keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Lehner, Ben

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774978/draft-genome-sequence-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-gp1999-sequence-type-145-an-epiphytic-isolate-obtained-from-the-tomato-s-rhizoplane-rhizosphere-continuum
#1
Hannah R Chase, Leo Eberl, Roger Stephan, HyeJin Jeong, Chaeyoon Lee, Samantha Finkelstein, Flavia Negrete, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Isha Patel, Ben D Tall, Gopal R Gopinath, Angelika Lehner
We present here the draft genome of Cronobacter sakazakii GP1999, a sequence type 145 strain isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Assembly and annotation of the genome resulted in a genome of 4,504,670 bp in size, with 4,148 coding sequences, and a GC content of 56.8%.
August 3, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753428/clustered-mutation-signatures-reveal-that-error-prone-dna-repair-targets-mutations-to-active-genes
#2
Fran Supek, Ben Lehner
Many processes can cause the same nucleotide change in a genome, making the identification of the mechanisms causing mutations a difficult challenge. Here, we show that clustered mutations provide a more precise fingerprint of mutagenic processes. Of nine clustered mutation signatures identified from >1,000 tumor genomes, three relate to variable APOBEC activity and three are associated with tobacco smoking. An additional signature matches the spectrum of translesion DNA polymerase eta (POLH). In lymphoid cells, these mutations target promoters, consistent with AID-initiated somatic hypermutation...
July 27, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694793/comparative-genomic-characterization-of-the-highly-persistent-and-potentially-virulent-cronobacter-sakazakii-st83-cc65-strain-h322-and-other-st83-strains
#3
Hannah R Chase, Gopal R Gopinath, Athmanya K Eshwar, Andrea Stoller, Claudia Fricker-Feer, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Isha R Patel, Hediye N Cinar, HyeJin Jeong, ChaeYoon Lee, Flavia Negrete, Samantha Finkelstein, Roger Stephan, Ben D Tall, Angelika Lehner
Cronobacter (C.) sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been associated with serious infections with high mortality rates predominantly in pre-term, low-birth weight and/or immune compromised neonates and infants. Infections have been epidemiologically linked to consumption of intrinsically and extrinsically contaminated lots of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF), thus contamination of such products is a challenging task for the PIF producing industry. We present the draft genome of C. sakazakii H322, a highly persistent sequence type (ST) 83, clonal complex (CC) 65, serotype O:7 strain obtained from a batch of non-released contaminated PIF product...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428426/transgenerational-transmission-of-environmental-information-in-c-elegans
#4
Adam Klosin, Eduard Casas, Cristina Hidalgo-Carcedo, Tanya Vavouri, Ben Lehner
The environment experienced by an animal can sometimes influence gene expression for one or a few subsequent generations. Here, we report the observation that a temperature-induced change in expression from a Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatic gene array can endure for at least 14 generations. Inheritance is primarily in cis with the locus, occurs through both oocytes and sperm, and is associated with altered trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) before the onset of zygotic transcription. Expression profiling reveals that temperature-induced expression from endogenous repressed repeats can also be inherited for multiple generations...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289288/3d-structures-of-individual-mammalian-genomes-studied-by-single-cell-hi-c
#5
Tim J Stevens, David Lando, Srinjan Basu, Liam P Atkinson, Yang Cao, Steven F Lee, Martin Leeb, Kai J Wohlfahrt, Wayne Boucher, Aoife O'Shaughnessy-Kirwan, Julie Cramard, Andre J Faure, Meryem Ralser, Enrique Blanco, Lluis Morey, Miriam Sansó, Matthieu G S Palayret, Ben Lehner, Luciano Di Croce, Anton Wutz, Brian Hendrich, Dave Klenerman, Ernest D Laue
The folding of genomic DNA from the beads-on-a-string-like structure of nucleosomes into higher-order assemblies is crucially linked to nuclear processes. Here we calculate 3D structures of entire mammalian genomes using data from a new chromosome conformation capture procedure that allows us to first image and then process single cells. The technique enables genome folding to be examined at a scale of less than 100 kb, and chromosome structures to be validated. The structures of individual topological-associated domains and loops vary substantially from cell to cell...
