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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810899/chronic-pain-and-opioid-misuse-a-review-of-reviews
#1
REVIEW
Pauline Voon, Mohammad Karamouzian, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVE: The crisis of prescription opioid (PO) related harms has focused attention toward identifying and treating high-risk populations. This review aims to synthesize systematic reviews on the epidemiology and clinical management of comorbid chronic pain and PO or other substance misuse. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted to identify systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2016. Eligible studies were systematic reviews related to chronic non-cancer pain and PO or other substance misuse...
August 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802086/acute-kidney-injury-is-common-with-intravenous-abuse-of-extended-release-oral-oxymorphone-and-delayed-renal-recovery-rates-are-associated-with-increased-kdigo-staging
#2
Alex K Bonnecaze, Matthew Whitaker Wilson, Ajay Dharod, Alison Fletcher, P J Miller
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid abuse poses a serious problem in the United States, representing 615 per 100,000 deaths annually. Extended-release oxymorphone (Opana-ER) is an oral opioid pain medication that has recently been found to cause thrombotic microangiopathy when intravenously abused. In this retrospective study, prevalence and outcomes of AKI among patients intravenously abusing extended-release oral oxymorphone were analyzed. METHODS: A query of electronic medical records for "drug abuse" at an academic medical center during January 2012 to December 2015 was performed and yielded 2350 patients...
August 12, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792293/the-opioid-epidemic-challenges-of-sustained-remission
#3
Nitin Chopra, Lauren H Marasa
Opioid use disorder is a growing epidemic, with an alarming number of associated deaths. In 2014, in the United States, 18,893 lethal overdoses were related to prescription opioids and 10,574 due to heroin. Despite the growing number of treatment options for substance use disorders, which are chronic, relapsing-remitting conditions, relapse rates remain as high as 91%. In the United States, 7.5 million children reside with at least one patient who abuses drugs or alcohol. Mothers are twice as likely to lose custody of their children...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791598/opioid-medications-in-the-management-of-chronic-abdominal-pain
#4
REVIEW
Dajie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic abdominal pain is a complex medical condition. The causes of chronic abdominal pain are extremely diverse ranging from chronic pancreatitis, Crohn's disease, to chronic pain with no clear etiology. Treatment of chronic abdominal pain remains a challenge in our clinical practice. While current interventions with celiac plexus blocks and pain medications provide some relief for these patients, but these treatments are typically less efficacious and limited by various adverse effects...
August 8, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780697/persistence-with-vka-treatment-in-newly-treated-atrial-fibrillation-patients-an-analysis-based-on-a-large-sample-of-38-076-german-patients
#5
Thomas Wilke, Antje Groth, Andreas Fuchs, Matthias Pfannkuche, Ulf Maywald
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe persistence with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment in German atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and to identify factors which may be associated with early discontinuation of VKA therapy. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study based on an anonymized German claims dataset with VKA treatment-naïve AF patients, who received at least one VKA prescription. VKA therapy discontinuation was defined as a gap >180 days...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777709/substance-use-disorder-and-suicide-attempt-among-people-who-report-compromised-health
#6
Jonathan Prince
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder can increase the risk of suicide attempt. However, the relationship between substance use disorder and suicide attempt has yet to be explored among people who report compromised health, even though sick people are more likely to make an attempt. OBJECTIVES: Among people who report fair or poor health on the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2006-2014; N = 502,467), I examined whether people with commonly occurring substance use disorders are more likely to attempt suicide than people without substance use disorders...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777678/early-initiation-of-substance-use-as-an-indicator-of-problematic-substance-use-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-ymsm
#7
Aleksandar Kecojevic, Corey H Basch, Stephen E Lankenau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Much research has documented that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at higher risk for substance use-related problems. This study examined the age of substance use initiation and it's relationship to current substance use-related problems among substance-using YMSM. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 191 YMSM (aged 18 to 29) with recent histories of prescription drug misuse was conducted in Philadelphia in 2012-13...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777203/a-review-of-alprazolam-use-misuse-and-withdrawal
#8
Nassima Ait-Daoud, Allan Scott Hamby, Sana Sharma, Derek Blevins
: Alprazolam is one of the most widely prescribed benzodiazepines for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Its clinical use has been a point of contention as most addiction specialists consider it to be highly addictive, given its unique psychodynamic properties which limit its clinical usefulness, whereas many primary care physicians continue to prescribe it for longer periods than recommended. Clinical research data has not fully shed light on its "abuse liability," yet it is one of the most frequently prescribed benzodiazepines...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772173/heroin-use-onset-among-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-users-in-the-club-scene
#9
Hilary L Surratt, Steven P Kurtz, Mance Buttram, Maria A Levi-Minzi, Maria E Pagano, Theodore J Cicero
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) is well documented among participants in the club scene, yet prior studies have not examined transition to heroin use. We prospectively examined heroin initiation among a sample of young adults with drug involvement associated with participation in the club scene, to understand factors that influence transition from NMPOU to heroin and to identify opportunities for intervention. METHODS: Data were drawn from a randomized trial that enrolled 750 Miami-based club and prescription drug users through respondent driven sampling, and tested the efficacy of assessment interventions in reducing risk...
