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Prescription drug abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906413/comparison-of-psychodrug-prescription-patterns-in-patients-diagnosed-with-bipolar-disorder-and-addiction
#1
Diego Barral, Fátima Barral, Nuria Cruz, Juan D Molina, Victoria Sánchez, Teresa Rosique
OBJECTIVE: To describe if there are differences in the prescription of psychodrug at discharge between bipolar disorder patients with or without addiction. METHODS: We review all the psychotropic drugs dispensed to inpatients of a brief hospitalization psychiatric unit diagnosed as having bipolar disorder at time of discharge. We recluted 225 patients over 18 years old on their last manic episode, between the year 2000 and 2010. We classify them according to the comorbid presence or not of a substance abuse or dependence disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#2
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903034/prescription-drug-abuse-a-timely-update
#3
Benny Monheit, Danusia Pietrzak, Sandra Hocking
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug abuse is a rising problem in Australia and pharmaceutical drugs have been the most frequent contributors to overdose deaths in Victoria in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to examine the main prescription drugs contributing to overdose deaths and to consider how doctors may help in reducing this problem. DISCUSSION: Data from the Coroners Court of Victoria list the main drugs that contributed to drug-related deaths in 2009-15...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899339/engaging-moms-on-teen-indoor-tanning-through-social-media-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Sherry L Pagoto, Katie Baker, Julia Griffith, Jessica L Oleski, Ashley Palumbo, Barbara J Walkosz, Joel Hillhouse, Kimberly L Henry, David B Buller
BACKGROUND: Indoor tanning elevates the risk for melanoma, which is now the most common cancer in US women aged 25-29. Public policies restricting access to indoor tanning by minors to reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality in teens are emerging. In the United States, the most common policy restricting indoor tanning in minors involves parents providing either written or in person consent for the minor to purchase a tanning visit. The effectiveness of this policy relies on parents being properly educated about the harms of indoor tanning to their children...
November 29, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898133/opioid-misuse-abuse-and-quality-persistent-pain-management-in-older-adults
#5
Yu-Ping Chang, Peggy Compton
The United States is amid an epidemic of prescription opioid drug abuse, bringing with it not only high rates of overdose, but growing rates of heroin abuse and addiction. Liberal opioid drug prescribing on the part of well-meaning clinicians has in part fueled this epidemic, being correlated to opioid death and addiction treatment admission rates. Misuse and abuse of prescription opioid drugs is greatest among young adults (ages 18 to 25); however, the fastest growing age group for opioid drug misuse/abuse is older (ages 50 to 64)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897465/predicting-young-adults-risk-for-engaging-in-prescription-drug-misuse-in-daily-life-from-individual-partner-and-relationship-factors
#6
Lauren M Papp, Chrystyna D Kouros
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence based on retrospective and global assessments has established associations between prescription drug misuse and illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, mental health problems, risky sexual behaviors, and overdose deaths. However, there is a notable absence of identified risk and protective factors for an individual's likelihood of engaging in misuse in real-world environments. METHODS: Using an experience sampling approach, we collected repeated moments of young adults' (n = 95 participants drawn from 49 romantic couples) prescription drug misuse instances in daily life, and tested multiple factors associated with the misuse...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864296/a-mechanistic-investigation-of-thrombotic-microangiopathy-associated-with-intravenous-abuse-of-opana-er
#7
Ryan Hunt, Ayla Yalamanoglu, James Tumlin, Tal Schiller, Jin Hyen Baek, Andrew Wu, Agnes B Fogo, Haichun Yang, Edward Wong, Peter Miller, Paul W Buehler, Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty
Since 2012, a number of case reports have described the occurrence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) following intravenous abuse of extended release oxymorphone hydrochloride (Opana ER), an oral opioid for long-term treatment of chronic pain. Here, we present unique clinical features of three patients and investigate intravenous exposure to the tablet's inert ingredients as a possible causal mechanism. Guinea pigs were used as an animal model to understand the hematopathologic and nephrotoxic potential of the inert ingredient mixture (termed here as PEO+) which primarily contains high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (HMW PEO)...
November 18, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862608/assessing-prescription-drug-abuse-using-functional-principal-component-analysis-fpca-of-wastewater-data
#8
Stefania Salvatore, Jo Røislien, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Jørgen G Bramness
BACKGROUND: Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. METHODS: Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway...
November 11, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848217/pregabalin-for-the-treatment-of-drug-and-alcohol-withdrawal-symptoms-a-comprehensive-review
#9
REVIEW
Rainer Freynhagen, Miroslav Backonja, Stephan Schug, Gavin Lyndon, Bruce Parsons, Stephen Watt, Regina Behar
Treatments for physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms following the abrupt discontinuation of prescription drugs (such as opioids and benzodiazepines), nicotine, alcohol, and cannabinoids are available, but there is still a need for new and more effective therapies. This review examines evidence supporting the potential use of pregabalin, an α2δ voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ligand, for the treatment of physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms. A literature search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases up to and including 11 December 2015 was conducted...
November 16, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843958/evaluation-of-prescriptions-of-medicines-not-included-in-iran-medicine-list-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Marzieh Zargaran, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Abdol Majid Cheraghali
OBJECTIVE: Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA) has the mission to regulate all aspects of pharmaceutical market including registration of the new medicines. Iran Drug Selection Committee has the responsibility to maintain and revise Iran Medicine List (IML). The National law has banned production, importation, distribution, and prescription of medicines not included in IML. Although, IFDA policy makers have created a mechanism to provide medicines not included in the list but might be essential for the treatment of specific patients...
