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Prescription drug abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026458/safe-opioid-prescription-a-smart-on-fhir-approach-to-clinical-decision-support
#1
Shyamashree Sinha, Mark Jensen, Sarah Mullin, Peter L Elkin
Background Prescription opioid pain medication overuse, misuse and abuse have been a significant contributing factor in the opioid epidemic. The rising death rates from opioid overdose have caused healthcare practitioners and researchers to work on optimizing pain therapy and limiting the prescriptions for pain medications. The state of New York has implemented a prescription drug monitoring program(PDMP), amended public health law to limit the prescription of opioids for acute pain and utilized the resources of the state and county health departments to help in curbing this epidemic...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024092/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-and-harm-in-australia-the-need-for-proactive-and-preventative-responses
#2
Briony Larance, Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock, Natasa Gisev, Richard Mattick, Samantha Colledge, Gabrielle Campbell
There are parallels between the North American experience of escalating pharmaceutical opioid utilisation and harm and the trends being observed in Australia. In Australia, opioid utilisation has increased dramatically over the past two decades. There have been significant shifts away from the predominant prescribing of 'weak' and short-acting opioids, to 'strong' and long-acting opioids, for an increasing range of chronic pain indications. In concordance with escalating use, Australia is experiencing increases in opioid-related hospital admissions and overdose, as well as opioid dependence and treatment seeking...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016967/automatable-algorithms-to-identify-nonmedical-opioid-use-using-electronic-data-a-systematic-review
#3
Chelsea Canan, Jennifer M Polinski, G Caleb Alexander, Mary K Kowal, Troyen A Brennan, William H Shrank
Objective: Improved methods to identify nonmedical opioid use can help direct health care resources to individuals who need them. Automated algorithms that use large databases of electronic health care claims or records for surveillance are a potential means to achieve this goal. In this systematic review, we reviewed the utility, attempts at validation, and application of such algorithms to detect nonmedical opioid use. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles describing automatable algorithms that used electronic health care claims or records to identify patients or prescribers with likely nonmedical opioid use...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988943/how-addictive-are-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
U Bonnet, N Scherbaum
In the last ten years, gabapentin and pregabalin have been becoming dispensed broadly and sold on black markets, thereby, exposing millions to potential side-effects. Meanwhile, several pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for potential abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids. To evaluate their addiction risk in more detail, we conducted a systematic review on PubMed/Scopus and included 106 studies. We did not find convincing evidence of a vigorous addictive power of gabapentinoids which is primarily suggested from their limited rewarding properties, marginal notes on relapses, and the very few cases with gabapentinoid-related behavioral dependence symptoms (ICD-10) in patients without a prior abuse history (N=4)...
October 5, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985090/policies-to-mitigate-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-medications-how-should-emerging-evidence-of-gabapentin-misuse-be-addressed
#5
Alyssa M Peckham, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
Over the past decade, increased prescription supply has facilitated an epidemic of nonmedical use of controlled substances, including predominantly opioids, as well as benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics, and stimulants. Areas covered: More recently, misuse of noncontrolled prescriptions, such as gabapentin, has been detected. Gabapentin misuse has been associated with drug-related harm and increased healthcare service utilization in a few studies, including a recent large-sample analysis of commercially insured enrollees in the United States (U...
October 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983558/association-between-opioid-prescribing-patterns-and-abuse-in-ophthalmology
#6
Shriji Patel, Paul Sternberg
Importance: Drug overdoses have become the number 1 cause of mortality in American adults 50 years and younger. Prescription opioid abuse is a growing concern that has garnered widespread attention among policymakers and the general public. Objective: To determine the opioid prescribing patterns among ophthalmologists and elucidate their role in the prescription opioid abuse epidemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational cohort study, beneficiaries and their physicians were analyzed using 2013 to 2015 Medicare Part D Prescriber Data...