July 26, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771942/patterns-of-abuse-and-routes-of-administration-for-immediate-release-hydrocodone-combination-products
#10
Theresa A Cassidy, Natasha Oyedele, Travis C Mickle, Sven Guenther, Simon H Budman
PURPOSE: Prescriptions for hydrocodone immediate-release (IR) combination products have recently decreased, yet they represent the majority of opioid prescriptions dispensed and are commonly abused analgesics among both adults and adolescents. Little data exist to understand the contribution of IR products to the problem of prescription opioid abuse. This study aimed to better understand abuse patterns for hydrocodone IR combination products among adult and adolescent substance abusers...
August 3, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758289/changes-in-misuse-and-abuse-of-prescription-opioids-following-implementation-of-extended-release-and-long-acting-opioid-analgesic-risk-evaluation-and-mitigation-strategy
#11
Becki Bucher Bartelson, M Claire Le Lait, Jody L Green, M Soledad Cepeda, Paul M Coplan, Jean-Yves Maziere, Gregory P Wedin, Richard C Dart
PURPOSE: An unintended consequence of extended-release (ER) and long-acting (LA) prescription opioids is that these formulations can be more attractive to abusers than immediate-release (IR) formulations. The US Food and Drug Administration recognized these risks and approved the ER/LA Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (ER/LA REMS), which has a goal of reducing opioid misuse and abuse and their associated consequences. The primary objective of this analysis is to determine whether ER/LA REMS implementation was associated with decreased reports of misuse and abuse...
July 31, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753684/erratum-unexpected-serious-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-the-setting-of-loperamide-abuse
#12
Somwail Rasla, Parag Parikh, Peter Hoffmeister, Amy St Amand, Marina K Garas, Amr El Meligy, Taro Minami, Nishant R Shah
Loperamide (Imodium) is a non-prescription opioid receptor agonist available over-the-counter for the treatment of diarrhea. When ingested in excessive doses, loperamide can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and is reported to produce euphoria, central nervous system and respiratory depression, and cardiotoxicity. There is an emerging trend in its use among drug abusers for its euphoric effects or for self-treatment of opioid withdrawal. We report a case of ventricular dysrhythmias associated with loperamide abuse in a 28-year-old man who substituted loperamide for the opioids that he used to abuse...
August 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740525/the-use-of-cholecalciferol-in-patients-with-hip-fracture
#13
Luisella Cianferotti, Simone Parri, Giorgio Gronchi, Roberto Civinini, Maria Luisa Brandi
INTRODUCTION: Major osteoporotic fractures are steadily increasing due to population aging. Programs of secondary prevention against refracture are essential to decrease morbidity and mortality and the cost for individuals and the society. Vitamin D supplementation and optimization of calcium intake are of a pivotal importance to start specific osteoporosis treatment and for its safety and efficacy. Cholecalciferol is the most widely employed drug for vitamin D supplementation. PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to assess the trends in the use of vitamin D supplements containing cholecalciferol in the population of hip fracture patients older than 65 years, resident in the region of Tuscany (Italy) in the years 2011-2015 and to describe vitamin D status in a subgroup of this individuals directly referred to a bone clinic for further evaluation after hip osteoporotic fracture...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738684/drivers-of-excess-costs-of-opioid-abuse-among-a-commercially-insured-population
#14
Lauren M Scarpati, Noam Y Kirson, Miriam L Zichlin, Zitong B Jia, Howard G Birnbaum, Jaren C Howard
OBJECTIVES: To replicate and extend a recently published analysis of the drivers of excess costs of opioid abuse. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis using de-identified claims data from the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounter database. METHODS: Medical and prescription drug claims from beneficiaries covered by large self-insured US companies were used to select patients with incident diagnoses of opioid abuse between 2012 and 2015...
