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Prescription drug abuse

Macarena C García, Anton B Dodek, Tom Kowalski, John Fallon, Scott H Lee, Michael F Iademarco, John Auerbach, Michele K Bohm
Overdose deaths involving opioid pain medications are epidemic in the United States, in part because of high opioid prescribing rates and associated abuse of these drugs (1). In 2014, nearly 2 million U.S. residents either abused or were dependent on prescription opioids (2). In Massachusetts, unintentional opioid-related overdose deaths, including deaths involving heroin, increased 45% from 2012 to 2013.* In 2014, the rate of these deaths reached 20.0 per 100,000, nearly 2.5 times higher than the U.S. rate overall (3,4)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
T A Lewandowski
Carisoprodol is a widely prescribed muscle relaxant and is also a drug known to be a subject to abuse. Despite the fact that carisoprodol has been available for prescription since 1959, a number of gaps in our knowledge of the toxicokinetics of this common drug exist. For example, the volume of distribution (Vd) for carisoprodol in humans has not been reported. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model describing carisoprodol metabolism and that of the primary metabolite, meprobamate, was developed to better understand the pharmacokinetics of this drug...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Erin A Ferries, Aaron M Gilson, Rajendar R Aparasu, Hua Chen, Michael L Johnson, Marc L Fleming
OBJECTIVE:  Prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic levels, leading to overdose-related morbidity and mortality. Patient and regional-level factors are believed to contribute to higher rates of prescription drug abuse. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with multiple provider episodes (MPEs) in Texas. METHODS:  This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the Texas Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) database, linked with Texas county census data...
October 15, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Fair M Vassoler, David J Oliver, Cristina Wyse, Ashley Blau, Michael Shtutman, Jill R Turner, Elizabeth M Byrnes
The United States is in the midst of an opiate epidemic, with abuse of prescription and illegal opioids increasing steadily over the past decade. While it is clear that there is a genetic component to opioid addiction, there is a significant portion of heritability that cannot be explained by genetics alone. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal exposure to opioids prior to pregnancy alters abuse liability in subsequent generations. Female adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine at increasing doses (5-25 mg/kg, s...
October 8, 2016: Neuropharmacology
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Stevan Geoffrey Severtson, Matthew S Ellis, Steven P Kurtz, Andrew Rosenblum, Theodore J Cicero, Mark W Parrino, Michael K Gilbert, Mance E Buttram, Nabarun Dasgupta, Becki BucherBartelson, Jody L Green, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: The development of abuse deterrent formulations is one strategy for reducing prescription opioid misuse and abuse. A putative abuse deterrent formulation of oxycodone extended release (OxyContin(®)) was introduced in 2010. Early reports demonstrated reduced abuse and diversion, however, an analysis of social media found 32 feasible methods to circumvent the abuse deterrent mechanism. We measured trends of diversion, abuse and street price of OxyContin to assess the durability of the initial reduction in abuse...
October 3, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrew W Roberts, Joel F Farley, G Mark Holmes, Christine U Oramasionwu, Chris Ringwalt, Betsy Sleath, Asheley C Skinner
Controlled substance lock-in programs are garnering increased attention from payers and policy makers seeking to combat the epidemic of opioid misuse. These programs require high-risk patients to visit a single prescriber and pharmacy for coverage of controlled substance medication services. Despite high prevalence of the programs in Medicaid, we know little about their effects on patients' behavior and outcomes aside from reducing controlled substance-related claims. Our study was the first rigorous investigation of lock-in programs' effects on out-of-pocket controlled substance prescription fills, which circumvent the programs' restrictions and mitigate their potential public health benefits...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Dayong Lee, Chris W Chronister, Wilson A Broussard, Suzanne R Utley-Bobak, Daniel L Schultz, Russell S Vega, Bruce A Goldberger
Fentanyl induces pharmacological effects and abuse liability comparable to other prescription opioids and heroin. A surge in fentanyl-related fatalities has been periodically reported throughout the USA. The University of Florida Forensic Toxicology Laboratory observed a significant increase in fentanyl-related deaths starting in mid-2014. The present report evaluated toxicological findings, demographics of the decedents and circumstances of death in the postmortem cases that were submitted to the laboratory for toxicological analysis from July 2014 to January 2015 and that were tested for fentanyl in biological specimens...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
C Kibaly, H H Loh, P-Y Law
Treatment of chronic pain has created a "silent epidemic," a term that describes the serious public health problem of the abuse of opioid painkillers and other prescription drugs. Conventional pharmacotherapy is limited by the loss of effectiveness in the long-term and by potentially lethal side effects. Efforts need to be focused on the development of nonpharmacological approaches. As significant progress is made in the viral vector technology, gene therapy involving recombinant viruses as vehicles may become a viable alternative for treatment of severe pain...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Nadeem Ullah Khan, Uzma Rahim Khan, Asher Feroze, Sajjad Ali Khan, Najia Ali, Kiran Ejaz, Afshan Rahim Khan, Shahnila Nooruddin, Jabeen Fayyaz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of acute poisoning in terms of frequency, nature of poisoning agent, clinical presentation and its outcome. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised data of patients who presented with poisoning between January 1989 and December 2010.The patients were randomly selected , and demographic, chemical information, clinical feature, treatment and outcome were analysed using SPSS 16...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Brandon C Maughan, Elliot V Hersh, Frances S Shofer, Kathryn J Wanner, Elizabeth Archer, Lee R Carrasco, Karin V Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Individuals who abuse prescription opioids often use leftover pills that were prescribed for friends or family members. Dental surgery has been identified as a common source of opioid prescriptions. We measured rates of used and unused opioids after dental surgery for a pilot program to promote safe drug disposal. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of opioid use patterns among patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction at a university-affiliated oral surgery practice...