April 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273858/use-of-a-pan-genomic-dna-microarray-in-determination-of-the-phylogenetic-relatedness-among-cronobacter-spp-and-its-use-as-a-data-mining-tool-to-understand-cronobacter-biology
#6
REVIEW
Ben D Tall, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Christopher J Grim, Isha R Patel, Scott A Jackson, Mark K Mammel, Mahendra H Kothary, Venugopal Sathyamoorthy, Laurenda Carter, Séamus Fanning, Carol Iversen, Franco Pagotto, Roger Stephan, Angelika Lehner, Jeffery Farber, Qiong Q Yan, Gopal R Gopinath
Cronobacter (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These organisms cause a variety of illnesses such as meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and septicemia in neonates and infants, and urinary tract, wound, abscesses or surgical site infections, septicemia, and pneumonia in adults. The total gene content of 379 strains of Cronobacter spp. and taxonomically-related isolates was determined using a recently reported DNA microarray...
March 4, 2017: Microarrays
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618451/the-rules-and-impact-of-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-in-human-cancers
#7
Rik G H Lindeboom, Fran Supek, Ben Lehner
Premature termination codons (PTCs) cause a large proportion of inherited human genetic diseases. PTC-containing transcripts can be degraded by an mRNA surveillance pathway termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). However, the efficiency of NMD varies; it is inefficient when a PTC is located downstream of the last exon junction complex (EJC). We used matched exome and transcriptome data from 9,769 human tumors to systematically elucidate the rules of NMD targeting in human cells. An integrated model incorporating multiple rules beyond the canonical EJC model explains approximately three-fourths of the non-random variance in NMD efficiency across thousands of PTCs...
October 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524104/compensatory-cell-movements-confer-robustness-to-mechanical-deformation-during-embryonic-development
#8
Rob Jelier, Angela Kruger, Jim Swoger, Timo Zimmermann, Ben Lehner
Embryonic development must proceed despite both internal molecular fluctuations and external perturbations. However, mechanisms that provide robustness to mechanical perturbation remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we use light-sheet microscopy, comprehensive single-cell tracking, and targeted cell ablation to study the response of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to external compression. Compression changes the relative positions of many cells and causes severe distortions of the embryonic axes. A large-scale movement of cells then corrects this distortion...
August 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355472/linking-genomo-and-pathotype-exploiting-the-zebrafish-embryo-model-to-investigate-the-divergent-virulence-potential-among-cronobacter-spp
#9
Athmanya K Eshwar, Ben D Tall, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Gopal R Gopinath, Isha R Patel, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Roger Stephan, Angelika Lehner
Bacteria belonging to the genus Cronobacter have been recognized as causative agents of life-threatening systemic infections primarily in premature, low-birth weight and immune-compromised neonates. Apparently not all Cronobacter species are linked to infantile infections and it has been proposed that virulence varies among strains. Whole genome comparisons and in silico analysis have proven to be powerful tools in elucidating potential virulence determinants, the presence/absence of which may explain the differential virulence behaviour of strains...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333808/muffinn-cancer-gene-discovery-via-network-analysis-of-somatic-mutation-data
#10
Ara Cho, Jung Eun Shim, Eiru Kim, Fran Supek, Ben Lehner, Insuk Lee
A major challenge for distinguishing cancer-causing driver mutations from inconsequential passenger mutations is the long-tail of infrequently mutated genes in cancer genomes. Here, we present and evaluate a method for prioritizing cancer genes accounting not only for mutations in individual genes but also in their neighbors in functional networks, MUFFINN (MUtations For Functional Impact on Network Neighbors). This pathway-centric method shows high sensitivity compared with gene-centric analyses of mutation data...
June 23, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320918/a-concentration-dependent-liquid-phase-separation-can-cause-toxicity-upon-increased-protein-expression
#11
Benedetta Bolognesi, Nieves Lorenzo Gotor, Riddhiman Dhar, Davide Cirillo, Marta Baldrighi, Gian Gaetano Tartaglia, Ben Lehner
Multiple human diseases are associated with a liquid-to-solid phase transition resulting in the formation of amyloid fibers or protein aggregates. Here, we present an alternative mechanism for cellular toxicity based on a concentration-dependent liquid-liquid demixing. Analyzing proteins that are toxic when their concentration is increased in yeast reveals that they share physicochemical properties with proteins that participate in physiological liquid-liquid demixing in the cell. Increasing the concentration of one of these proteins indeed results in the formation of cytoplasmic foci with liquid properties...
June 28, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161764/the-complete-local-genotype-phenotype-landscape-for-the-alternative-splicing-of-a-human-exon
#12
Philippe Julien, Belén Miñana, Pablo Baeza-Centurion, Juan Valcárcel, Ben Lehner
The properties of genotype-phenotype landscapes are crucial for understanding evolution but are not characterized for most traits. Here, we present a >95% complete local landscape for a defined molecular function-the alternative splicing of a human exon (FAS/CD95 exon 6, involved in the control of apoptosis). The landscape provides important mechanistic insights, revealing that regulatory information is dispersed throughout nearly every nucleotide in an exon, that the exon is more robust to the effects of mutations than its immediate neighbours in genotype space, and that high mutation sensitivity (evolvability) will drive the rapid divergence of alternative splicing between species unless it is constrained by selection...