May 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722211/using-prescription-monitoring-program-data-to-characterize-out-of-pocket-payments-for-opioid-prescriptions-in-a-state-medicaid-program
#15
Daniel M Hartung, Sharia M Ahmed, Luke Middleton, Joshua Van Otterloo, Kun Zhang, Shellie Keast, Hyunjee Kim, Kirbee Johnston, Richard A Deyo
BACKGROUND: Out-of-pocket payment for prescription opioids is believed to be an indicator of abuse or diversion, but few studies describe its epidemiology. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) collect controlled substance prescription fill data regardless of payment source and thus can be used to study this phenomenon. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and characteristics of prescription fills for opioids that are likely paid out-of-pocket by individuals in the Oregon Medicaid program...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718353/a-multiyear-assessment-of-public-response-to-a-statewide-drug-take-back-and-disposal-campaign-2010-to-2012
#16
Itzhak Yanovitzky
This study is the first to analyze public response to a drug take-back program, the American Medicine Chest Challenge, in a single state over a period of 3 years (2010-2012). The study utilized a three-wave repeated cross-sectional design and an annual phone survey conducted with a representative sample of adults ( N = 906 in 2010, N = 907 in 2011, and N = 906 in 2012), which assessed exposure to the campaign, drug disposal behaviors, possible mediators of campaign effects (risk appraisal, personal agency, normative influence, and interpersonal talk), and potential confounders...
August 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707181/expanded-medicaid-provides-access-to-substance-use-mental-health-and-physician-visits-to-homeless-and-precariously-housed-persons
#17
R David Parker, Michael J Cima, Zachary Brown, Michael Regier
To describe the Medicaid costs associated with persons who are homeless or unstably housed. A retrospective secondary data analysis linked Medicaid recipient data with a statewide homeless management information system. A total of 19,950 persons received a housing service between 2012 and 2015 including 14,136 persons with Medicaid. Five of the most frequent diagnoses were substance abuse or mental health conditions in 42.83% of all diagnoses. The most frequent service was outpatient mental health and emergency department physician services...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696583/mapping-medical-marijuana-state-laws-regulating-patients-product-safety-supply-chains-and-dispensaries-2017
#18
Sarah B Klieger, Abraham Gutman, Leslie Allen, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Jennifer K Ibrahim, Scott Burris
AIMS: (1) To describe open source legal data sets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of US state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. (2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety and dispensary practice. METHODS: Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety and dispensaries in effect on 1 February 2017, creating three empirical legal data sets...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690895/discrimination-between-drug-abuse-and-medical-therapy-case-report-of-a-tranylcypromine-overdose-related-fatality
#19
Maryam Akhgari, Farzaneh Jokar, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha, Ali Ghasemi
Tranylcypromine is an effective antidepressant from the class of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and is structurally related to amphetamine. However, reports differ regarding the potential metabolism of tranylcypromine to amphetamine and methamphetamine within the human body. We report a 25-year-old woman with severe depression who died due to a fatal tranylcypromine overdose in 2016. She had been prescribed tranylcypromine one day previously and had no history of previous suicide attempts or substance abuse. The body was transferred to a forensic medicine department in Tehran, Iran for the autopsy...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690668/white-opioids-pharmaceutical-race-and-the-war-on-drugs-that-wasn-t
#20
Julie Netherland, Helena Hansen
The US 'War on Drugs' has had a profound role in reinforcing racial hierarchies. Although Black Americans are no more likely than Whites to use illicit drugs, they are 6-10 times more likely to be incarcerated for drug offenses. Meanwhile, a very different system for responding to the drug use of Whites has emerged. This article uses the recent history of White opioids - the synthetic opiates such as OxyContin(®) that gained notoriety starting in the 1990s in connection with epidemic prescription medication abuse among White, suburban and rural Americans and Suboxone(®) that came on the market as an addiction treatment in the 2000s - to show how American drug policy is racialized, using the lesser known lens of decriminalized White drugs...
June 2017: BioSocieties
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