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Prescription drug abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430388/associations-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-non-medical-use-of-prescription-drugs-among-chinese-adolescents
#1
Lan Guo, Yan Xu, Jianxiong Deng, Xue Gao, Guoliang Huang, Jinghui Huang, Xueqing Deng, Wei-Hong Zhang, Ciyong Lu
AIMS: To test, among Chinese adolescents: (1) whether childhood maltreatment is associated with non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), (2) whether there are interaction effects of childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms on NMUPD. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of the cross-sectional data collected from 7(th) and 12(th) graders who were sampled using a multistage, stratified cluster, random sampling method in the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey (SCAHS)...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421563/the-current-utilization-and-perceptions-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-among-emergency-medicine-providers-in-florida
#3
Henry W Young, Joseph A Tyndall, Linda B Cottler
BACKGROUND: Pain is among the most commonly treated symptoms in the emergency department, and opioids are commonly prescribed from the emergency department to treat moderate to severe pain. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) can be used to assist physicians identify individuals at increased risk to misuse or abuse opioids. While the use of the PDMP has been shown useful among clinicians, in the past, utilization of the PDMP has been less than optimal. The objective of this study was to assess the current utilization and perceptions of the prescription drug monitoring program among emergency medicine providers in Florida...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#4
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408172/opioid-dispensing-and-overlap-in-veterans-with-non-cancer-pain-eligible-for-medicare-part-d
#5
Katie J Suda, Bridget M Smith, Lauren Bailey, Walid F Gellad, Zhiping Huo, Muriel Burk, Francesca Cunningham, Kevin T Stroupe
OBJECTIVES: Pain is the most prevalent problem among veterans, who receive pain diagnoses 5 times more frequently than the general population. Opioids are commonly prescribed for pain, but they have potential for misuse and serious adverse events. The study objective was to evaluate opioid dispensing patterns and predictors for overlap in veterans who are eligible for Medicare Part D benefits. METHODS: A sample of male and all female veterans aged 66 years and older without cancer in 2005-2009 was included...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401523/injection-of-pharmaceuticals-designed-for-oral-use-harms-experienced-and-effective-harm-reduction-through-filtration
#6
Stuart McLean, Rahul Patel, Raimondo Bruno
Several pharmaceutical products are liable to 'abuse' or use outside their prescription, which frequently involves their injection. Examples are slow-release forms of morphine and oxycodone, and sublingual buprenorphine. During injection preparation, the drug is extracted into water, after crushing and heating the tablet if considered necessary. Since these products are designed for oral administration, they can contain excipients (ingredients other than the drug) which are poorly soluble, resulting in suspension of particles in the injection solution...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388283/does-trauma-exposure-predict-prescription-drug-problems-beyond-the-contribution-of-ptsd-depression-an-analysis-of-the-mind-your-heart-cohort-study
#7
Raj K Kalapatapu, Tatiana P Dannenbaum, John D Harbison, Beth E Cohen
BACKGROUND: It is not clear from prior studies whether trauma exposure predicts substance use problems independent of psychiatric comorbidities. Most prior studies were cross-sectional in nature, and none focused on prescription drug problems. AIMS: To address this gap in the literature, this paper is a secondary analysis of veterans from the Mind Your Heart prospective cohort study. The primary research question is whether trauma exposure predicts prescription drug problems even after controlling for major psychiatric symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383713/unsolicited-reporting-to-prescribers-of-opioid-analgesics-by-a-state-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-an-observational-study-with-matched-comparison-group
#8
Leonard D Young, Peter W Kreiner, Lee Panas
Objective.:  State prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) can help detect individuals with multiple provider episodes (MPEs; also referred to as doctor/pharmacy shopping), an indicator of prescription drug abuse and/or diversion. Although unsolicited reporting by PDMPs to prescribers of opioid analgesics is thought to be an important practice in reducing MPEs and the potential harm associated with them, evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. This exploratory research evaluates the impact of unsolicited reports sent by Massachusetts' PDMP to the prescribers of persons with MPEs...
April 4, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382197/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-use-factors-involved-in-prescribing-safety-aspects-and-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Jose Martinez-Raga, Amparo Ferreros, Carlos Knecht, Raquel de Alvaro, Eloisa Carabal
While treatment of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on a multimodal approach that combines medication with specific psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy alone is generally considered an essential and cost-effective element. This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment, as well as the safety and tolerability aspects of ADHD pharmacotherapies, with particular attention on the cardiovascular adverse events and the potential risk of misuse or diversion of ADHD medications...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379504/low-risk-of-producing-an-opioid-use-disorder-in-primary-care-by-prescribing-opioids-to-prescreened-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#10
Martin D Cheatle, Rollin M Gallagher, Charles P O'Brien
Objective. : To examine the risk of developing aberrant behaviors that might lead to a substance use disorder (addiction) when prescribing opioids for the relief of chronic noncancer pain in primary care settings. Design. : Longitudinal, prospective, descriptive design with repeated measures. Setting. : Private community-based internal medicine and family medicine clinics. Subjects. : Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain...
