severity-of-actinic-keratosis-on-the-head-actinic-keratosis-area-and-severity-index-akasi
#6
T Dirschka, G Pellacani, G Micali, J Malvehy, A J Stratigos, A Casari, L Schmitz, G Gupta
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) severity is currently evaluated by subjective assessment of patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop and perform an initial pilot validation of a new easy-to-use quantitative tool for assessing AK severity on the head. METHODS: The actinic keratosis area and severity index (AKASI) for the head was developed based on a review of other severity scoring systems in dermatology, in particular the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395715/-subcellular-re-distribution-of-f-actin-in-mcf7-cells-upon-inducible-expression-of-cdkn2a-p16-ink4a
#7
Jianqing Liang, Manna Wang, Zhengrong Zhang, Long Yuan, You Zheng, Hongyan Huang, Qiang Sun, Jufang Wang, Xiaoning Wang
Objective To investigate the effect of CDKN2A/p16(INK4a), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on cell morphology and cytoskeleton in MCF7 breast cancer cells by tetracycline operon (Tet-on) inducible gene expression system. Methods MCF7 cells, genetically null for p16(INK4a) expression, were sequentially infected with two viruses of Tet-on systems to make MCF7-pTet-on-p16(INK4a) cells, which were induced to express p16NK4a by doxycycline (Dox) treatment. Cell growth was evaluated by cell counting. To observe the effect of p16(INK4a) on cell adhesion and cytoskeleton, intercellular adhesion and intracellular F-actin were examined by fluorescent staining with anti-E-cadherin antibody and phalloidin, respectively...
April 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381794/effect-of-nerve-growth-factor-on-innervation-of-perivascular-nerves-in-neovasculatures-of-mouse-cornea
#8
Akiko Matsuyama, Shingo Takatori, Yoko Sone, Eiko Ochi, Mitsuhiro Goda, Yoshito Zamami, Narumi Hashikawa-Hobara, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Hiromu Kawasaki
Angiogenesis, which is the generation of new vascular networks from existing blood vessels, occurs under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Perivascular nerves, which innervate mature vasculatures, maintain vascular tone and regulate tissue blood flow. However, little is known whether perivascular nerves innervate newborn blood vessels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and characterization of perivascular nerves in neovasculatures, which were generated by the mouse corneal micropocket method...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381600/increased-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-ngal-promotes-airway-remodelling-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Yujie Wang, Man Jia, Xiaoyi Yan, Limin Cao, Peter J Barnes, Ian M Adcock, Mao Huang, Xin Yao
Airway remodelling is an important component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) from neutrophils may drive COPD epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). NGAL expression was quantified in the lungs of COPD patients and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of ozone-treated mice. Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness and E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were determined in mice airways. Effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and inflammatory factors on NGAL expression in human neutrophils as well as the effects of NGAL on airway structural cells was assessed...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378503/il-5-stimulated-eosinophils-adherent-to-periostin-undergo-stereotypic-morphological-changes-and-adam8-dependent-migration
#10
Mats W Johansson, Manav Khanna, Valeriu Bortnov, Douglas S Annis, Christopher L Nguyen, Deane F Mosher
BACKGROUND: IL-5 causes suspended eosinophils to polarize with filamentous (F)-actin and granules at one pole and the nucleus in a specialized uropod, the "nucleopod", which is capped with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). IL-5 enhances eosinophil adhesion and migration on periostin, an extracellular matrix protein upregulated in asthma by type 2 immunity mediators. OBJECTIVE: Determine how the polarized morphology evolves to foster migration of IL-5-stimulated eosinophils on a surface coated with periostin...
April 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366531/protein-palmitoylation-in-the-development-and-plasticity-of-neuronal-connections
#11
REVIEW
Andrea K Globa, Shernaz X Bamji
Protein palmitoylation, or the reversible addition of the fatty acid, palmitate, onto substrate proteins, can impact the structure and stability of proteins as well as regulate protein-protein interactions and the trafficking and localization of proteins to cell membranes. This posttranslational modification is mediated by palmitoyl-acyltransferases, consisting of a family of 23 zDHHC proteins in mammals. This review focuses on the subcellular distribution of zDHHC proteins within the neuron and the regulation of zDHHC trafficking and function by synaptic activity...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363137/structures-related-to-attachment-and-motility-in-the-marine-eugregarine-cephaloidophora-cf-communis-apicomplexa
#12
Magdaléna Kováčiková, Timur G Simdyanov, Andrei Diakin, Andrea Valigurová
Gregarines represent a highly diversified group of ancestral apicomplexans, with various modes of locomotion and host-parasite interactions. The eugregarine parasite of the barnacle Balanus balanus, Cephaloidophora cf. communis, exhibits interesting organisation of its attachment apparatus along with unique motility modes. The pellicle covered gregarine is arranged into longitudinal epicytic folds. The epimerite is separated from the protomerite by a septum consisting of tubulin-rich filamentous structures and both are packed with microneme-like structures suggestive of their function in the production of adhesives important for attachment and secreted through the abundant epimerite pores...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355484/podosome-force-generation-machinery-a-local-balance-between-protrusion-at-the-core-and-traction-at-the-ring
#13
Anaïs Bouissou, Amsha Proag, Nicolas Bourg, Karine Pingris, Clément Cabriel, Stéphanie Balor, Thomas Mangeat, Christophe Thibault, Christophe Vieu, Guillaume Dupuis, Emmanuel Fort, Sandrine Lévêque-Fort, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Renaud Poincloux
Determining how cells generate and transduce mechanical forces at the nanoscale is a major technical challenge for the understanding of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Podosomes are submicrometer cell structures with a columnar F-actin core surrounded by a ring of adhesion proteins, which possess the singular ability to protrude into and probe the extracellular matrix. Using protrusion force microscopy, we have previously shown that single podosomes produce local nanoscale protrusions on the extracellular environment...