October 5, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981581/systematic-review-to-determine-which-validated-measurement-tools-can-be-used-to-assess-risk-of-problematic-analgesic-use-in-patients-with-chronic-pain
#7
R Lawrence, D Mogford, L Colvin
Misuse of prescription opioids, and other drugs prescribed for chronic pain, has increased, with major concerns about harm. This review was undertaken to identify validated measurement tools for risk assessment and monitoring of chronic non-cancer pain patients being considered for, or currently prescribed, analgesic drugs with abuse potential.Selected databases (Embase, Medline, Cochrane library/CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL) were systematically searched for studies evaluating tools for risk of analgesic misuse, either before, or during, analgesic therapy for chronic pain, using predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981253/a-high-throughput-screening-method-for-systematic-surveillance-of-drugs-of-abuse-by-multisegment-injection-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#8
Alicia DiBattista, Dianne Rampersaud, Howard Lee, Marcus Kim, Philip Britz-McKibbin
New technologies are urgently required for reliable drug screening given a worldwide epidemic of prescription drug abuse and its devastating socioeconomic impacts on public health. Primary screening of drugs of abuse (DoA) currently relies on immunoassays that are prone to bias, and are not applicable to detect an alarming array of psychoactive stimulants, tranquilizers and synthetic opioids. These limitations impact patient safety when monitoring for medication compliance, drug substitution or misuse/abuse, and require follow-up confirmatory testing by more specific yet lower throughput instrumental methods...
October 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960173/family-behavior-therapy-for-alcohol-and-drug-problems-in-later-life
#9
Christopher P Plant, Jason M Holland
Alcohol and drug use problems among older individuals are a growing public health concern. However, few treatments have been developed for this population, despite an emerging body of literature suggesting that older substance users are more likely to benefit from interventions tailored to meet their specific needs. In particular, older adults with a history of substance abuse have expressed a preference for treatments that focus on financial problems, physical health, and mobility issues, and make attempts to prescriptively involve supportive others in treatment...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957619/impact-of-the-hydrocodone-schedule-change-on-opioid-prescription-patterns-in-south-dakota
#10
Lauren M Kuschel, Jane M Mort
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid use is becoming increasingly common; consequently, opioid overdose deaths are increasing at an alarming rate. Hydrocodone, one of the most commonly abused opioids, was changed from a schedule III controlled substance to the more stringent schedule II to decrease abuse and diversion, effective Oct. 6, 2014. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the hydrocodone schedule change on opioid prescribing in South Dakota. METHODS: Opioid prescription patterns were examined in the following six-month phases: the baseline phase before the change, the transition phase when existing hydrocodone prescriptions could still be refilled, and the final phase...
October 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956648/evaluation-of-an-activated-carbon-based-deactivation-system-for-the-disposal-of-highly-abused-opioid-medications
#11
Xinyi Gao, Pooja Bakshi, Sindhu Sunkara Ganti, Mahima Manian, Andrew Korey, William Fowler, Ajay K Banga
CONTEXT: The improper disposal of unused prescription opioids has a potential for abuse as well as environmental contamination. Consequently, there is an imperative need for an environmentally safe, convenient and effective drug disposal system. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the deactivation efficiency of the disposal system employing four model opioid drugs of high abuse potential. METHODS: The deactivation system used in this investigation is an activated granular carbon based disposal system in the form of a pouch, which can be used to safely and effectively deactivate unused or expired medications...