October 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816251/the-relationships-of-childhood-trauma-and-adulthood-prescription-pain-reliever-misuse-and-injection-drug-use
#11
Kelly Quinn, Lauren Boone, Joy D Scheidell, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Susan P McGorray, Nisha Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: We examined associations between childhood trauma and adulthood prescription pain reliever misuse (PPRM) and injection drug use (IDU) in a nationally-representative U.S. sample to further understanding of factors associated with these epidemics. METHODS: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data (N=12,288) yielded nine childhood traumas: neglect; emotional, physical, sexual abuse; parental incarceration and binge drinking; witnessed, threatened with, and experienced violence...
October 4, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802876/something-for-pain-responsible-opioid-use-in-emergency-medicine
#12
Reuben J Strayer, Sergey M Motov, Lewis S Nelson
The United States is currently experiencing a public health crisis of opioid addiction, which has its genesis in an industry marketing effort that successfully encouraged clinicians to prescribe opioids liberally, and asserted the safety of prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain, despite a preponderance of evidence demonstrating the risks of dependence and misuse. The resulting rise in opioid use has pushed drug overdose deaths in front of motor vehicle collisions to become the leading cause of accidental death in the country...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802545/association-between-prescription-of-major-psychotropic-medications-and-violent-reoffending-after-prison-release
#13
Zheng Chang, Paul Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
Importance: Individuals released from prison have high rates of violent reoffending, and there is uncertainty about whether pharmacological treatments reduce reoffending risk. Objective: To investigate the associations between major classes of psychotropic medications and violent reoffending. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included all released prisoners in Sweden from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010, through linkage of population-based registers...
November 1, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797283/from-dispensed-to-disposed-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-disposal-programs-through-a-comparison-with-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-data
#14
Kathleen L Egan, Eric Gregory, Michael Sparks, Mark Wolfson
BACKGROUND: Organized disposal of controlled medications, such as take-back events and permanent drug donation boxes, is a prevention strategy that has been widely used to reduce the availability of controlled medications for diversion or abuse. However, little is known as to whether this strategy actually reduces the overall availability of these medications for the purposes of diversion or abuse. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the number and types of controlled medications that were disposed through organized efforts to the number dispensed in local communities...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796624/violence-trauma-mental-health-and-substance-use-among-homeless-youth-juggalos
#15
Robin Petering, Harmony Rhoades, Hailey Winetrobe, David Dent, Eric Rice
Insane Clown Posse is a musical duo whose fans are known as Juggalos. Many homeless youths (HY) identify as Juggalos, most likely because the group's music embraces poverty and being an outsider in mainstream society. Juggalos are stereotyped as being violent, undereducated, poor, racist, crime-committing youth, and in 2011 the FBI officially labeled Juggalos as a gang. However, little is known about the intersection of HY and Juggalos. A convenience sample of Los Angeles-area, drop-in service-seeking HY completed a self-administered questionnaire (N = 495)...
October 28, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782769/prescription-opioid-abuse-and-misuse-gap-between-primary-care-investigator-assessment-and-actual-extent-of-these-behaviors-among-patients-with-chronic-pain
#16
Beatrice Setnik, Carl L Roland, Glenn C Pixton, Kenneth W Sommerville
OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of two open-label primary care-based studies that examined investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion relative to patient self-reports and urine drug tests (UDTs). METHODS: Risk assessment data from two open-label, multicenter, primary care-based US studies in patients with chronic pain were compared. RESULTS: In one study (n = 1487), 54.4% of patients were at moderate, 24...
October 26, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764082/declines-in-opioid-prescribing-after-a-private-insurer-policy-change-massachusetts-2011-2015
#17
Macarena C García, Anton B Dodek, Tom Kowalski, John Fallon, Scott H Lee, Michael F Iademarco, John Auerbach, Michele K Bohm
Overdose deaths involving opioid pain medications are epidemic in the United States, in part because of high opioid prescribing rates and associated abuse of these drugs (1). In 2014, nearly 2 million U.S. residents either abused or were dependent on prescription opioids (2). In Massachusetts, unintentional opioid-related overdose deaths, including deaths involving heroin, increased 45% from 2012 to 2013.* In 2014, the rate of these deaths reached 20.0 per 100,000, nearly 2.5 times higher than the U.S. rate overall (3,4)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763996/county-level-vulnerability-assessment-for-rapid-dissemination-of-hiv-or-hcv-infections-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-united-states
#18
Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758843/pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-carisoprodol-and-meprobamate-disposition-in-adults
#19
T A Lewandowski
Carisoprodol is a widely prescribed muscle relaxant and is also a drug known to be a subject to abuse. Despite the fact that carisoprodol has been available for prescription since 1959, a number of gaps in our knowledge of the toxicokinetics of this common drug exist. For example, the volume of distribution (Vd) for carisoprodol in humans has not been reported. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model describing carisoprodol metabolism and that of the primary metabolite, meprobamate, was developed to better understand the pharmacokinetics of this drug...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744401/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-multiple-provider-episodes-in-texas-an-epidemiological-analysis-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-data
#20
Erin A Ferries, Aaron M Gilson, Rajendar R Aparasu, Hua Chen, Michael L Johnson, Marc L Fleming
OBJECTIVE:  Prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic levels, leading to overdose-related morbidity and mortality. Patient and regional-level factors are believed to contribute to higher rates of prescription drug abuse. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with multiple provider episodes (MPEs) in Texas. METHODS:  This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the Texas Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) database, linked with Texas county census data...
October 15, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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