May 10, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140512/mechanisms-timescales-and-principles-of-trans-generational-epigenetic-inheritance-in-animals
#13
REVIEW
Adam Klosin, Ben Lehner
Development never starts from a blank slate of DNA. Therefore, in principle, plenty beyond DNA could transmit phenotypic information from one generation to the next. However, the extent to which epigenetic information is actually transmitted between generations and whether this information is modulated by the environment are questions that have only recently started to be investigated at the molecular level. Here we review molecular work on inter-generation epigenetic effects in animals and highlight some principles of epigenetic transmission...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273952/reconstructing-and-analysing-cellular-states-space-and-time-from-gene-expression-profiles-of-many-cells-and-single-cells
#14
REVIEW
Mirko Francesconi, Ben Lehner
Genome-wide gene expression profiling is a fast, cheap and standardised analysis that provides a high dimensional measurement of the state of a biological sample. In this review we describe computational methods that can be applied to identify and interpret sources of variance in gene expression in whole organisms, organs, tissues or single cells. This allows the identification of constituent cell types and states in complex mixtures, the reconstruction of temporal trajectories of development, differentiation and progression, and the reconstruction of spatial patterning...
October 2015: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26268986/slow-growing-cells-within-isogenic-populations-have-increased-rna-polymerase-error-rates-and-dna-damage
#15
David van Dijk, Riddhiman Dhar, Alsu M Missarova, Lorena Espinar, William R Blevins, Ben Lehner, Lucas B Carey
Isogenic cells show a large degree of variability in growth rate, even when cultured in the same environment. Such cell-to-cell variability in growth can alter sensitivity to antibiotics, chemotherapy and environmental stress. To characterize transcriptional differences associated with this variability, we have developed a method--FitFlow--that enables the sorting of subpopulations by growth rate. The slow-growing subpopulation shows a transcriptional stress response, but, more surprisingly, these cells have reduced RNA polymerase fidelity and exhibit a DNA damage response...
August 13, 2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227665/cancer-type-dependent-genetic-interactions-between-cancer-driver-alterations-indicate-plasticity-of-epistasis-across-cell-types
#16
Solip Park, Ben Lehner
Cancers, like many diseases, are normally caused by combinations of genetic alterations rather than by changes affecting single genes. It is well established that the genetic alterations that drive cancer often interact epistatically, having greater or weaker consequences in combination than expected from their individual effects. In a stringent statistical analysis of data from > 3,000 tumors, we find that the co-occurrence and mutual exclusivity relationships between cancer driver alterations change quite extensively in different types of cancer...
July 2015: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26153857/systems-biology-network-evolution-hinges-on-history
#17
COMMENT
Aaron M New, Ben Lehner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25984509/development-of-a-custom-designed-pan-genomic-dna-microarray-to-characterize-strain-level-diversity-among-cronobacter-spp
#18
Ben Davies Tall, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Gopal R Gopinath, Qiongqiong Yan, Hannah R Chase, Boram Lee, Seongeun Hwang, Larisa Trach, Eunbi Park, YeonJoo Yoo, TaeJung Chung, Scott A Jackson, Isha R Patel, Venugopal Sathyamoorthy, Monica Pava-Ripoll, Michael L Kotewicz, Laurenda Carter, Carol Iversen, Franco Pagotto, Roger Stephan, Angelika Lehner, Séamus Fanning, Christopher J Grim
Cronobacter species cause infections in all age groups; however neonates are at highest risk and remain the most susceptible age group for life-threatening invasive disease. The genus contains seven species:Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter dublinensis, Cronobacter universalis, and Cronobacter condimenti. Despite an abundance of published genomes of these species, genomics-based epidemiology of the genus is not well established. The gene content of a diverse group of 126 unique Cronobacter and taxonomically related isolates was determined using a pan genomic-based DNA microarray as a genotyping tool and as a means to identify outbreak isolates for food safety, environmental, and clinical surveillance purposes...
2015: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25946651/dissecting-the-calcium-induced-differentiation-of-human-primary-keratinocytes-stem-cells-by-integrative-and-structural-network-analyses
#19
Kiana Toufighi, Jae-Seong Yang, Nuno Miguel Luis, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Ben Lehner, Luis Serrano, Christina Kiel
The molecular details underlying the time-dependent assembly of protein complexes in cellular networks, such as those that occur during differentiation, are largely unexplored. Focusing on the calcium-induced differentiation of primary human keratinocytes as a model system for a major cellular reorganization process, we look at the expression of genes whose products are involved in manually-annotated protein complexes. Clustering analyses revealed only moderate co-expression of functionally related proteins during differentiation...