September 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lynn R Webster, Carmela Pantaleon, Manish S Shah, Ray DiFalco, Matthew Iverson, Michael D Smith, Eric R Kinzler, Stefan Aigner
OBJECTIVE:  Misuse and abuse of prescription opioids remains a major healthcare concern despite considerable efforts to increase public awareness. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioids are designed to reduce intentional misuse, abuse, and prescription opioid-related death. A novel extended-release (ER) formulation of morphine (Morphine ARER; MorphaBond™) resists physical manipulation and retains the drug's ER characteristics, even if attempts are made to manipulate the formulation...
September 20, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Victoria Sanchez, Marco D Carpenter, Nicole L Yohn, Julie A Blendy
RATIONALE: Prescription opioid abuse and transition to heroin use are growing problems in the USA. However, the long-term consequences of adolescent prescription opioid abuse on subsequent drug use and affective-like behavior are unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine if adolescent exposure to oxycodone alters the rewarding effects of morphine, anxiety-like behavior, and reward-related gene expression later in adulthood. METHODS: Adolescent male C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to oxycodone (3 mg/kg/day) via osmotic minipumps for 28 days...
September 13, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Sausan El Burai Félix, Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones
OBJECTIVE: Limited information has been published about opioid prescribing practices in Puerto Rico. The objective of this study was to create baseline trends of opioids distributed over a period of fourteen years in Puerto Rico. METHODS: We examined data from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration's Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System (ARCOS) for the period 1999-2013. ARCOS data reflects the amount of controlled substances legally dispensed. Analyses include the distribution of opioids (in morphine milligram equivalent kg per 10,000 persons) by year and entity (pharmacy, hospital, practitioner)...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Curtis S Florence, Chao Zhou, Feijun Luo, Likang Xu
IMPORTANCE: It is important to understand the magnitude and distribution of the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence to inform clinical practice, research, and other decision makers. Decision makers choosing approaches to address this epidemic need cost information to evaluate the cost effectiveness of their choices. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence from a societal perspective...
October 2016: Medical Care
Keith W Easterling, Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid pain reliever overdose is a major public health issue in the United States. To characterize the location of drug-related deaths, we examined fatal prescription opioid and illicit drug-related deaths reported in 12 states. METHODS: Data are from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Medical examiners or coroners in 12 states (MA, MD, ME, NH, NM, OK, OR, RI, UT, VA, VT, WV) reported details of state-wide drug-related mortality during 2008-2010...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
David Levin, Michael Shiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Jennifer McNeely, Li-Tzy Wu, Geetha Subramaniam, Gaurav Sharma, Lauretta A Cathers, Dace Svikis, Luke Sleiter, Linnea Russell, Courtney Nordeck, Anjalee Sharma, Kevin E O'Grady, Leah B Bouk, Carol Cushing, Jacqueline King, Aimee Wahle, Robert P Schwartz
Background: Substance use, a leading cause of illness and death, is underidentified in medical practice. Objective: The Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription medication, and other Substance use (TAPS) tool was developed to address the need for a brief screening and assessment instrument that includes all commonly used substances and fits into clinical workflows. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of the TAPS tool in primary care patients. Design: Multisite study, conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, comparing the TAPS tool with a reference standard measure...
September 6, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
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