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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227522/pediatric-pharmaceutical-ingestions
#1
Jennifer A Lowry, Michele Burns, Diane P Calello
Pharmaceutical ingestions comprise an important part of pediatric toxicology. Based on the 2015 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System, coupled with recent epidemiology articles on the topic of pediatric toxicology, it is apparent that poison prevention education has not been completely successful in decreasing exposures to toxic drugs. From the unintentional ingestion in a toddler due to unsafe storage to the intentional adolescent ingestion for misuse and abuse, pharmaceutical medications continue to cause harm...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227444/the-association-between-local-economic-conditions-and-opioid-prescriptions-among-disabled-medicare-beneficiaries
#2
Chao Zhou, Ning Neil Yu, Jan L Losby
BACKGROUND: This paper concerns public health crises today-the problem of opioid prescription access and related abuse. Inspired by Case and Deaton's seminal work on increasing mortality among white Americans with lower education, this paper explores the relationship between opioid prescribing and local economic factors. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between county-level socioeconomic factors (median household income, unemployment rate, Gini index) and opioid prescribing...
January 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220682/searching-online-to-buy-commonly-prescribed-psychiatric-drugs
#3
Scott Monteith, Tasha Glenn
The use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs is increasing. The patient experience when searching to buy commonly prescribed psychiatric drugs was investigated. Using the search term "buy [drug name] online" in Google, 38 frequently prescribed drugs, including 13 with a high potential for abuse, were searched by brand and generic names. The first page of results were analyzed, including with pharmacy certification checkers and ICANN WHOIS. Search results for all drugs yielded 167 pharmacies, of which 147 (88%) did not require a prescription...
November 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214743/gc-ms-ms-detects-potential-pregabalin-abuse-in-susceptible-subjects-hair
#4
Federica Ianni, Kyriaki Aroni, Alessio Gili, Roccaldo Sardella, Mauro Bacci, Massimo Lancia, Benedetto Natalini, Cristiana Gambelunghe
Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognized as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals...
December 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200044/past-year-substance-use-by-student-nurses
#5
Martha A Boulton, Kathleen A O'Connell
PURPOSE: Nurses who abuse substances are a threat to patients, colleagues, society, and themselves. Research indicates that substance use often begins during undergraduate years. The purpose of this research was to identify rates of past year substance use by student nurses. METHOD: A quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational design was used to examine past year substance use by student nurses and to determine whether substance use is related to age, gender, race, relationship status, ethnicity, country of birth, type of school program, and year in program...
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199066/abuse-liability-assessment-for-biologic-drugs-all-molecules-are-not-created-equal
#6
Christina L Zuch de Zafra, Carrie G Markgraf, David R Compton, Thomas J Hudzik
The development of novel drug candidates involves the thorough evaluation of potential efficacy and safety. To facilitate the safety assessment in light of global increases in prescription drug misuse/abuse, health authorities have developed guidance documents which provide a framework for evaluating the abuse liability of candidate therapeutics. The guidances do not distinguish between small molecules and biologics/biotherapeutics; however, there are key differences between these classes of therapeutics which are important drivers of concern for abuse...
November 30, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190175/going-beyond-prescription-pain-relievers-to-understand-the-opioid-epidemic-the-role-of-illicit-fentanyl-new-psychoactive-substances-and-street-heroin
#7
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert Taylor, Robert B Raffa
The opioid epidemic is associated with morbidity and mortality, and it has taken a vast toll on American society. While prescription opioid abuse is part of the opioid problem, it is by no means the entirety of it. Opioid abuse appears to have entered a technology-driven new world of clandestine labs all over the globe and many new synthetic analog, counterfeit, and adulterated drugs that arrive via the internet faster than the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) can catalog and outlaw them. To deal with opioid abuse, it must be recognized that it is more - far more - than a subset of chronic pain patients who become addicted...
November 30, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188786/-the-diversion-of-prescribed-stimulant-medications-of-10th-graders-in-iceland
#8
Gisli Kristofersson, Arsaell Arnarsson, Gudmundur Heimisson, Dagbjorg Sigurdardottir
INTRODUCTION: ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that usually surfaces before seven years of age. Stimulants are commonly used medications for the treatment of this disorder in Iceland, but they carry with them a significant risk of both abuse and diversion - i.e. when it is used by an individual other than it was prescribed for by a physician. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diversion amongst Icelandic adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is based on data collected in the Icelandic portion of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) focused on the drug and alcohol use of 10th graders in Europe...
2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187813/a-mirna-signature-for-cognitive-deficits-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#9
Dorota Wyczechowska, Hui-Yi Lin, Andrea LaPlante, Duane Jeansonne, Adam Lassak, Christopher H Parsons, Patricia E Molina, Francesca Peruzzi
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affects more than half of persons living with HIV-1/AIDS (PLWHA). Identification of biomarkers representing the cognitive status of PLWHA is a critical step for implementation of successful cognitive, behavioral and pharmacological strategies to prevent onset and progression of HAND. However, the presence of co-morbidity factors in PLWHA, the most common being substance abuse, can prevent the identification of such biomarkers. We have optimized a protocol to profile plasma miRNAs using quantitative RT-qPCR and found a miRNA signature with very good discriminatory ability to distinguish PLWHA with cognitive impairment from those without cognitive impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179227/-on-the-risk-of-dependence-on-gabapentinoids
#10
Udo Bonnet, Norbert Scherbaum
In the last ten years, the prescriptions of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin increased largely also in Germany. Since several national and international pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids, which moreover, became to be sold on internet and black-markets, their addictive power has been subject to an ongoing clinical debate. As pre- and post-approval clinical trials did not reveal significant signs of dependence on gabapentin or pregabalin, we systematically searched in PubMed and Scopus for clinical studies and case reports being associated with abuse of and dependence on these drugs...