March 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376226/urinary-concentrations-of-topically-administered-pain-medications
#11
Michele A Glinn, Andrew J Lickteig, Luke Weber, Sherri Recer, Matthew Salske, Audrey Harvey, Brian Rappold, Julie Stensland, Patrick Bell
A common treatment for chronic pain is prescription of analgesics, but their long-term use entails risk of morbidity, addiction and misuse. One way to reduce the risk of abuse is prescribing of analgesics in a topical form. Physicians are urged to perform urine drug testing to ensure that patients are compliant with their medication regimens. However, there is little data on the efficiency of transdermal delivery for many analgesic drugs, and no data on expected urine drug levels. This study includes data from over 29,000 specimens tested for gabapentin, ketamine, cyclobenzaprine or amitriptyline used orally or topically...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375418/unexpected-serious-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-the-setting-of-loperamide-abuse
#12
Somwail Rasla, Amy St Amand, Marina K Garas, Amr El Meligy, Taro Minami
Loperamide (Imodium) is a non-prescription opioid receptor agonist available over-the-counter for the treatment of diarrhea. When ingested in excessive doses, loperamide can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and is reported to produce euphoria, central nervous system and respiratory depression, and cardiotoxicity. There is an emerging trend in its use among drug abusers for its euphoric effects or for self-treatment of opioid withdrawal. We report a case of ventricular dysrhythmias associated with loperamide abuse in a 28-year-old man who substituted loperamide for the opioids that he used to abuse...
April 3, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363320/the-prescription-opioid-addiction-treatment-study-what-have-we-learned
#13
REVIEW
Roger D Weiss, Vinod Rao
BACKGROUND: The multi-site Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS), conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, was the largest clinical trial yet conducted with patients dependent upon prescription opioids (N=653). In addition to main trial results, the study yielded numerous secondary analyses, and included a 3.5-year follow-up study, the first of its kind with this population. This paper reviews key findings from POATS and its follow-up study...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363319/understanding-the-demand-side-of-the-prescription-opioid-epidemic-does-the-initial-source-of-opioids-matter
#14
Theodore J Cicero, Matthew S Ellis
BACKGROUND: These studies were carried out to examine whether the onset and progression of an opioid substance use disorder (SUD) differed in those who first used opioids to get "high" compared to those who received a prescription from a doctor to relieve pain (Non-Rx vs. Rx groups, respectively). METHODS: A subset of patients (N=214) from an ongoing larger study of patients entering one of 125 drug treatment programs for opioid use disorder across the country agreed to give up their anonymity and participate in structured and open-ended online interviews examining drug abuse patterns...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341939/the-basic-pharmacology-of-opioids-informs-the-opioid-discourse-about-misuse-and-abuse-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann LeQuang, Garrett K Berger, Robert B Raffa
Morphine and other opioids are widely used to manage moderate to severe acute pain syndromes, such as pain associated with trauma or postoperative pain, and they have been used to manage chronic pain, even chronic nonmalignant pain. However, recent years have seen a renewed recognition of the potential for overuse, misuse, and abuse of opioids. Therefore, prescribing opioids is challenging for healthcare providers in that clinical effectiveness must be balanced against negative outcomes-with the possibility that neither are achieved perfectly...
March 24, 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340233/increase-in-drug-overdose-deaths-involving-fentanyl-rhode-island-january-2012-march-2014
#16
Melissa C Mercado, Steven A Sumner, M Bridget Spelke, Michele K Bohm, David E Sugerman, Christina Stanley
Objective.:  This study identified sociodemographic, substance use, and multiple opioid prescriber and dispenser risk factors among drug overdose decedents in Rhode Island, in response to an increase in overdose deaths (ODs) involving fentanyl. Methods.:  This cross-sectional investigation comprised all ODs reviewed by Rhode Island's Office of the State Medical Examiners (OSME) during January 2012 to March 2014. Data for 536 decedents were abstracted from OSME's charts, death certificates, toxicology reports, and Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) databases...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339555/an-item-bank-for-abuse-of-prescription-pain-medication-from-the-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis%C3%A2
#17
Paul A Pilkonis, Lan Yu, Nathan E Dodds, Kelly L Johnston, Suzanne M Lawrence, Thomas F Hilton, Dennis C Daley, Ashwin A Patkar, Dennis McCarty
Objective.:  There is a need to monitor patients receiving prescription opioids to detect possible signs of abuse. To address this need, we developed and calibrated an item bank for severity of abuse of prescription pain medication as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ). Methods.:  Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 5,310 items relevant to substance use and abuse, including abuse of prescription pain medication, from over 80 unique instruments...
October 8, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335036/validated-method-for-the-screening-and-quantification-of-baclofen-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-in-human-post-mortem-whole-blood-using-protein-precipitation-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Limon Nahar, Amy Smith, Rajan Patel, Rebecca Andrews, Sue Paterson
There has been a rapid increase in the number of prescriptions for baclofen (BLF), gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGL) in the UK since their introduction to therapy. Recent studies across the European Union and USA have shown the illicit abuse potential of these drugs and deaths have been observed. A simple, reliable and fully validated method was developed for the screening and quantification of BLF, GBP and PGL in human post-mortem (PM) blood. The analytes and their deuterated analogs as internal standard were extracted from blood using a single addition acetonitrile protein precipitation reaction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous confirmation and quantification...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331860/quetiapine-misuse-and-abuse-is-it-an-atypical-paradigm-of-drug-seeking-behavior
#19
REVIEW
Sean Kim, Gayoung Lee, Eric Kim, Hyejin Jung, Jongwha Chang
Recent case reports in medical literatures suggest that more and more second-generation atypical antipsychotics (AAs) have been prescribed for off-label use; quetiapine (Brand name: Seroquel(®)) showed increase in its trend for off-label use. Little is known about the reasons behind this trend, although historical sedative and hypnotic prescription patterns suggest that despite relatively superior safety profiles of quetiapine (especially for movement disorders), it may be used for treating substance abuse disorder...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329626/associations-between-indoor-tanning-and-risky-health-related-behaviors-among-high-school-students-in-the-united-states
#20
Stephanie Chapman, Kurt Ashack, Eric Bell, Myra Ann Sendelweck, Robert Dellavalle
Understanding of the associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among adolescents across the United States is incomplete. The purpose of this study is to identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning according to region. We analyzed the results from surveys of adolescents in 14 different states administered as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013. Data were collected and analyzed over a 4-month period from January 2016 to April 2016...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
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