May 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25939928/poster-session-2-monday-4-may-2015-08-00-18-00room-poster-area
#20
S E Bouyoucef, V Uusitalo, V Kamperidis, M A De Graaf, T Maaniitty, I Stenstrom, A Broersen, A J Scholte, A Saraste, J J Bax, J Knuuti, T Furuhashi, M Moroi, T Awaya, H Masai, M Minakawa, T Kunimasa, H Fukuda, K Sugi, A Berezin, A Kremzer, O F Clerc, B Kaufmann, M Possner, R Liga, J Vontobel, F Mikulicic, C Graeni, D C Benz, P A Kaufmann, R B Buechel, Mjv Ferreira, M J Cunha, A Albuquerque, D Ramos, G Costa, J Lima, M Pego, A Peix, L Cisneros, L O Cabrera, K Padron, L Rodriguez, F Heres, R Carrillo, E Mena, Y Fernandez, E D Huizing, J D Van Dijk, J A Van Dalen, J R Timmer, J P Ottervanger, C H Slump, P L Jager, S Venuraju, A Jeevarethinam, A Yerramasu, S Atwal, V S Mehta, A Lahiri, A Arjonilla Lopez, M J Calero Rueda, G Gallardo, J Fernandez-Cuadrado, D Hernandez Aceituno, J Sanchez Hernandez, H Yoshida, A Mizukami, A Matsumura, O Smettei, R Abazid, S Sayed, A Mlynarska, R Mlynarski, K Golba, M Sosnowski, S Winther, M Svensson, H S Jorgensen, K Bouchelouche, L C Gormsen, N R Holm, H E Botker, P R Ivarsen, M Bottcher, C M Cortes, E N Aramayo G, M Daicz, J F Casuscelli, E D Alaguibe, A Neira Sepulveda, M Cerda, G E Ganum, M Embon, J Vigne, B Enilorac, A Lebasnier, L Valancogne, D Peyronnet, A Manrique, D Agostini, D Menendez, S Rajpal, C Kocherla, M Acharya, P Reddy, I Sazonova, Yun Ilushenkova, R E Batalov, Y V Rogovskaya, Y B Lishmanov, S V Popov, N V Varlamova, S Prado Diaz, C Jimenez Rubio, D Gemma, E Refoyo Salicio, S C Valbuena Lopez, M Moreno Yanguela, M Torres, M Fernandez-Velilla, J L Lopez-Sendon, G Guzman Martinez, A Puente, S Rosales, C Martinez, M Cabada, G M Melendez, R Ferreira, A Gonzaga, J Santos, S Vijayan, Smg Smith, M Smith, R Muthusamy, Y Takeishi, M Oikawa, J L Goral, J Napoli, O R Montana, A C Damico, M C Quiroz, A E Damico, P J Forcada, J M Schmidberg, N E Zucchiatti, D B Olivieri, A Jeevarethinam, S Venuraju, A Dumo, S Ruano, R Rakhit, J Davar, D Nair, M Cohen, D Darko, A Lahiri, S Yokota, J P Ottervanger, Ahe Maas, M Mouden, J R Timmer, S Knollema, P L Jager, S M Sanja Mazic, B Lazovic, Mdj Marina Djelic, J S Jelena Suzic Lazic, T A Tijana Acimovic, M D Milica Deleva, Z H Vesnina, N Zafrir, T Bental, I Mats, A Solodky, A Gutstein, Y Hasid, D Belzer, R Kornowski, Rim Ben Said, N Ben Mansour, H Ibn Haj Amor, C Chourabi, A Hagui, W Fehri, H Hawala, Z Shugushev, A Patrikeev, D Maximkin, A Chepurnoy, V Kallianpur, A Mambetov, G Dokshokov, A Teresinska, O Wozniak, A Maciag, J Wnuk, A Dabrowski, A Czerwiec, J Jezierski, K Biernacka, J Robinson, J Prosser, Gsm Cheung, S Allan, G Mcmaster, S Reid, A Tarbuck, W Martin, R C Queiroz, A Falcao, McP Giorgi, R Imada, S A Nogueira, W A Chalela, R Kalil Filho, W A Meneghetti, V V Matveev, A S Bubyenov, V I Podzolkov, Z Shugushev, D Maximkin, A Chepurnoy, V Baranovich, A Faibushevich, Y Kolzhecova, O Volkova, V Kallianpur, A Peix, L O Cabrera, K Padron, L Rodriguez, J Fernandez, G Lopez, E Mena, Y Fernandez, M