September 28, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953820/study-on-the-prescribing-patterns-of-antipsychotic-medication-in-a-rural-england-community-mental-health-team
#12
Madhavan Seshadri, Ahmed Elsemary, Madhusudan Deepak Thalitaya, Lawrence Chikodzore, Priya Nagalingam
INTRODUCTION: Providing comprehensive services for about 400 patients in the South Herefordshire area, the community mental health team manages cases of varying severity and complexity, ranging from Schizophrenia, to neuroses and disorders of adult personality. Antipsychotic medication remains a mainstay of treatment and management for patients under the team case load; hence a need exists for a detailed look into the prescription patterns of such medications. AIM: The aim of this study was to look into the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics for a sample of 50 patients in the South Herefordshire community team during the year of 2016 (from Jan 2016 to Dec 2016), as well as investigate whether these antipsychotics were licensed to be used for the corresponding diagnoses of these patients...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952830/time-series-analysis-of-the-impact-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-on-heroin-treatment-admissions
#13
Douglas Keith Branham
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug abuse has become a major issue in the United States in recent years. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are designed to help health care providers to prevent such abuses. There may be unintended effects of these programs. Specifically, PDMPs may move prescription opioid users to begin use of heroin. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to evaluate the impact of PDMPs on heroin abuse across several different states through use of treatment admissions records obtained from the Treatment Episode Data Set...
September 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950240/prevalence-and-motivations-for-kratom-use-in-a-sample-of-substance-users-enrolled-in-a-residential-treatment-program
#14
Kirsten Elin Smith, Thomas Lawson
BACKGROUND: Kratom use in the West has increased recently, yet the prevalence and motives for use among individuals with a history of substance use disorder (SUD) have not been fully examined. Kratom has been documented as a means of treating chronic pain, mitigating drug dependence, and easing withdrawal symptoms, yet it is unclear if substance users are utilizing kratom as a self-medication. Abuse liability, side effects, and overall appeal of kratom remain uncertain. METHODS: In April 2017, an anonymous survey regarding kratom use and motivations was completed by clients enrolled in a 12-Step-oriented residential program...
September 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938962/regional-differences-in-presentation-and-antithrombotic-treatment-of-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-baseline-characteristics-from-a-clustered-randomized-trial-to-improve-treatment-with-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-impact-af
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dragos Vinereanu, Hussein R Al-Khalidi, Meena P Rao, Wensheng He, Renato D Lopes, Cecilia M Bahit, Andrea O Ciobanu, Kathleen A Fox, Sean D Pokorney, Ying Xian, Jie Jiang, Deepak Y Kamath, Otavio Berwanger, Carlos Tajer, Yong Huo, Denis Xavier, Christopher B Granger
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia worldwide. However, there are few contemporary comparative data on AF from middle-income countries. METHODS: Baseline characteristics of the IMPACT-AF trial were analyzed to assess regional differences in presentation and antithrombotic treatment of AF from 5 middle-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, and Romania) and factors associated with antithrombotic treatment prescription. RESULTS: IMPACT-AF enrolled 2281 patients (69 ± 11 years, 47% women) at 48 sites...
October 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#16
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy Iii, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#17
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920085/baseline-prescription-and-one-year-persistence-of-secondary-prevention-drugs-after-an-index-stroke-in-central-ghana
#18
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele, John Akassi, Gloria Kyem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a paucity of data on persistence of secondary prevention medications among stroke survivors in resource-limited settings where stroke is on a rapid upward trajectory and its management severely challenged. To avert new cardiovascular events after stroke, preventive medications should be promptly instituted and used continuously. We report 1-year rates and determinants of persistent utilization of secondary prevention therapies after stroke in Ghana. METHODS: A retrospective observational study involving 418 stroke survivors enrolled into a Neurology clinic in a tertiary institution in central Ghana between January 2011 and December 2013...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#19
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914563/patients-with-psychological-icpc-codes-in-primary-care-a-case-control-study-investigating-the-decade-before-presenting-with-problems
#20
Luc G Gidding, Mark G Spigt, Geert-Jan Dinant
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patients with psychological problems can be difficult for general practitioners (GPs). Use of information collected in electronic medical records (EMR) could facilitate recognition. OBJECTIVES: To assess relevant EMR parameters in the decade before patients present with psychological problems. METHODS: Exploratory case-control study assessing EMR parameters of 58 228 patients recorded between 2013 and 2015 by 54 GPs...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
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