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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725191/bilateral-reflex-fluctuations-during-rhythmic-movement-of-remote-limb-pairs
#1
Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, E Paul Zehr
The modulation of spinal cord excitability during rhythmic limb movement reflects the neuronal coordination underlying actions of the arms and legs. Integration of network activity in the spinal cord can be assessed by reflex variability between the limbs, an approach so far very little studied. The present work addresses this question by eliciting Hoffmann (H-) reflexes in both limbs to assess if common drive onto bilateral pools of motoneurons influence spinal cord excitability simultaneously or with a delay between sides...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725184/sevoflurane-induces-coherent-slow-delta-oscillations-in-rats
#2
Jennifer A Guidera, Norman E Taylor, Justin T Lee, Ksenia Y Vlasov, JunZhu Pei, Emily P Stephen, J Patrick Mayo, Emery N Brown, Ken Solt
Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex (PC), and central thalamus (CT) in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12-40 Hz) power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC-CT and PFC-PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724785/orthodontic-treatment-induced-temporal-alteration-of-jaw-opening-reflex-excitability
#3
Au Sasaki, Naoya Hasegawa, Kazunori Adachi, Hiroshi Sakagami, Naoto Suda
The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment is need to be addressed, since most of orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at one (D1), three (D3) and seven (D7) days after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side, morphological features (e...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724781/muscle-disuse-caused-by-botulinum-toxin-injection-leads-to-increased-central-gain-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-rat
#4
Jessica Pingel, Hans Hultborn, Lui Naslund-Koch, Dennis Bo Jensen, Jacob Wienecke, Jens Bo Nielsen
Botulinum toxin (Btx) is used in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological patients to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in the central gain of the stretch reflex circuitry in response to botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Experiments were performed in 21 rats. 8 rats were in a control group and 13 rats were injected with 6 IU of Btx in the left triceps surae muscle. Two weeks after Btx injection larger monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) were recorded from the left (injected) than the right (non-injected) L4 + L5 ventral roots following stimulation of the corresponding dorsal roots...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724598/cystometrography-of-meningitis-retention-syndrome
#5
Yuji Tanaka, Kazuo Satomi
Although the combination of acute urinary retention and aseptic meningitis has not been well recognised, this combination can be referred to as meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS). We report a case of MRS with urodynamic follow-up. A 29-year-old man developed fever and headache, and after 7 days, he developed sudden urinary retention. Neurological examination indicated stiff neck, hyper-reflexes of the lower extremities. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mononuclear leucocytosis, increased protein level...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724548/bradykinin-does-not-acutely-sensitize-the-reflex-pressor-response-during-hindlimb-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#6
Korynne S Rollins, Joshua R Smith, Peter J Esau, Evan A Kempf, Tyler D Hopkins, Steven W Copp
Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechano-gated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats, the injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb would acutely augment (i...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724493/oral-transmucosal-detomidine-gel-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#7
Morika D Williams, C Tyler Long, Jessica R Durrant, Gabriel P McKeon, Heather R Shive, Emily H Griffith, Kristen M Messenger, Richard E Fish
Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723733/hering-s-law-in-congenital-ptosis-evaluation-of-the-contralateral-response-to-unilateral-congenital-ptosis-repair
#8
Thomas J E Clark, Wesley J Klejch, Kai Wang, Richard C Allen, Jeffrey A Nerad, Keith D Carter, Erin M Shriver
PURPOSE: To determine the applicability and clinical relevance of Hering's law for the eyelids in cases of congenital ptosis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review and digital photograph analysis of patients who underwent unilateral congenital ptosis repair at a tertiary, university-based, Oculoplastics clinic was conducted. Pre- and postoperative eyelid height (marginal reflex distance), upper eyelid symmetry, and brow position were determined using ImageJ analysis software...
July 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723718/three-dimensional-head-mounted-gaming-task-procedure-maximizes-effects-of-vestibular-rehabilitation-in-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#9
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, Ivan Augimeri, Domenico Micarelli, Marco Alessandrini
Considering the emerging advantages related to virtual reality implementation in clinical rehabilitation, the aim of the present study was to discover possible (i) improvements achievable in unilateral vestibular hypofunction patients using a self-assessed head-mounted device (HMD)-based gaming procedure when combined with a classical vestibular rehabilitation protocol (HMD group) as compared with a group undergoing only vestibular rehabilitation and (ii) HMD procedure-related side effects. Therefore, 24 vestibular rehabilitation and 23-matched HMD unilateral vestibular hypofunction individuals simultaneously underwent a 4-week rehabilitation protocol...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722694/early-life-vincristine-exposure-evokes-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-developing-rat
#10
Katie A Schappacher, Lauren Styczynski, Mark L Baccei
Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720715/ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-alter-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-and-metaboreflex-activation-in-young-healthy-men
#11
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been hypothesized to elicit ergogenic effects by reducing feedback from metabolically sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents during exercise. If so, reflex efferent neural outflow should be attenuated. We investigated the effects of IPC on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG) and used post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to isolate for the muscle metaboreflex. Thirty-seven healthy men (age: 24 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]) were randomized to receive sham (n = 16) or IPC (n = 21) interventions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720049/outcomes-following-isolated-posterior-interosseous-nerve-neurectomy-a-systematic-review