November 27, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173117/psychosocial-risks-of-prescription-drug-misuse-among-u-s-racial-ethnic-minorities-a-systematic-review
#11
Bridgette J Peteet
Prescription drug misuse (PDM) is the leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. One in five Americans report at least one lifetime incident of PDM. PDM has been studied extensively, yet there is limited inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities due to purportedly lower rates of PDM. However, health disparate groups often face more detrimental consequences of substance abuse including behavioral, social, and medical/mental health (e.g., injury, HIV/AIDS, incarceration, educational attainment, and comorbidity)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172877/frequent-drug-use-and-negative-employment-outcomes-among-the-criminally-active
#12
Paul E Bellair, Mike Vuolo, Eric G LaPlant
BACKGROUND: Employment is a central component of economic independence and is widely viewed as an essential element of social control. Whether frequent drug use reduces the likelihood of employment or obstructs hours worked, wages, and job commitment is therefore an important question about which there remains uncertainty. METHODS: We improve on shortcomings of prior research through a monthly within-person analysis of a population at high-risk of both drug use and poor employment outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170570/substance-use-among-youth-with-currently-and-formerly-incarcerated-parents
#13
Laurel Davis, Rebecca J Shlafer
Parental incarceration impacts millions of children in the U.S. and has important consequences for youths' adjustment. Children of incarcerated parents are at risk for a host of negative psychosocial outcomes, including substance abuse problems. Using data from a statewide survey of youth behavior, the effect of both present and past parental incarceration on youths' report of their substance use behaviors was examined. Both present and past parental incarceration was significantly associated with use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription drugs, as well as substance abuse and dependence...
2017: Smith College Studies in Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149449/facing-more-hoops
#14
Joey Berlin
Opioid abuse has killed tens of thousands of Americans in recent years, prompting health plans to adjust their prescription drug policies, including changing formularies and prior-authorization processes.
November 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143367/risk-of-death-associated-with-new-benzodiazepine-use-among-persons-with-alzheimer-disease-a-matched-cohort-study
#15
Laura Saarelainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Heidi Taipale
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of death associated with new benzodiazepine and related drug (BZDR) use in a nationwide cohort of persons with Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: The register-based MEDALZ cohort, including all community-dwelling Finns diagnosed with AD during 2005 to 2011 (n = 70 718), was used. Clinically verified AD diagnoses were obtained from the Special Reimbursement Register. Drug use periods were modeled from BZDR purchases, derived from the Prescription Register...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133319/identification-of-factors-associated-with-resilience-in-medical-students-through-a-cross-sectional-census
#16
Anna Christina Pinho de Oliveira, André Paes Goulart Machado, Renata Nunes Aranha
OBJECTIVES: Research on resilience has been gaining momentum, and it has already been shown that increased resilience creates positive changes at the individual and collective levels. Understanding of the factors associated with resilience may guide specific actions directed towards different populations. The objective of this study was to investigate these associated factors within a population of medical students. DESIGN: Cross-sectional census. SETTING: A public medical school in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130019/patients-knowledge-and-attitude-toward-the-disposal-of-medications
#17
Aeshah AlAzmi, Hani AlHamdan, Rayf Abualezz, Faiz Bahadig, Noha Abonofal, Mohamed Osman
Background: Safe disposal of medications is of high concern as malpractice may lead to harmful consequences such as undesirable effects, prescription drug abuse, overstocking, self-medication, accidental overdose, and even death. There is a lack of uniform and nationwide guidance on how patients should safely dispose their leftover medications. This study aims to assess patients' knowledge and attitude regarding the disposal of medications. Method: This research is a cross-sectional study...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100223/using-pill-identification-calls-to-poison-centers-as-a-marker-of-drug-abuse-at-three-texas-military-bases
#18
Patrick C Ng, Joseph K Maddry, Daniel Sessions, Douglas J Borys, Vikhyat S Bebarta
OBJECTIVES: Opioid abuse is a growing problem in civilian communities, and it has developed in the military as well. Telephone calls to poison centers requesting pill identification (ID) is a marker of drug abuse. This study identifies the number of pill ID calls made to the poison centers from areas containing and surrounding three Texas military bases during an 8-year period. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study identifying calls to certified poison centers in Texas from 2002 to 2009 that identified hydrocodone tablets and other pain medications...
November 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091486/postoperative-pain-management-following-carpal-tunnel-release-a-prospective-cohort-evaluation
#19
Andrew Miller, Nayoung Kim, Benjamin Zmistowski, Asif M Ilyas, Jonas L Matzon
BACKGROUND: Managing postoperative pain in hand surgery is important for both patients and surgeons. However, there is growing concern over prescription opioid abuse. We hypothesized: (1) that pain medications after carpal tunnel release (CTR) surgery are over-prescribed; and (2) that opioids are unnecessary in the majority of patients. METHODS: We prospectively studied 2 demographically similar patient cohorts receiving either opioid or tramadol for CTR performed by 2 hand surgery fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons over a 1-year period...
November 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089287/scaling-up-research-on-drug-abuse-and-addiction-through-social-media-big-data
#20
Sunny Jung Kim, Lisa A Marsch, Jeffrey T Hancock, Amarendra K Das
BACKGROUND: Substance use-related communication for drug use promotion and its prevention is widely prevalent on social media. Social media big data involve naturally occurring communication phenomena that are observable through social media platforms, which can be used in computational or scalable solutions to generate data-driven inferences. Despite the promising potential to utilize social media big data to monitor and treat substance use problems, the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of substance use-related communications on social media are largely unknown...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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