April 4, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352366/prolyl-oligopeptidase-attenuates-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-through-induction-of-smad7-and-ppar-%C3%AE
#14
Da Zhou, Jing Wang, Ling-Nan He, Bing-Hang Li, Yong-Nian Ding, Yuan-Wen Chen, Jian-Gao Fan
Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase widely distributed in vivo with high activity in the liver. However, its biological functions in the liver have remained largely elusive. A previous study by our group has shown that POP produced N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) and thereby exerted an anti-fibrogenic effect on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. It was therefore hypothesized that POP may affect the activation state of HSCs and has an important role in liver fibrosis. The HSC-T6 immortalized rat liver stellate cell line was treated with the POP inhibitor S17092 or transfected with recombinant lentivirus to overexpress POP...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339048/agr2-ameliorates-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-mediated-mlck-p-mlc-pathway-activation
#15
Xiaolin Ye, Mei Sun
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Anterior gradient protein 2 homologue (AGR2) assists in maintaining intestinal homeostasis in dextran sulphate sodium-induced mouse ileocolitis; however, it is unclear whether it modulates intestinal barrier function. Our study aimed to investigate the protective role of AGR2 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced intestinal epithelial barrier injury. Caco-2 cell monolayers were pre-transfected with an AGR2 plasmid and then exposed to TNF-α...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338090/septin-9_i2-is-downregulated-in-tumors-impairs-cancer-cell-migration-and-alters-subnuclear-actin-filaments
#16
P Verdier-Pinard, D Salaun, H Bouguenina, S Shimada, M Pophillat, S Audebert, E Agavnian, S Coslet, E Charafe-Jauffret, T Tachibana, A Badache
Functions of septin cytoskeletal polymers in tumorigenesis are still poorly defined. Their role in the regulation of cytokinesis and cell migration were proposed to contribute to cancer associated aneuploidy and metastasis. Overexpression of Septin 9 (Sept9) promotes migration of cancer cell lines. SEPT9 mRNA and protein expression is increased in breast tumors compared to normal and peritumoral tissues and amplification of SEPT9 gene was positively correlated with breast tumor progression. However, the existence of multiple isoforms of Sept9 is a confounding factor in the analysis of Sept9 functions...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337500/direct-observation-of-orientation-distributions-of-actin-filaments-in-a-solution-undergoing-shear-banding
#17
K Sato, I Kunita, Y Takikawa, D Takeuchi, Y Tanaka, T Nakagaki, H Orihara
Shear banding is frequently observed in complex fluids. However, the configuration of macromolecules in solutions undergoing shear banding has not yet been directly observed. In this study, by using the fact that F-actin solutions exhibit shear banding and actin filaments are visualized by fluorescent labels, we directly observed the intrinsic states of an actin solution undergoing shear banding. By combining the 3D imaging of labeled actin filaments and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we obtained orientation distributions of actin filaments in both high and low shear rate regions, whose quantitative differences are indicated...
March 24, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331071/cell-cell-and-cell-ecm-adhesions-cooperate-to-organize-actomyosin-networks-and-maintain-force-transmission-during-dorsal-closure
#18
Katharine Goodwin, Emily E Lostchuck, Kaitlyn M L Cramb, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Guy Tanentzapf
Tissue morphogenesis relies on the coordinated action of actin networks, cell-cell adhesions, and cell-ECM adhesions. Such coordination can be achieved through crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions. Drosophila Dorsal Closure (DC), a morphogenetic process wherein an extra-embryonic tissue called the amnioserosa contracts and ingresses to close a discontinuity in the dorsal epidermis of the embryo, requires both cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions. However, whether the function of these two types of adhesion is coordinated during DC is not known...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331066/ketamine-induced-bladder-fibrosis-involves-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-mediated-by-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#19
Junpeng Wang, Yang Chen, Di Gu, Guihao Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Jie Zhao, Peng Wu
Bladder wall fibrosis is a major complication of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC), but the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of ketamine-induced fibrosis in association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups, which received saline, ketamine, ketamine combined with a TGF-β receptor (TβR) inhibitor (SB505124) for 16 weeks, or 12 weeks of ketamine and 4 weeks of abstinence...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329735/anti-inflammatory-mechanism-of-ulinastatin-inhibiting-the-hyperpermeability-of-vascular-endothelial-cells-induced-by-tnf-%C3%AE-via-the-rhoa-rock-signal-pathway
#20
Fu Wei, Siyi Liu, Li Luo, Nina Gu, Yan Zeng, Xiaoying Chen, Shan Xu, Dan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Ulinastatin reduces the high permeability of vascular endothelial cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This study investigated the molecular mechanism behind this effect, with the aim of understanding the action of ulinastatin in sepsis therapy and exploring novel therapeutic strategies for sepsis patients. METHODS: A TNF-α treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) was employed as an inflammation model. Horseradish peroxidase permeability assays and an epithelial voltmeter method were used to measure the permeability of EA...
March 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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