#12
Dennis J Vanden Berge, Nicholas A Kusnezov, Sydney Rubin, Thomas Dagg, Justin Orr, Justin Mitchell, Miguel Pirela-Cruz, John C Dunn
BACKGROUND: Posterior interosseous nerve neurectomies (PINN) are an option in the treatment of chronic dorsal wrist pain. However, the literature describing PINN consists primarily of small case series, and the procedure is typically done as an adjunct treatment; therefore, the outcomes of the PINN itself are not well known. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide characteristics of patients following a PINN. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719825/degeneration-of-the-vestibular-nerve-in-unilateral-meniere-s-disease-evaluated-by-galvanic-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#13
Chih-Ming Chang, Yi-Ho Young, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chi-Te Wang, Po-Wen Cheng
OBJECTIVE: The staging system of Meniere's disease utilizes audiograms to probe cochlear dysfunction. We explored the addition of galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) to further explore vestibular function. METHODS: Seventy patients with unilateral Meniere's disease were enrolled in this study. Within 2weeks of diagnosis, all subjects underwent pure tone audiometry, cervical and ocular VEMP, and caloric test. The prevalence of abnormal tests and the VEMP characteristic parameters such as latencies and amplitudes were analyzed...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719094/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-inhibitor-as-a-prodrug
#14
Hailong Shi, Yaya Cui, Yifei Qin
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. Two distinct tryptophan hydroxylases (TPH), TPH1 and TPH2 are the rate-limiting enzymes in the 5-HT biosynthesis process. TPH1 expression is mainly limited in the enterochromaffin cells and distributed in peripheries such as the skin and gut, while TPH2 is the predominant isoform in the CNS. In this study, mol002291 was screened as a drug-like compound from the TCM database for the inhibitor of TPH...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719042/serotonergic-paraneurons-in-the-female-mouse-urethral-epithelium-and-their-potential-role-in-peripheral-sensory-information-processing
#15
F Aura Kullmann, Huiyi H Chang, Christian Gauthier, Bronagh M McDonnell, Jih-Chao Yeh, Dennis R Clayton, Anthony J Kanai, William C de Groat, Gerard L Apodaca, Lori A Birder
AIM: The mechanisms underlying detection and transmission of sensory signals arising from visceral organs, such as the urethra, are poorly understood. Recently, specialized ACh-expressing cells embedded in the urethral epithelium have been proposed as chemosensory sentinels for detection of bacterial infection. Here we examined the morphology and potential role in sensory signaling of a different class of specialized cells that express serotonin (5-HT), termed paraneurons. METHODS: Urethrae, dorsal root ganglia neurons and spinal cords were isolated from adult female mice and used for immunohistochemistry and calcium imaging...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718683/the-measurement-of-cough-response-to-bronchoconstriction-induced-by-methacholine-inhalation-in-healthy-subjects-an-examination-using-the-astograph-method
#16
Johsuke Hara, Masaki Fujimura, Noriyuki Ohkura, Tamami Sakai, Kenta Yamamura, Miki Abo, Hayato Koba, Satoshi Watanabe, Taro Yoneda, Shingo Nishikawa, Takashi Sone, Hideharu Kimura, Yoshihisa Ishiura, Kazuo Kasahara
BACKGROUND: We demonstrated that heightened cough response to bronchoconstriction is a fundamental feature of cough variant asthma (CVA). To evaluate this physiological feature of CVA in daily clinical practice, it is necessary to clarify the cough response to bronchoconstriction in healthy subjects. We evaluated cough response to methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction in healthy subjects. A forced oscillometry technique was used to measure airway resistance changes with Mch. METHODS: Healthy never-smokers (21 men, 20 women; mean 22...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718523/error-rate-of-automated-calculation-for-wound-surface-area-using-a-digital-photography
#17
S Yang, J Park, H Lee, J B Lee, B U Lee, B H Oh
BACKGROUND: Although measuring would size using digital photography is a quick and simple method to evaluate the skin wound, the possible compatibility of it has not been fully validated. PURPOSE: To investigate the error rate of our newly developed wound surface area calculation using digital photography. METHODS: Using a smartphone and a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, four photographs of various sized wounds (diameter: 0.5-3.5 cm) were taken from the facial skin model in company with color patches...
July 17, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718461/-multidisciplinary-treatment-approach-in-a-patient-with-a-severe-gag-reflex
#18
C Borsjé
A patient was referred to a centre for special care dentistry due to problems with a severe gag reflex and dental care-related anxiety. A regular treatment was started with gradual exposure in vivo in combination with breathing exercises, which involved the patient doing exercises at home. In addition, she was referred to an (external) speech therapist. During the treatment the patient suffered from pain in [molar] tooth 27 and a short-term solution was necessary. Regular treatment was not (yet) possible due to the existing severe gag reflex...
July 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718354/mercury-induced-motor-and-sensory-neurotoxicity-systematic-review-of-workers-currently-exposed-to-mercury-vapor
#19
Cheryl A Fields, Jonathan Borak, Elan D Louis
The neurotoxicity of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) is well-recognized, but it is uncertain whether and for how long neurotoxicity persists; among studies that evaluated previously exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure ceased. The aim of this review is to document the type, frequency, and dose-relatedness of objective neurological effects in currently exposed mercury workers and thereby provide first approximations of the effects one would have expected in previously exposed workers evaluated during exposure...
July 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717991/prolonged-bed-rest-impairs-rapid-cpi-17-phosphorylation-and-contraction-in-rat-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-to-cause-orthostatic-hypotension
#20
Toshio Kitazawa, Kazuyo Kitazawa
Prolonged bed rest (PBR) causes orthostatic hypotension (OH). Rapid constriction of splanchnic resistance arteries in response to a sudden increase in sympathetic tone contributes to the recovery of orthostatic arterial pressure upon standing. However, the molecular mechanism of PBR-induced dysfunction in arterial constriction is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that CPI-17, a regulatory protein for myosin phosphatase, mediates α1A-adrenergic receptor-induced rapid contraction of small mesenteric arteries...
July 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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