Dondi, D Paez, Cjt Butcher, E Reyes, M B Al-Housni, R Green, H Santiago, F Ghiotto, S Hinton-Taylor, A Pottle, M Mason, S R Underwood, I Casans Tormo, R Diaz-Exposito, E Plancha-Burguera, K Elsaban, Hijji Alsakhri, K Yoshinaga, N Ochi, Y Tomiyama, C Katoh, M Inoue, M Nishida, E Suzuki, O Manabe, Y M Ito, N Tamaki, A Tahilyani, Fahim Jafary, H H Ho Hee Hwa, S Ozdemir, B Kirilmaz, A Barutcu, Y Z Tan, F Celik, S Sakgoz, M Cabada Gamboa, A Puente Barragan, N Morales Vitorino, M A Medina Servin, C Hindorf, S Akil, F Hedeer, J Jogi, H Engblom, V D Martire, E R Pis Diez, M V Martire, D O Portillo, C M Hoff, A Balche, J Majgaard, L P Tolbod, H J Harms, K Bouchelouche, J Soerensen, J Froekiaer, L C Gormsen, F Nudi, G Neri, E Procaccini, A Pinto, M Vetere, G Biondi-Zoccai, A Falcao, W A Chalela, McP Giorgi, R Imada, J Soares, R Do Val, M A Oliveira, R Kalil Filho, J C Meneghetti, Y Tekabe, T Anthony, Q Li, A M Schmidt, L Johnson, M Groenman, M Tarkia, M Kakela, P Halonen, T Kiviniemi, M Pietila, S Yla-Herttuala, J Knuuti, A Roivainen, A Saraste, S Nekolla, S Swirzek, T Higuchi, S Reder, S Schachoff, M Bschorner, I Laitinen, S Robinson, B Yousefi, M Schwaiger, T Kero, L Lindsjo, G Antoni, P Westermark, K Carlson, G Wikstrom, J Sorensen, M Lubberink, F Rouzet, T Cognet, K Guedj, M Morvan, F El Shoukr, L Louedec, C Choqueux, A Nicoletti, D Le Guludec, A Jimenez-Heffernan, F Munoz-Beamud, E Sanchez De Mora, C Borrachero, C Salgado, C Ramos-Font, J Lopez-Martin, M L Hidalgo, R Lopez-Aguilar, E Soriano, A Okizaki, M Nakayama, S Ishitoya, J Sato, K Takahashi, I Burchert, F Caobelli, T Wollenweber, M Nierada, J Fulsche, C Dieckmann, F M Bengel, S Shuaib, D Mahlum, S Port, D Gemma, E Refoyo, E Cuesta, G Guzman, T Lopez, S Valbuena, M Fernandez-Velilla, S Del Prado, M Moreno, J L Lopez-Sendon, M Harbinson, L Donnelly, A J Einstein, L L Johnson, A J Deluca, A C Kontak, D W Groves, J Stant, T Pozniakoff, B Cheng, L E Rabbani, S Bokhari, F Caobelli, C Schuetze, M Nierada, J Fulsche, C Dieckmann, F M Bengel, S Aguade-Bruix, M N Pizzi, G Romero-Farina, M Terricabras, D Villasboas, J Castell-Conesa, J Candell-Riera, S Brunner, L Gross, A Todica, S Lehner, A Di Palo, A Niccoli Asabella, C Magarelli, A Notaristefano, C Ferrari, G Rubini, A Sellem, S Melki, W Elajmi, H Hammami, M C Ziadi, J Montero, J L Ameriso, R L Villavicencio, T F Benito Gonzalez, A Mayorga Bajo, R Gutierrez Caro, M Rodriguez Santamarta, L Alvarez Roy, E Martinez Paz, C Barinaga Martin, J Martin Fernandez, D Alonso Rodriguez, I Iglesias Garriz, D Gemma, E Refoyo, E Cuesta, G Guzman, S Valbuena, S Rosillo, S Del Prado, M Torres, M Moreno, J L Lopez-Sendon, S Taleb, G Cherkaoui Salhi, Y Regbaoui, M Ait Idir, A Guensi, A Puente, S Rosales, C Martinez, M Cabada, T F Benito Gonzalez, A Mayorga Bajo, R Gutierrez Caro, M Rodriguez Santamarta, L Alvarez Roy, E Martinez Paz, C E Martin Lopez, M Castano Ruiz, J Martin Fernandez, I Iglesias Garriz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
keyword
keyword
72443
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"